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opposition to the characters of the Reforma. the emblem of war, and kis left foot on tbe tios, whose genuine effects are virtue, liber. lurth, the symbol of peact; intimating that ty, and peace.
In the eleventh lecture the Reformation Mould experience the vicisñthese characters, which are mystically descri. tudes of both, but chiefly of the former. bed by the Jewith prophets under the em- He cried wirb a loud voice, as when a lise blems of idolatrous and tyrannic kingdoms, roareıb: the gospel was openly, resolutely, particularly that of the commercial state of and efficaciously preached and published. ancient Tyre, are shewn to coincide with the “ And when be cried feven thunders attered secularity and mercenary spirit of the antichrif- their voices. As Hearen signifies the station of tian church, and with the enormous ambition the Supreme visible Power, which is the poof its visible head. The prophecy of Ezekiel litical Heaven, fo thunder is the voice and prois explained and applied by the author to the clamation of that authority and power, and of city of Rome, which he foretels (how truly its will and laws, implying the obedience of we will not preíume to determine) “ will be the subjects, and at lalt overcoming all op. absorbed into a lake of fire, and sink into the position.* Thunders are the symbols el (42.''
the supreme powers who established the ReThe twelfth and last lecture points out the formation in their respective dominions. See remedies of the corruptions of idolatry, crea. ven is a number of perfectiori, and accord. fure worship, and other superstitions which ing to the great Interpreter + whom I ful. prevail in the church of Rome, as well as low, it denotes the seven states of Europe Chose which the reformeul church Jahours un. who established the Reformation by law :der, viz. unbelief, heresy, and relaxed mo. 1. The Germanic Body, in which, by the rals, cogether with the means of advancing treaty of Smalcald, the Protestant princes the promised purity and felicity of the chris formed a distinct republic.-2. The Swits tian church. In this siscourse the author has Cantons, 1531.-3. Sweden, 1533.–4. Dec.attempted to explain the prophecy in the mai k and Norway.-5 England and Irecenth chapter of the Revelation of St. John : land, 1547 --6. Scotland, 1550.—7. The bow far he has succeeded, our readers shall Netherlands, 1577. These governments rejudge for themselves.
ceived and established the Reformation will “ The system of the seven trumpets," says in sixty years after Luther's fuft preaching the Doctor, “ under which we now live, against indulgencies. All other countries includes the military revolutions of paganism, where the Reformation made some progress, and the ecelesiati ical fortunes of antichrist in but without being established by authority, the east and weft. The chief events are the are described by other symbols. But ile irruptions of the Barbarians, and the fall of foregoing seven uttered Tas aular carith, the western errpire ; the incursions of the their own authoritative voices, to settle true Saracens , the dettı uction of the Greek em religion by Law, each in their own dompire ; and the reformation of the church in nions. the fixteenth century.
“ And evben the seven i bunders bad attred “ The REFORMATION «ccomplished by their voices, I was about to write.. The pol. Luther is figured by a mighty angel descending cure and action of the prophet is symbolical of froin Heaven, or divinely commissioned : the raised expectation of good men, the clocked with a cloud, the symbol of the divine when the Reformation was ettablished in the protection : with a rainbow or bis bead, principal kingdoms and states of Europe, the making offers of reconciliation to the cor- fall of antichrift would foon follow, and introrupted church: bis furce was as it were the sun, duce the glorious union of truth and peace a diffusing the light of the gospel : and his feet earth. But a voice from beader commands him es pillars of fire, intimating ibat his followers to seal up shofe things wbicb tbe seven bunder: Mould lufier persecution, yet be preserved bave uttered, and write obem not; to intimate, from the rage of their enemies. He is styled that the first reformers would be mistaken in a mighty angel, next to nich on account of their zeal, and disappoir.ced in their expectaMie undruntal spirit of Luther, as of the great tion; that the new reform would not fuco be resolution effected by his means. He bas in followed by the fall of popery, and the cona's hand a little open book, the original gospel : version of unbelief; but that, by the divide open, as containnig no new Revelation : little, permission, the free course and progrefs of as applying only such pares and doctrines of the reformed religion should be checked by the scriptures, as refuted the prevailing su. the power of temporal princes not in the perftitions. He fet bis rigbe foot upon the sia, number of the feven thunders, Such was
* Lancaster Sym. Dict. p. 123. † Mi, Daubuz, p. 469.
Charles V. young, aspiring, selfith, and aim- coeval with the eastern and western antiing by the influence of the papal system to chrift; are wilnesses to the decliong Nate of make himself absolute in Germany. Such antichristianism; and are so connected witha was his son, Philip II. a tyrannical bigot, who the protestant reformation, as to be deeply made it his principal object to establish popery interested both in its present imperfections, and the inquisition throughout his vast domi- and in its gradual advancement, which is to nions. In Poland and the hereditary countries occupy the long period till the mystery of God of the House of Austria, the supreme powers shall be finished in the perfection of his church. by perfecution and ill policy prevented the Although the counsel of God will not be de. establishment of the Reformation. France feated, either by the indolence or malignity was the theatre of the most violent opposition of man ; yet it is evident from reason, as to it, during the inglorious reigns of Henry 11. well as the terms of this prophecy, that this Francis II. and Charles IX. and Louis XIV. half improving state is to be effected by the inftru. unpeopled his kingdom by his great armies, mentality of men, in a course of measures and by the expulsion of his best subjects the and events not generally supernatural, thougla Protestants :—So that, according to this pro- never excluding the divine direction and su. plecy, the happy state of the church was not perintendence. That therefore it is not only then to be effected by the civil power, but by che high privilege, but the indispensible duty some other means in some future time. of all who enjoy the ble:lings of the reformed
“ The angel in the vision, lifting up bis rigbe religion, to promote its progress and advanceband, swears by bim ibai liveth for ever ment in these and succeeding times."
wbo created beaven, and i be earth, and in the remaining part of this discourse, sbe jea, (by the very formulary protesting the Doctor, after Thewing that the true feagainst the demon-worship of the apostate licity of the church of Christ consists in hoe church) that the time for the pure and happy liness and peace, instead of those chimerical state of the reformed church should not be ideas of complete felicity which originally 45 yet, οτι χρονος ουκ εται Ετι.
But that in arose from a loo literal interpretation of the the days of ebe voice of the seventh angel, wben prophecies, mentions the following circumbe shall begin to sound *, the mystery of God Itances as favourable to the advancement of should be finished t, should be brought to its christianity: viz, the decline of popery, and PERFECTION. The mystery of God is bis the improvement of civilization. The power counsel or secret design, of which Christ of the popes, he says, is everyday diminishing: is the counsellor and executor ; a counsel from being heads of the christian world, they which begins in the present conversion are become suppliants to princes of their own and happiness of man on earth, will ter- communion." He confiders the presenc minate in diffusing that felicity over all the peaceable itate of the world in many respects world, and complear is in a state of immor. auspicious to the great ends and objects of tality.
christianity ; the civilization and conversion " It is evident, continues our author, of rude and barbarous nacions ; the bringing from the scope and series of the Apocalyptic back che relaxed and corrupt manners and visions, that the seven trumpets include all principles of the protestant reformation to the that period of hiftory denoted by the seventh purity and funplicity of the gospel, and in seal , which commencing with Conftantine's consequence of both, diminishing the influence estadtíminent of christimity, extends to the of popery, and augmenting the general hapgreat fabbatism, when she kingdoms of this piness of mankind; and then proceeds to world thall become she kingdoms of our Lord point out the most likely means to produce and of bis Cbrifft. As the events of the first to desirable an end. Among these agriculo five trumpets are all past, and the events of ture holds a distinguished pre-eminence. the seventh trumpet are all future; the “ Agriculture,” says Dr. Apthorp, “ is reformed church, commencing with the second perhaps the only art which government must epuch || of the sixth trumpet, is cu.exten- patronize, if they would have their people ded to its whole duration. This æra conti- emerge from barbarism. In the rude but nues from Luther to the church's last conflict fertile regions of the uncultivated earth, fowith antichrift, the prelude to her perfect cieties for promoting agriculture, with reftate on earth. We of the present age, ac
wards and immunities to the most skilful and Tually living under the sixth trumpet, are successtud labourers, would much forward
Or rather, " when he shall have founded, " ótav Melio cal mily. + Treo On. Lectio Velesiana, Tideo Onoetas, confummabitur. Vulgatea
C. viii, v. 1.-6. + C. si. v. 15. | The first epoch of the sixth trumpet is the Turkish empire, 1453.
the national industry, civilization, plenty and in the world: I do not mean the popish vopulousness. Mankind are by nature' in christianity, which is either a profligte hy. dolent and voluptuous, and would be funk pocrisy, or a gloomy superstition, which would in laziness and sensuality, did not the diffi. exterminate the passions hy a liow and dreadculty of subsistence call forth their virtues ful suicide. I exclude from my ideas of the and their exertions. The n tural mean of gospel, that antinomian fanaticism which makes civilization is industry, united with inftruc- religion to consist in inexplicable theories; jon, which is the industry of the mind. much less has the libertinism of the vulgar Thus agriculture and the gospel are the protestants, and the customs of the present age, two great instruments of Divine Providence any pretentions to the name and honours of to check the voluptuousness, and exercise true christianity. By this august name,
1 the virtues of man."
mean that religion which is described and We shall conclude our remarks on these exemplified in the New Testament; a res excellent discourses, in which the author has gion of personal, domestic, and public vir. labourel so fuccessfully lo establish the truth cue; in which the pasions are not extirpated of the christian religion on the tolid grounds of but governed ; in which God is adored thro' reason, deduced from the most forcible pro- Jesus Chrift, with love, admiration, fer, phetic evidence, with his beautifully expref. and gratitude; by which society is continually five character of the christian religion. improved and meliorated; while the indivi.
• When I consider christianity,' says dual is daily renewed and prepared, both by he, “ as an inftirute of happiness, I do the blessings and adversities of the present not mean christianity as it is now practised life, fir the endless felicity of the future.”
Letters concerning the Northern Coult of the County of Antrim. By the Rev, William Hamilton, A. M, Fellow of Trinity College Dublin. 8vo. 45. Robinsons, 1786.
(Concluded from Page 261). MR. Hamilton thinks the description he
Baraltes 120 parts las given of the external character of Contains Siliceous earth
Soparts the Giant's Causeway pillars, will serve abun.
15 dantiy to discriminate the columnar balaltes
8 from any other foffil of a duterent species, at
Mignefia present known. But as it does not always
Iron appear in its prismatical furm, he proceeds to enumerate the properties by which it may be diftinguifhed when diípoted in more rude and irregular matles.
After giving this analysis of the hafaltes, • The baraltes is a black, pondercus, Mr. Hamilton proceeds to explain its rooft close-giained stone ; which does nc: etter.
remarkable properties from the known veíce in any of the mineral acids.
elements of which it is composed. Thus from “ Iis fpecific gravity is to that of water the metallic state of its iron element he inters nearly as 2.90. to 1.60 and to that of the à priori that the columns of the Giant's Cauftfinet marble as 2.90 to 2.70.
way are natural magnets, whose lower estre. “ Though its texture be compact, it is not mity is their north pole; and after offertg absolutely homogeneous ; for if ground to a fome reasonable conjectures concerning the smooth surface, its bright jet-black polith is regular form and ar rangement of the pilys, disfigured by several small pores.
mentions fome of the principal ranations It ftrikes fire imperfectly with a steel, in point of magnitude, articulation, arrange" When exposed to a moderate beat it as. ment and texture of the different species ni fumes a reúdith colour, and loses about one- bafaltes. He next enumerates the fois fiftieth part of its weight,
generally attendant on it, consisting of exten“ In a more intense heat it readily melts, five layers of red ochre ; veins of iron ore; and is, as the chymifts express it, fulible a:ites, generally of a greenish soapy appearance;
zeolyte,of a bright and purest white colopi, y “ With the aftance of an alkali flux it different weights from a grain to a pourd, afmay be vitrified, and forms an opaque glass of fecting a cryftilization, in which tie fibres fa a black or bluish colour.
diate from one center ; pepperion Acne, a f1.2“ Its principal component parts are iron ble matrix of indurated clay and iron, Ituced in a metallic state combined with siliceous with morsels of zeolyte and other substance; and argillaceous earths.”
and lastly pumice-stone. From the experiments of Sir Torbern Berg- In the next letter the author coufiets the man it appears, that
arguments adduced in favour of the volume
Eheory. The formation of these pillars of been started. It is said that this theory basaltes has been attributed, Mr. Hamilton rathly attributes some of the most regular and thinks with great appearance of probability, beautiful phenomena to the most tumultuary to the agency of subterranean fire. The ar- and irregular causes, ascribing exquisite arguments in favour of this opinion are derived rangements, which almost emulate the la. from the nature and properties of the None boured works of design, to the blind fury of itself, which is supposed to be nothing else a volcano. than lava; and its varieties owing to acci- To this it is answered, that though during dental circumstances attending its course, the eruption every thing be in a state of tuo or the manner of its cooling.-In support of mult and disorder, yet when the fury of the this it is affirmed that it agrees accurately flames, which have been Itruggling for a parwith the lava in its elementary principles, fage, has abated, every thing returns to its in its grain, and the species of foreign bodies natural reft, and these various melted sub. it includes.
stances subside and cool with a degree of The iron of the basaltes is found in a regularity capable of producing all the beauty metallic state capable of acting on the mag- and symmetry of the Giant's Causeway. netic needle, which is also true of the iron « A second objection,” says our author, in the compact lava.
“ arises from hence, that the currents of The basaltes is fusible per se, the common lava which have issued from Ætna and Ve. property of lava and most volcanic sub. suvius within the memory of man, have stances.
never been known to exhibit this regularity The basaltes is a foreign substance super- of arrangement. It is therefore said that ex. induced, or the original limestone of the coun- perience abundantly proves the fallacy of the try in a state of softness capable of allowing volcanic hypothesis. the fints to penetrate considerably within its “ In reply to this we are told, that it is lower surface. The lava is a similar extra. not in the erupted torrents of these volcanos neous mass overspreading the adjacent foil, we are to look for the phænomena of cryand found in like manner, with Aints and stallization, but in the interior parts of the other hard metals in its substance. From mountains themselves, and under the surface their agreeing thus already in a number of of the earth, where the metallic particles of circumstances, it is reasonably presumed that the Java have not been dephlogisticated by they are one and the same species of substance, the access of fresh air, and where perfect
This opinion is strongly confirmed by the rest and the most gradual diminution of tem. evidence derived from the nature and proper- perature have permitted the parts of the ty of the attendant fossils.
melted mass to exert their proper laws of Those extensive beds of red ochre accom. arrangement, so as to assume the form of panying the basaltes, are supposed to be an columnar lava : that we must wait until iron ore reduced to this site of a calx by heat; those volcanic mountains which at present a phenomenon which is observed to take burn with fu much fury, shall have compleatplace more or less in the present living vul- ed the period of their existence; until the imcanoes, and is therefore a presumptive argu- mense vaults which now lie within their ment of the action of fire in the neighbour- bowels, no longer able to support the incum. hood of basaltes.
hent weight, mall fall in and disclose to view Crystals of schorl, which appear in great
the wonders of the subterranean world; and plenty among many kinds of our basaltes, then we may expect to belold all the varieties are likewise found in great abundance among of crystallization, such as must needs take the Italian lavas, in circumstances so exactly place in those vast laboratories of nature ; corresponding, as to afford a probable argu- then we may hope to see banks and causement in the present instance.
ways of basaltes, and all the bold and uns Pumice-stone, wbich obviously bears the common beauties which the abrupt promoncharacter of a cinder in its exterior appeare tories of Antrim now exhibic.” ance, is found on the ibore of the island of After stating and replying to several other Raghery, and may be considered as an un- objections advanced again?t this theory, Mr. equivocal teit of the action of fire.
Hamilton remarks, that in reasonings conTo these external arguments others are cerning natural phurnomena the standard of added from the exterior character of the truth is extremely vague and uncertain ; that countries containing the basaltes, and from climate bears a more powerful influence than the confideration of those elements which can be well imagined ; so that an opinion may be esteemed the food of volcanos being universally adopted by the inhabitants of one found in its neighbourhood.
country, Thall be universally reprobated by Againft these specious arguments in defence those of a neighbouring kingdom, of the volcanic theory, many objections have “ Thus the Neapolitans, accustomed from EUROP. MAG.
their infancy to the wild scenes of horror and ments and dangerous conclusions derived from desolation which abound in a foil ravaged by such deceitful sources, tending to multiply false vulcanic fire, and to see as it were a new opinions and subverting the true principles of world suddenly raised on the ruins of their religion and morality; the author in his last let. country; have their warm imaginations ter attacks with great spirit and sound reasonfilled with the gigantic idea of this powerful ing those sceptics who, building their opinions principle, which to them appears adequate on things they do not rightly understand, ra. to produce every thing that is great and stu- ther than truths which come clearly within pendous in nature. How different the sen- their comprehensions, unavoidably run into sations and opinions which prevail in the na. gross mistakes; who rejecting all confiderative of our temperate island! He beholds na- tion of final causes, and despising those fimture pursue her calm and steady course with ple and obvious analogies which lead to useful an uniformity almost uninterrupted : he truths, have chosen rather to pursue others, views the same objects unchanged for a long which neither they nor the rest of mankind series of years; the same rivers to water bis are in any respect suited to investigate ; who, grounds, the same mountains íupply food for blind to the most striking proofs in the for: his flocks; the same varied line of coast con- mation of the world, and infinite goodness tinues thro' many succellive ages to bound in its moral government, set their faces his country, and to set the waves of the ocean against both natural and revealed religion. at 'defiance ; hence he naturally proceeds to “ If this be wisdom,” says Mr. Hamilton, extend his ideas of regularity and stability or if there be the vaunted fruits of freedom over the whole world, and stands utterly un of thought, we have good cause to rejoice influenced by those arguments of change in that we are not free; that we still retain our the earth, which to the inhabitants of a warm dependance on a wise and bountiful Provi. climate appear absolutely decisive."
dence ; and have not yet fallen into that unie After obferving, that the prevailing opic versal anarchy of opinion, where each indi. nions even of philosophers are too often vidual labours to enthrone and to adore every founded on general analogies ; that it re- wild phantom of his own wandering imagiquires a vigorous mind and clear understand nation, just as folly or caprice may chance to ing to avoid being milled by the specious argu: direct his choice." Bozzy and Piozzi; or, the British Biographers, a Town Eclogue. By Peter Pindar, Efq.
40. 2s. 6d. Kea, Dey, 1986. TH HE indefatigable Piter, ever on the watch And that 'cwould be a long time first, if ever,
for some subject on which to exercise His art could form a fellow balf so clever: his happy talent for satire,, has in these Venus, of all the little Loves the dan, eclogue. amply avenged Dr. Johnson on his With all the Graces, sobb’d for brorber San." biographiers, hy displaying the most remark. After describing the Johnso-mania, as he able aveclotes in a truly ridiculous light.“On calls it, which has raged through all the realm, the death of Dr. Johnson,” the author tells he introduces the Hero and Heroine of the us in the argument, “ a number of people, piece before the tribunab of Sir Jolun Hawambitious of being distinguished from the kins, whom he gives a ruh ex pallani. mite part of their species, fet about relating
" Like school-boys, lo ! before a two-arm'd and printing stories and bons mots of the cele
chair brated moralitt.. Amongst the most scalous, though not the most enlightened, appeared
That held the knigbl, wife judging, stood the Mr Bofell and Madame Piozzi, che Hero and
pair; Heroine of our eclogues. To prove their bio
Or like two ponies on the sporting ground, Hawkins for his decision on their respective The couple rang'd—for viery both as keen, graphical abilities, they appeal to Sir Jobo Prepar'd to gallop when the drum should
found, meries, by quotations from their printed anecdotes of the Unctor.” The eclogue begins with As for a tott'ring bishoprick å dear; a buniourous burlesque description of the sup
Or patriot Burke for giving glorious baftings posed feelings of the heathen deities, occa
To that intolerable fellow Hastings. fioned by the death of the doctor :
“ Alternately, in anecdotes, go on; when the doctor died,
“ But forf, begin you, madam, cried Sir John: Apollo whimper'd, and the Muses cried :
The thankful dame low curthed to the chur, Miner va sighing for her fav'rite for,
And thus, for vict'ry panting, read the fair." Pronounc'd with lengthen'u face the world
MADAME Prozzi. undone:
“ Sam Johnson was of Michael Jolinfon born, fore wip'd his eyes so red, and told his wife, Whose lop of books did Litskfiold town adorn; He ne'er made Johnson's equal in his life ;