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condly, that when they neglect this for any

Captain BRANT'S time, several hairs sprout up, and are seen The men of the Six Nations have all upon the clin and face. Thirdly, that ma- beards by nature ; as have likewise all other ny Indians allow tufts of hair to grow upon Indian nations of Nath America which I their chins or upper lips, resembling those have seen. Some Indians allow a part of we see in different nations of the old world. the beard upon the chin and upper lip to Fourthly, that several of the Mohocks, De- grow, and a few of the Mohocks (have witia lawares, and others, who live amongst razors in the same manner as Europeans; white penple, sometimes thave with razors, but the generality pluck out the hairs of the and fometimes pluck their beards out. beard by the roots as soon as they begin to There are facts which are notorious amongst appear; and as they continue this practice the Army, Indian-traders, &c. and which all their lives, they appear to have no beard, are never doubted in that part of the world or at most only a few ftraggling hairs which by any person in the least conversant with they have rieglected to pluck out. I am Indians; but as it is difficult to transport a however of opinion, that if the Indians were matter of belief from one country to ano- to shave, they would never have heards' alther distant one, and as the authors who together so thick as the Europeans ; and there have maintained the contrary opinion are too are some to be met with who have actually respectable to be doubted upon light grounds, very little beard. I by no means intend to rest the proofs upon

(Signed) what has been said, or upon my single af- JOS. BRANT THAYENDANEGA, sertion.

Niagara, Apr, 19, 1783. I have provided myself with two authori

Upon this subject I fall only further ob. ties, which I apprehend may in this case be

serve, that it has been supposed by some, decisive. One is Colonel BUTLER, Depu. that this appearance of beard on Indians ty Superintendant of Indian affairs, well arises only from a mixture of European known in the late American war, whose blood ; and that an Indian of pure race is great and extensive influence amongst the intirely destitute of it. But the nations a. Six Nations could not have been acquired by any thing iess than his long and intimate mongst whom this circumstance can have

any mfluence, bear so small a proportion to knowledge of them and their language. the multitude who are unaffected try it, that is The other authority is that of THAYENDA

cannot by any means be considered as the NEGA, commonly known by the name of cause; nor is it looked upon as such either Captain Joseph BRANT, a Mohock Indian by captain Brant or colonel Butler. of great influence, and much spoken of in

I Mall here subjoin a few particulars rethe late war. He was in England in 1775,

lative to the Indians of the Six Nations, and writes and speaks the English language which, as they seem not to be well undere with tolerable accuracy. I shall therefore

Itoud even in America, are probably Aill only fuhjoin their opinions upon this matter, less known in Europe. My authorities upthe originals of which I have under their

on this subject, as well as upon the former, own signatures.

are the lodian captain Brant and colonel Colonel BUTLER's.

Butler. The men of the Six-Nation Indians have all beards naturally, as have all the other Eacla nation is divided into three or more nations of North-America which I have had tribes; the principal of which are called the an opportunity of seeing. Several of the Turtle-tribe, the Wolf-tribe, and the Bear. Mohocks shave with razors, as do likewise bibe. many of the Panees who are kept as Naves Eich tribe has two, three, or more chiefs, by the Europeans. But in general the In- called Sachems; and this diftin&tion is al. Jians pluck out the beard by the roots from ways hereditary in the family, but defcends its earliest appearance ; and as their faces are along the female line: for instance, if a therefore smooth, it has been supf.ed thac chief dies, one of his fifter's fons, or one of they were destitute of beards. lam even of his own brothers, will be appointed to suc, opinion, that if the Indians were to practise ceed him. Among these no preference i Shaving from their youth, many of them given to proximity or primogeniture; bu would have as strong beards as Europeans.

the Sachem, during his life time, pitches up (Signed)

on one whom he supposes to have more abi JOHN BUTLER,

lities than the rest ; and in this choice he Agent of Indian Affairs. frequently, though not always, confults th: Niagara, Apr. 12, 1734.

principal men of the tribe. If the fucceflu


happens to be a child, the offices of the po between the several nations of the confedeare performed by some of his friends until he racy; and hence friends are called the fiis of sufficient age to act himfelf.

news of the Six Nations. An Indian has Each of these posts of Sachem las a name therefore generally one or more friends in peculiar to it, and which never changes, as each nation. Besides the attachment which it is always adopted by the successors; nor subsists during the life-time of the two does the order of precedency of each of these friends, whenever one of them happens to dames or titles ever vary. Nevertheless, any be killed, it is incumbent on the furvivor to Sachem, by abilities and activity, may ac- replace him, by presenting to his family either quire greater power and influence in the wa- a scalp, a prisoner, or a helt consisting of tion than those who rank before him in some thousands of wanpum; and this cerepoint of precedency ; but this is merely tem- mony is performed by every friend of the deporary, and dies with him.

ceared. Each tribe bas one or two chief warriors, The purpose and foundation of was partics whose dignity is also hereditary, and has a therefore is, in general, to procure a pripeculiar name attached to it.

soner or scalp to replace the friend or rela. These are the only titles of distinction tioa of the Indian who is the head of the which are fixed and permanent in the na- party. An Indian who wilhes to replace a tion ; for although any Indian may by su- friend or relation presents a belt to his a. perior talents, either as counsellor or as a quaintance, and as many as chuse to follow warrior, acquire influence in the nation, yet him accept this belt, and become his party. it is not in his power to transmit this to l.is After this, it is of no consequence whether family.

he goes on the expedition or remains at The Indians have also their Great Women home (as it often happens that he is a child), as well as their Grear Men, to whose opinions he is still considered as the head of the party. they pay great deference; and this distinc. The belt he presented to his party is return. tion is alto hereditary in families. They do ed fixed to the scalp or prisoner, and palles not lit in council with the Sachems, but have along with them to the friends of the person Separate ones of their own.

he replaces. Hence it happens, that a war When war is declared, the Sachems and party, returning with more scalps or prigreat Women generally give up the manage- foners than the original intention of the pare ment of public affairs into the bands of the ty required, will often give one of the fuwarriors. It may however fo happen, that pernumerary scalps or prisoners to another a Sachem may at the same time be also a war party whom they meet going out ; upchief warrior.

on which this party, having fulfilled the Friendlhips seem to have been inftiluted purpose of their expedition, will sometimes with a view towards strengthening the union return without going to war.



O circumstance, or even chain of cir. tacked with the like pains, and the conse-

cumstances, can happen to singular, quence was, that presently both the midbut that a similar may, one time or ollier, wife and her patient were delivered together. occur again ; and as the facts which gave Not a human being was then in the rise to the followig little Anecdote, have neighbourhood, nor even in the house, but already served to perplex the most eminent an old woman, who had acted in the double lawyers of France ; it would certainly af. capacity of midwife and nurse, and who, uno foru a satisfaction to know, with some kind fortunately, in her hurry, copfusion and of probability, how, according to the laws distress, was so inadvertent as to place the of England, such a complicated cafe could two infants lipon one and the same pillow, with propriety be determined.

without distinguishing which of them it was Complicated as the afvir is in itself, the that belonged to her mistress. facts are few, and in sum arid subit. nce as They were both males, and one of them follow :

lived but a few minutes — Now the grand A midwife, some time.go), was summoned circumstance which perplexes the case, and to attend with all posible expedition on a gives it an air of ridicule, is chis, that each gentlewoman in the province of Norm ndy, mother claims the surviving child as her's, who bad unexpectedly teen seized with the nor will abide by any decision to the conpains of theur.

Hardly had the good wo. trary, Mort of a judicial one ; and steps fo: Ma rrive

o discharge the duties of her that purpose bave accordingly been taken, office, when the was herself violently at.


BENEVOLENCE, INCLEMENT as the winter of 1786 was, Royal bosom ; and the question with his

the winter of 1785 will long be recorded Majesty now was, whether, simply as the in the annals of meteorological observation, tale had been told, there could pullibly be as haviog been a season of the most intense any truth in it? and continued severity ever known in En- He accordingly ordered the two boys to gland : long will it also be recorded as the proceed homeward, and, following them season which, of all others in the memory of till they reached a wretched hovel, he there man, afforded to the sons and daughters of found the mother, as mentioned, deadopulence the most frequent opportunities of dead, too, apparently, from a total want of revelling in the luxury inseparable from an common necesaries, with the father, literally exercise of the god-like virtues of humanity as described, ready to perish also, but still and benevolence.

encircling with his enfeebled arm the deOne day, during this gloomy period, as ceased partner of his woes, as if unwilling his Majesty, regardless of the weatber, and to remain behind her. never more happy than when in action--it The King now felt a tear start from his may be added, too, never more delighted own eye, nor did he think his dignity dethan when doing good, -was taking a solitary graded by giving a loose to his sensibility on excursion on fout, and unbending his mind the occasion; and accordingly leaving be. from the cares of government, he met two hind him what cash he had about him perty liale boys (the eldest seemingly not (which rarely, however, amounts tó mucb) more than eight years of age), who, thouglı he hastened back to Windsor; related to ignorant it was the King they had the honour the Queen what he had seen, but declared to address, fell upon their knees before him, himselt totally incapable of expreifing what deep as the in'w Lay, and wringing their he felt; and inftantly dispatched a messenger little hands, prayed for relief-ihe " smallest with a supply of provisions, cloathing, coals, relief,” they cried, for they were 6. hungry, and every other accommodation which very hungry, and had nothing to cat." might afford immediate sustenance and com

More would they have faid, but for a tor. fort to a helpless family, groaning, he derent of tears, which gushing down their in- clared, under amictions more piercing by far noceat cheeks, actually choaked their utter. than he could have supposed to exist in any

part of his dominions, or even conceived His Majesty, perfectly confounded with to be polkble, had he not himself witnejed horror at the right, tenderly defired the them. weeping suppliants to rise; and having at Revived by the bounty of his sorereign, length, with that amiable affability which the old man loon recovered ; and the King so peculiarly diftinguishes the character of (anxious to give happiness to the children as our fovereign, encouraged them to proceed well as bealth in the father) finished the with their ttory, they added, that their mo- good work he had so meritoriously begun, ther had been dead three days, and still lay by giving orders that till the years of maturia unburied; that their father himself, whom ty they should be clothed, educated, and supthey also were afraid of lofing, was stretched ported at his expence, with the hope of laby her five upon a bed of straw, in a fick ving such preferments bestowed upo! them and helpless condition ; and, in fine, that they afterwards as their conduct might justify. had neither money, nor food, nor firing, at On other occasions, his Majetty may have home.

acted more like a KING ; but upon rou:In this brief detail of woe, ingenuously as casion, perhaps, did he act more like a it had been given, there was a somewhat Man. · Such, however, is the opinion of more than sufficient to excite pity in the


of the JAPANESE. [By C. P. THUNBERG, formerly PHYSICIAN to the Dutch Factory in Japan *] .

Corclud.d from Page 316.) HE religion throughout Japan is hea- quarrels. The spiritual emperor, Dairi, is,

thenith, but there are many different like the Pope, head of the church, and has feets, which all however live in the greatest the appointment of the chief priests. Every unanimity and concord, without disputes or sect has separate churches and separate idols,

* From the ENGLISH REVIEW for May, 1786. EUROP. Mac,




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which are represented under some determi. ging them, and when they fire them, which is nate, and that often a monstrous Mape. commonly done once in seven years, in order They commonly invent a great number of to clean and prove them, the artillery man idols, one for almost every trade, like the old provides limfell with a long pole having a Romans; and consequently they have inferi- match at the end, which he applies with or and superior gods. One eternal and al- averted cyes. The fabre is therefore their mighty God, superior to all the relt, is not in. principal and best weapon, which is univer: deed unknown to the Japanese, but the know fally worn, except by the pealants. They ledge of him is enveloped in much darkness. are commonly a yard long, a little crookal I have not however seen among any heathens and thick in the back. The blades are of an such a large and majestic idol of this god, as incomparable goodness, and the old ones are in two Japanese temples. In the one there iu very high esteem. They are far fuperior to is an image of gilt wood, of such an enor- the Spanish blades, fo celebrated in Europe. mous size that fix men may fit, according to A colerably thick nail is easily cat in two, the Japanese fathion, in the palm of his fand, without any damage to the edge; and a man, and the breadth between the shoulders is five according to the account of the Japanese, may fathoms. In the other, his infinite power be cleft in two. No blade is sold under for is represented by smaller gods, which stand kobangs, but the fabres often coft 50, 60, nay, around him on all sides, to the number of above 100 rix-dollars; they constitute the 33,333. They have many temples, which dearest and most beloved property of the la are built for the most part without the cities panese. The hilt is furnished with a round on some eminence, and in the finest situations. and firm plate, has no bow, and is sometimes There are a number of prieks in every tem- sox inches in length. The hilt is flat, with ple, although they have but little to do, their obtuse edges; it is cut off transversely at the business being to keep the temple clean, to end, and covered with the skin of the thark, light the candles, &c. and offer flowers confe- which is uneven on its furface; it is importcrated to the idol, and such as they believe to ed by the Dutch, and sold very dear ; fomebe most acceptable to it. There is no times at go or 60 kobangs, each kobang at preaching or singing in the temples, but they six rix-dollars. Besides, filk cord is wrapped always stand open for those who may come round in such a manner that the shagreen to pray, or make some offering. Strangers may be seen through it; the plates are thickare never excluded from the temples, even er than a rix-dollar ; they either are adorned the Dutch are allowed to visit them; and with figures in bigh relief, or pierced artifici. when the inos are taken up, they are lodged ally with a number of holes. The sheath is in them, as actually happened once during thick and somewhat flat; it is truncated at my journey to court.

the end; it is sometimes covered with the The arms of the Japanese confist of a bow fineft shagreen, which is varnished; it is and arrow, sabre, halbert, and musket. The sometimes of wood, and painted with a black bows are very large, and the arrows long, as varnish, or variegated with black and white ; in China. When the bows are to be bent one fometimes observes a filver ring or tav and discharged, the troop always rest on one on the sheath. On one of the fides there is knee, which hinders them making a speedy a fmall elevation, perforated with a hole, discharge. In the spring, the troops assemble through which a filk ftring pastes, and serves to practise shooting at a mark. Muskets are to fasten the fabre occasionally. Within the not general ; I only saw them in the bands of hilt there is also a cavity for receiving a knife perfons of distinction, in a separate and etc. of three inches length. A separate fath is nevated part of the audience-room. The bar. ver used, but the sword is stuck in the belt

, rel is of the common length, but the stock is on the left side, with the edge upwards, which very short, and as well as I could observe at a to an European appears ridiculous. All per. distance, there was a match in the lock. I fons in office wear two such fabres, one of never saw a gun fired, though I have often their own, and the other the sword of ofici, heard the report from the Dutch factory. as it is called; the latter is always the longer. The interpreters informed me, that the stock, Both are worn in the belt on the same lide, which, on account of its shortness, cannot be and so disposed as to cross each other. When placed againft the 'Thoulder, is fet against the they are fitting, they have their fword of of cheek, an account that is not altogether cre- fice laid on one side or before them. dible. Cannons are not used in this country, The Dutch and Chinese are the only nations but in Nagasaki, at the imperial guard, there allowed to traffic in Japan. The Dutch & are several, formerly taken from the Portu- present fend but two ships annually, which guese, though ships are not faluted, and in- are fitted out at Batavia, and fail in June, and deed scarce ang ure at all is made of them. return at the end of the year. The chief Tebze Japanese lave very little skill in mana- merchandise is Japanese copper, and saw camphor. Varnished wood, porcelain, filk, and the feathers examined : rods of iron are rice, facki, and soia, conftitute but an incon- run into the pots of butter and confections : siderable part, and these articles are in the a square hole is made in the cheese, and a hands of private persons. The copper, long-pointed iron is thruft into it in all direcwhich is finer, and contains more gold than cions. Their suspicion is carried so far, that any other, is cast in pieces of the length of they take out and break one or two of the ax inches and a finger's thickness. It is put eggs brought from Batavia. The same on board in parcels of 120 pounds, 12 ounces Arictness is observed when any one goes from to the pound ; and every ship's lading con. the factory on ship-board, into the factory, fists of fix or seven thousand such parcels, or out of ic, from Nagasaki to the factory on The wares which the Dutch companies im. the idle of Dezima. The watch must be in. port, are coarse sugar, ivory, a great quantity spected and marked at going and returning. of tin and lead, a little cast iron, various kinds The hat is sometimes examined. No pri. of fine chinezes, Dutch cloth, of different co- vate person may introduce money ; it is gen lours and fineness, serge, wood for dyeing, nerally taken into custody till the time of deb tortoise-shell, and copus Arabicus. The little parture. Sealed letters are not allowed to be merchandise brought by the officers on their sent from or to the thips, but they are open. own account, consists of saffron, theriaca, leal- ed, and required sometimes to be read by the ing-wax, glass beads, watches, &c. &c. interpreters, as are ether manuscripts. All About the time when the Dutch Tips are religious books, in p.yticular such as contain expected, several outposts are stationed on the plates, are very dangerous to import. highest hills by the government ; they are Latin, German, French, and Swedish provided with telescopes, and long before books pass more easily, since the interpreters their arrival give the governor of Nagasaki do not understand them. Arms may not be notice. As soon as they anchor in the hare imported, but it was permitced to us to carry hour, the upper and under officers of the Ja- our (words to the factory. The Dutch have panese immediately betake themselves on themselves occasioned this strict search, which board, tagether with interpreters, to whom is has gradually increased on several occasions to delivered a cheft, in which all the sailors' its present severity. The wide coats and books, the muster-roll of the whole crew, breeches of the captains, and an hundred fix small barrels of powder, fix barrels of other means, have been tried to smuggle balls, fix mulkets, fix bayonets, fix piftols, goods to the factory ; and the interpreters, and fix swords are deposited; this is fuppar. who formerly were not searched, carried con ed to be the whole remaining ammunition, traband wares to the city, where they fold after the imperial garrison has been faluted. them for ready money. Much cunning has These things are conveyed on shore, and pre. sometimes been used to effect this. A few served in a separate warehouse, nor are they years ago, a parroc was found concealed in returned before the day the thip quits the bar. the breeches of one of the lower officers, in bour.

consequence of its beginning to prate during Duties are quite unknown as well in the the examination In 1975, several rix-dolo inland parts as on the coast, nor are there any lars and ducats were detecied in the drawers customs required, either for exported or im- of an alliftant. These circumstances have ported goods; an advantage enjoyed by few led the Japanese, year after year, to limit the uations. But, to prevent the importation of privileges of the Dutch traders more and any forbidden wares, the utmost vigilance is more, and to searcla more striály, so that all observed ; then the men and things are exa.. their cunning scarce enables them to deceive mined with the eyes of Argus. "When any mis vigilant people. This scrutiny prevents European goes op shore, he is examined be. only smuggling, and nof priyate trade. Esco fore he leaves the thip, and afterwards on his ry one is at liberty to import whatever he landing. This double search is exceedingly can sell or is in request, even such things as Ariet; so that not only the pockets and are permitted to be sold, only it must not be clothes are stroked with the hands, but the done privately. The reason why private pudenda of the meaner fort are pressed, and perhus are so defirous of smuggling rucha the hair of the Daves. All the Japanese, wares as are not forhidden, is, because, when who come on board, are searched in like goods are sold hy auction, they do not receive manner, except only their superior officers; moncy, but other goods in return. These fo also are the wares either exported or im. goods, which are either porcelain or japauned ported, first on board, and then at the factory, goods, are so clieap at Batavia, in consequence except the great chests, which are opened at of the annual traffic, that they are sometimes the factory, and so carefully examined that sold under primc coft. Hence, for goods they strike the very fides left they fhould be privately fold they get ready money, and of. hollow. The bed.clothes are often opened, ten double the price. The company's goods



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