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are not examined on ship-board, but are carri- Many never learn to speak properly at all. ed straight to the warehouse, where they are In writing Dutch, they use instead of a pea sealed by the Japanese.
their common rencil, and their own paper, The interpreters are all natives ; they but they write from left to riglit, generally in speak Dutch in different degrees of purity. very beautiful Italian letters. The government permits no foreigner to learn The interpreters are very inquisitive after their
language, left they should by means of European books, and generally provide this acquire the knowledge of the manufac. themselves with some from the Dutch mer. tares of the country ; but 40 or 50 inter- chants. They perufe the.n with care, and repreters are provided to serve the Dutch in member what they learn. They besides entheir trade, or on any other occasion. These deafour to get inftruction from the Europeans; interpreters are divnied into three classes. for which purpose they alk numberless queí. The eldest, who speak best, are called upper- tions, particularly respecting medicine, phy. interpreters, the second under, and the third fics, and natural history, Mott of them ap. pupils. Formerly the Dutch caught the sa- ply to medicine, and are the only physicians of panese Dutch ; it was in particular the doc- their nation who practise in the European tor's businels ; but they now learn of the manner, and with European medicines, which other interpreters. Some of the senior inter- they procure from the Dutch physicians. Hence preters speak Dutch pretty intelligibly ; but they are able to acquire money, and to make as their language in plirafes and construction themselves respected. They sometimes take differs so widely from the European, one has pupils. often occasion to hear strange expressions.
ESSAY on the RISE and PROGRESS of CHEMISTRY.
[From Dr. WATSON'S !! CHEMICAL Essays.”]
[Concluded from Page 326.] THE beginning of the sixteenth century pate had more knowledge than all their
was remarkable for a great revolution writers, the buckles of his shoes mere produced in the European practice of physic, learning than Galen or Avicenna, and his by means of chemistry Then it was that beard more experience than all their Umeer. Paracelsus, following the steps of Bafile V.. sities. He revived the extravagant doctrine lentine, and growing famous for curing the of Raymond Lully, concerning an univerial venereal diseale, the leprosy, and other viru- medicine, and untimely funk into bis grave lent disorders, principally by the means
at the age
forty-teven, wbiltt he bouted of mercurial and antimonial preparations, himself to be in poilersion of secrets able to wholly rejected the Galenical pharmacy, and prolong the present period of human lile to Substituted in its stead the chemical. He that of the Anrediluviaus. had a professor's chair given him by the ma.. But in whatever estination the merit of gistracy of Ball, was the first who read Paracelsus as a chemist may be held, certaa public lectures in medicine and chemistry, it is, that his fame excited the envy of fome, and subjected animal and vegetable, as well the emulation of vtbers, and the industry of as mineral, substances to an examination by all. Thole who attacked, and those who fire.
defended his principles, equally promoted It seldom happens that a man of but com- the knowledge of chemistry; which from mon abilities, and in the niost retired scenes his time, by attracting the notice of pbysi. of life, observes such a strict uniformity of cians, began every where to be fyftematiconduct, as not to afford prejudice and par. cally treated, and more generally undertiality Sufiicient materiais for drawing bis 1tood. character in different colours; but such a Soon after the death of Paracelsus, mis great and isregular genius as Paracelsus, happened in the year 1541, the arts of could not fail of becoming alike the subject mining and fluxing metais, which had beta of the extremes of panegyric and facire. practised in most countries from the earlett He has accordingly been esteemed by some, times, but had never been explained by any a second Eiculapilis; others have thought writers in a scientific manner, received great that he was potletieri of more impudence illuitration from the works of Georgius than merit, and that his reputation was Agricola, a German physician. The Greeks more owing to the brutal singu arity of his and Romans bad leít no treatises worth conduct, than to the cures he performed. mentioning upon the subject; and though a He treated the physicians of bis time with vook or two had appeared in the German the moft Soltish vanity and illiberal intolence; language, and one in the Italian, relative ta selling them, that the very down of his talde metallurgy, before Agricola rablished his
(welve books De Re Metallica, yet he is was the author of many improvements in justly esteemed the first author of reputation the manner of working mines, and of Buxa in that branch of chemistry.
ing metals; in particular he first introduced Lazarus Erckern (allay-mafter general of inco Cornwall the method of fluxing tin by the empire of Germany) followed Agricola means of the flame of pit. coal, instead of in the same pursuit. His works were first wood or charcoal. published at Prague in 1574, and an English Lemery's very accurate course of practical tranflation of them by Sir John Petrus came chemistry appeared in 1675. Glauber's out at London in 1683. The works of works had been published a different times, Agricola and Erckern are still liighly esteem. from 1651 to 1661, when his tract, inel, though several others have been pubiinh- tituled Philosophical Furnaces, came out at pd, chiefly in Germany, upon the same Amsterdam. Kunckel died in Sweden in subject lince their time. Amongst these we 1702; he had practiled chemistry for above may reckoo Shindler's Art of Allaying Ores fily years, under the auspices of the Elector and Metals; the works of Henckell, of of Saxony, and of Charles XI. of Sweden. Sclutter, of Cramer, of Leliman, and of He wrote bis chemical observations in the Gellert. Germany, indeed, bas for a long German language, but had them translated time been the great school of metallurgy for into Latin in the year 1677; the cranflation the rest of Europe; and we, in this country, is dedicated hy its author to our Royal owe the present flourishing condition of vur Society. They were afterwards tranflated mines, especially of our copper mines, as
into English in 1704.
Having had the well as of our brass manut.ctory, to the superintendency of several glats-houses, he wise policy of Queen Elizabeth, in granting had a fine opportunity of making a great great privileges to Daniel Hough'etter, Chrif. variety of experiments in that way: and I fopher Schutz, and other Germans ubom the have been informed by our enamellers, and had invited into England, in order to inftruct makers of artificial gems, that they can de. her subjects in the art of metallurgy.
pend more upon the procelles and observaIt was not, however, till towards the tions of Kunckel, than of any other author middle of the last century, that general che- upon the same subject. The chemical labours milliy began to be cultivated in a liberal and of these and many other eminent men, too philosophical manner. So early as the year numer: 115 to mention, were greatly for1645, several ingenious persons in London, warded by the establithiment of several sociein cider tv divert their thoughts from the ties, for the encouragement of natural pluilolurrors of the civil war which bod then soply, which took place in various parts of broken out, had formed themselves into a Europe about that period. Society, and held weekly meetings, in which The Philofophical Transactions at London, they treated of, what was then called, the the Histoire de l'Academie Royale des
or experimental philosophy. There Sciences at Paris, the S"gi d'Esperienze di meetings were continued in Londen till the Acad. del Cimento at Florence, the Journal establithment of the Royal Society in 1662 ; des Scavans in Holland, the Ephemerides and before that time, by the removal of some Academia Natuæ Curioforum, in Germany, of the original members to Oxford, fimilar tlie Acts of the Ac. demy of Copenhagen, meetings were held there, and those studies and the Atia Eruditorum at Leypfic; all bronglit into repute in that University. Mr. there wirks began to be publithed within Buyle, who had entered upon bis chemical the space of twenty years from 1665, when Hadies about the year 1647, was a prince our Royal Society first set the example, by pal person in the Oxford meetings. He pub- publithing the Philofophical Tunctions. lished at that place his Sceptical Chemist in To there may be a:dcu, the works of the 1661, and by bis various writir.gs and expe. Academies of Berlin, Petersburgh, Scoclio riments greatly contributed to the introducing holm, Upsal, Bononia, Bourdeaux, Montinto England, a talte for rational chemistry. pelier, Gottingen, and of several others which
Next to Boyle, or perhaps before hiin as have been established within the course of a chemist, stands his cotemporary the unfor.
the present century.
thousand tunate Beecher, whose Physica Subterranea, volumes have been published by these learned justly intituled opus fine pari, was first pub. focietis within less than 120 years. Ilic lifhed in 1669. After having suffered varie number of facts which are therein reluteal ous persecutions in Germany, he came over respecting chemistry, and every other branchi into England, and died at London in 1682, of natural philosophy, is exceedingly great ; at the age of 57. He resided some time be. but the subject is ftill greater, and mult for fore his death in Cornwall, which he calls ever mock the efforts of the human race to She mineral school, owning that from a teach- exhaust it. We!l did Lord Bacon compare er, he was there become a Icaruer. He natural philosophy to a pyramid! Its hafis is
indeed the history of nature, of which we which not only require an uninterrupted alo know a little, and conjecture much; but its tention of mind, but are attended with the cop is, without doubt, hid high among the wearisomeness of bodily labour. Ii is not clouds; it is “ibe work wbicb God workert enough to employ operators in this business ; from the beginning to the end," infinite and in- a man must blacken his own hands with fcrutable.
charcoal, he must sweat over the furnace, By the light which has been incidentally and inhale many a noxious vapour, before thrown upon various parts of chemistry from he can become a chemist. On the other those valt undertakings of public societies, as hand, the artists themselves are generally well as from the more express labours of illiterate, timid, and bigotted to particular Stahl, Neumann, Hoffman, Juncker, Geoffry, modes of carrying on their respective operaBoerhaave, and many others equally worthy tions. Being Wacquainted with the learned, of commendation ; by the theoretic conclusions or modern, languages, they seldom know and systematic divifions which have been in any thing of the new discoveries, or of the troduced into it; from the didactic manner methods of working practised in other counin which the students of this art have been tries. Deterred by the too frequent, bat instructed in every medical school ; chemistry much to he laniented examples of those who, has quite changed its appearance. It is no in beneficing the public by projects and ex longer comfidered merely in a medical view, periments, have ruined themfelves, they are nor restricted to some fruitless efforts upon unwilling to incur the least expence in metals; it no longer attempts to impose making trials, which are uncertain with reupon the credulity of the ignorant, nor affects spect to profit. From this apprefienfion, # to astonith the fimplicity of the vulgar by w'e!l as from the myfterious muner in which its wonders, but is content with explaining most arts, before the invention of printing, them upon the principles of sound philofophy. and many full con:inue to be taught, they It has shaken off the opprobrium which had acquire a certain opiniâtrete, which efe&ually been thrown upon it, from the unintelligible hinders them from making improvements, jargon of the alchemists, by revealing all its by departing from the ancient tradicionary secrets in a language as clear and as common precepts of their art. It cannet be questionas the nature of its subject and operations ed, that the arts of dyeing, painting, brewing, will admit.
diftilling, tamning, or making glass, enamels, Considered as a branch of physics, che. porcelane, artificial stone, common falt, fal mistry is but yet in its infancy; however, ammoniac, salt-petre, potash, lugar, and a the mutual emulation and unwearicd endea.
gieat variety of others, have received much vours of so many eminent men as are in every improvement from chemical inquiry, and are part of Europe engaged in its cultivation, capable of receiving much more. will in a little time renver it equal to any Metallurgy in particular, though ope of part of natural philosophy, in the clearness the most ancient branches of chemiitry, and folidity of its principles. In the utility aferds matter enough for new discoseries. resulting to the public from its conclusions, There are a great many combinations of with respect to the practice of medicire, of metals which have never been made; many agriculture, arts and manufactures of every of which, however, might be made, and kind, it is, even in its present fate, in- in such a variety of proportions, as, very ferior to none.
probably, would furniih us with metallic The uses of chemistry, not only in the mixtures more serviceable than any in vie. medical, but in every economical art, are suo. The method of extracting the greater extentive to be enumerated, and too notorious possible quantity of metal from a given to want illustration; it may just be observed, quantity of the same kind of ore, has, per: that a variety of manufactures, by a proper dipos, in no one inftance been ascertained application of chemical principles, mig!it, with fufcient precision. There are many probably, be wrought at a less expence, and forts of iron and copper ores which cannot be execuied in a better manner than they are at converted into malleable metals without present. But to this improvement there are much labour, and a great experxce of fuel ; impediments on every hand, which cannot it is very probable, that by a well-conducted easily be overcome. Those who by their series of experiments, more compendious fituations in life are removed from any de- ways of working these minerals might be sign or delire of augmenting their fortunes found out. In our own times, three new by making discoveries in the chemical arts, metallic substances have been discovered, will bardly be induced to diminish them by and their properties abundantly atcertained engaging in expensive experimental inquiries, by experiment; and it spay reasonably be **Platina, Regulus of Cobalt, Niekel.
conjectured, that future experience will yet which are universally thrown away, may, migment their number. Till Marggraaf perhaps, be nothing but different kinds of shewed the manner of doing it, no metallic spar, and destitute of all metallic matter : substance conld be extracted from calamine, Yet it may not be improper to remark, that and all Europe was supplied with zinc * the external appearance of the yellowish either from India or from Germany. A cawk is wholly similar to that of calcined manufactory of this metallic substance has not black-jack. That it is much of the same many years ago been established in our own weight as black-jack, may appear from the country, and the copper works near Bristol annexed table : have supplied Birmingham with zinc extracted from calamine. Black.jack was not
Weight of a cubic foot of
White cawk 4047 long, since employed in Wales for mending
Yellow cawk 4112 the roads ; its value is not yet generally
Kebble known in Derbyshire ; but it is now well
4319 avoirdup. oz. understood by some individuals to answer the
Water purpose of calamine for the making of brass. +
1000) Mons. Von Swab in 1738 was, I believe, In a word, the improvement of metallurgy, the first person who distilled zinc from black and the other mechanic arts dependent on jack; and a work which he erected, pro- chemistry, might best be made by the public bably gave the bint to the etablishers of our establishment of an Academy, the labours of English manufactory: indeed, I have been which should be destined to that particular well informed, that they purchased the secret purpose. The utility of such establishments from him when he was in England. Th has been experienced in Saxony and other various kinds of black-lead, from which places; and as mines and manufactures are to neither tin nor iron can at present be pro. the full as important to us, as to any other cured to advantage; the mundicks, rome European state, one may hope, that the cobalt ores, cawk, kebble, and other mineral constituting a Chemical Academy may, in substances, which are now thought to be use- times of peace and tranquility, become an lels, may some time or other, perhaps, be object nut unworthy the attention of the applied to good purpose. Cawk and kebble, King or the Legislature of the British nawhich are found in great quantities in mining tion, countries, especially in Derbyshire, and
ELOGY ON THE COUNTRY LIFE.
By M. MERCIER. It is only the powerful and secret charm of on himself, enjoy himself, set a true value on
the country, which las a conftant and his time and existence, fill up days that would universal influence over the heart of man : the he spent elsewhere with foolith prodigality. increase of luxury vainly attempts to ufurp Diburdened of the troublesome weight of this power ; toillome preparatives, brilliant, business, removed from the constraint and foyet dull, imperfect in their cousequences, licitude of societies, he is no longer troubled they leave a void behind them, a fomething with the inward disquietude which preys on to be withed for, after the combined endea- ambition, pursuing that phantom fortune in vours of artists. The country, plain, but the putrid air of cities; he experiences the magnificent, has more inexhaustible attrac- serenity, the tranquil, solid repose, the offtions ; its (miling features are reproduced as spring of free nature. It is by this he finds we view them ; its advantages multiplying affluence in eale, wisdom in moderation, the according to the knowledge we acquire of bleilings of time in his occupation, and, in a them; and the mind, whole expectations word, enjoyinent without subsequent repenwere not satisfied with the pomp of courts, the bustle of entertainments and artificial de. Unhappy is the man who, corrupted by corations, deliciously repoles in the beautiful the hurry of cities, thinks the country dull and folitary retreats of nature.
and frient! Certainly the seeds of good are It is there man can filently contemplate (mothered in bis breast. Time country speaks
Zinc is a metallic substance, of the colour of lead ; when united with copper, is conAtitutes brass, pinchbeck, and other nietallic mixtures resembling gold.
+ The cobalt ores in Helle, which at present produce a net profit of about 14000l. a-year, were formerly used for the same purpose as black-jack was lately in Wales---Baron's Travels by Ralpe, Pre, xxvi. See Mr. Woulfe's ingenious Experiments in Philof. Tran?. 1779, p. 15.
eloquently to the sound mind ; it appears the Hifiory of the Commerce of bort tbe Indien aniniated to the feeling heart ; it preferves and all those grand compositions which do peace of mind, and eveo restores it when dil. honour to the present age, seem to be proturbed; it diffipates mean and haughty pas. duced under the happy influence of hamlets, fins, the torments of men in the bustle of life, and the waving shade of foreits. and calms the violent convulsions concupis- Could cities furnith, in their narrow bounds, cence inspires. The country is the parent those ravishing scenes which are so bountiof virtuous sentiments ; and independent of ful to the poet's pen, and more fo to philofothe natural advantages it procures, such as pher's meditations, when the ruddy clouds wholefome food, tranquillity, pure air, wbich melt and embrace the lofty circular heads of restore or improve health, it has many re
the tallest trees; when the sparkling rays dismarkable moral advantages ; the more play, by their prodigioas refrangibility, all the Thamefulvices avoid of themselves that asy- dazzling pomp of the sun; when the light, lum where the woods, the grally verdure, increasing its ardent fire, swiftly transforms the fields, the blooming hedges, seem form- one landscape into another, by the ardent vi. ed for simple taste and peaceful virtue. gour of its tints; when meadows, in those
The country! the poets have sung it, the rapid moments, are metamorphosed even to painters have transmitted it on canvas, philo. the proprietor's eye, who flands astonithed, fophers have extolled it ! More happy the and scarcely recognises the place the foft mild man who, enamoured with its attractions, ray of dawn enlightened; so forcibly is the contemplates it, knows how to enjoy its 12- magic of those striking lively colours, such a rious treasures, and preserve his morals pure, magnificent and no less admirable diversity refpiring the ballamic fragrant air, and every does it imprint on the same objects ! morning tre?ding thie odoriferous plants.
And at night, when the tranquil lake reWho has not felt the neceility of visiting
flects the filver face of the moon and brilliant the country, at least on the return of fine stars; when the light clouds that surround it weather, when the tender green turf, the ear- pas like moving images, on the clear fur. ly melody of birds, the active rays of the sun face of the waters beneath the contemplator's haften vegetation, and call upon the most in- feet; when he hears the lengthened cry of different being to admire the hidden hand that the night bird ;- when he sees the smooth but fpreads the tufted grass, unfolds the shoots, trembling lake reproduce the fresh landscape furnishes the trees with buis impatient to be around him; where could he meet such comopened, and which will soon adorn the leaves plete repose, such soft tranquillity? where with fruit and flowers?
can he so well feel the voluptuous sentiment Encijanting picture ! O spectacle, more of an indefinite reverie? interesting that all which art can offer! How In the morning, when the atmosphere is pleasing it is to gather the first bouquet of vj. clear, when the filver clouds are scatered olets by the side of a serpentine rivulet, gent- over the horizon, like woolly fleeces, he fees ly watering the moffy ground; and to have the labourer already in the field pretling the the foot moistened with the fresh and spark- plough share, breaking the clod, and marking Jing dew at the dawn of a fine day in fpring, out the deep and straight furrow from and the series of fine days that are to come to whence the golden harvest is to rise ; be perpetuate the innocent pleasures of man ! smiles with joy at the seeds of fertility con
I: is in the country that writers acquire fided to the maternal bosom of the earth. more elevated and sublime ideas, become Tell the blind insensate, that this husband. more energetic and moving; it is there that man, hy daily renewing his labour, gains the generous works are composed, that is to say, noblest conquests over nature, and cootn. those relative to the plan of public happiness. butes more than any other to the splendour, In the country our thoughts are necesarly led prosperity, vigour, and life of the state, by to the largest portion of the human race; producing the principal objects of neceflity ! they are visible, they are present before our and yet he is deprelled by idle and in iolent eyes, bending under the yoke, and labouring arrogance; his laborious hands, that steer the at the first works of neceffity, those primitive plough and wield the nourishing (pde, are works, which ever awaken and recal fimple debased and banilhed to the very lowest class ideas, productive of great ones; whilft in ci- of society. Were it not for those callous ties the arts, perhaps too refined in our time, hands, dearth, poverty, famine, and formw, pursue the niceties of form, to attract and would devour the great in their fumptuous please, for a moment, the forrowful eye of palaces. But such is the incredible injustice, the wealthy.
such the absurdity of man, that to be usefu In populous cities they write voluptuous to him is to be unworthy in his agit. romances, light elegant verses, and com dics Manual labour, the first exercise of mja, in an affected ftile ; but the Natural Hiflory, the sacred employment of the ancient puri