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ordained by the Almighty himself ; labour, ty of arrogant disdain, the crime of opulence ; the only power on earth that can vivify and they have all unanimously exclaimed, Immorput idle matter in motion, is looked upon as sul boncur to faci ed agriculture! They have al. a disgraceful employment in our degenerate ways revered it in their writings; the plough days; while the unjust financier, the cruel has been a hallowed object with themsoldier, the indolent citizen, dares to take They have celebrated princes that handled it precedency over the man who, by giving with pomp and solemnity on certain annual the first motion to the sap, has more just ob- festivals. Virgil, even in the court of Au. servations in his head, and more hospitable gustus, has described the harrow, the mattock, virtues in his heart, than those who view the spade, the rake, the plough which lays him with disdain ; a disdain which can only the earth equally on both sides; and all the here be repaid with contempt; for that kind writers whom I file munificent, have prefer. of disdain ought to be considered with the red the implements of rustic fimplicity to all greatest justice, as the last stage of human the ornaments of luxury and favour, that the frenzy. The husbandman, who affects only corruption of morals and the arts could offer. an equality, does not go to the door of a Those judicious interpreters of the public courtier lo beg an employment, nor expose voice will be held in greater csteenı as the himself to the insulting ridicule of a clerk in world becomes more enlightened ; they had office, the insidious dispenser of favours he the courage to celebrate, with all their powers, has purchased by the mzanest acts; he the labours of agriculture ; they have knows the earth will supply his wants, and restored dignity to the grey-headed man, who he is attached to her all-rxourishing bosom. during fixty years procured raiment and fub. -Alas! what will the vain and haughty be- fiftence to his equals, and, as an additional beings, who, decorated with the livery of luxu- nefit, has given his country his own children ry, and are its perpetual Naves, set up in op- for hardy and tractable soldiers-Must not pofition! Do they dare think themselves su- this countryman appear to be, in the view of perior to him? What, alas! will they set up ? a philosopher, after so many sacrifices, la Too well we learn from experience, idleness, bours and fatigues, the real Allas, supporting fice, and crimes.

the whole weight of the globe on his truly Philosophical writers have never been guil- laborious Thoulders ?

THE

L ON DON

R E VIEW,

AND

LITERARY JOURNAL,

Qurd fue turpe, quid urile, quid dulce, quid non. fermons preached before the Hon. Societies of the Inner and Middle Temple, by the late Wile

liam Stafford Done, D.D. Prebendary of Lincoln, and Archdeacon of Bedford. Published by the Rev. R. Shepherd, B. D. F. R. S, Archdeacon of Bedford. 8vo. 6s. Flexney. 1786.

THE Rev. Editor, after paying a complio ence before whom they were preached;

ment to the taste of the age, which, he men of learning, who are in the constant says, readily listens to lessons of virtue and in- habit of pursuing arguments, of detecting falle. struction ; and bestowing that tribute of praise hood, and investigating truth. They are which they so eminently deserve on the Ser- chiefly argumentative ; and if the arguments mons published by Dr. Blair, Mr. White, sometimes appear too abstracted, even when and the Bishop of Chester," which through most abftrule they discover in the author a the understanding make their way to the full poflesion of his subject. They are al. heart, the road that disco:rses from the ways ingenious ; and, if not always new, his pulpit should take;" gives the following cha. method of producing them makes them pecuracter of the present work:

liarly bis own." To this opinion we heartily “ The nature of the discourses now offered subscribe, and sincerely recommend them to in the public, is happily adapted to the audi all who are capable of following the author through a series of reasoning that does equal He next considers the objection arged honour to his head and heart. To such as against the divine justice, for permitting the delight in the flowery, declamatory compofi- prosperity of the wicked ; and that against God's tions which are too much the fashion of the holiness, from sin not being prevented, but day, and which tend more to display the ora. admitted in the world. lo answer to the for Lorical powers of the preacher, than to edify mer, he proves an unequal distribution of what or improve the hearer, these discourses will we call prosperity, to be necessary in a state not in all probability prove acceptable ; of trial like to the present world ; and that but to the man of sense who has judgment if every thing were adjusted and apportioned sufficient to prefer the substance to a shadow, bere with visible exactness and inftant effect, found reafoning to empty verbofity, the peru- there would be no occasion for a future jodg. sal of this volume will afford not only enter- ment. In reply to the latter, he observes, tainment but instruction.

" if God must not allow, as objects present It contains eighteen Sermons on various themselves, a bad choice, (and fin is nothing subjects. In the first of these, the author else) he must not allow any choice; he mult considers the attributes of righteousness and suspend the usual powers of acting, which holiness. “ The Lord is righteous in all his would be a perpetual violation of the order ways, and holy in all his works.” Mankind, of Nature. If he must incline to good, and he observes, may be sensible of the moral ob- good only, he must cliain up the will and ligations of justice, yet not always perceive over-rule the mind; which may be governmeni, the reasons on which they hinge ; or, perceiv- but not moral government, as it deftroys the ing them, be unwilling to be determined by very capacity of virtue and vice." Having them. Human justice is liable to much ob- eltablished these attributes, he draws the fole struction from want of evidence, the obscuri. lowing conclufion, ty of facts, the dubiousness of circumstances, “Ifthen God be holy, if God be just, what and inconsistency of testimony; or, where evi- ever is, whatever adverse event occurs, muit dence is complete, the intricacy of a case, the be (in some view of it) right, must have in specious appearance of probability on each nature adequate and fit causes. The realons fide, may render its merits impervious. Even of Providence in these allotments may be la. where matters are clearest, worldly consider tent, may be intricate ; but can never be ine. ations too often pervert the judgment, preju. quitable, never inexpedient : he who is im. dices of hatred or favour, friendship or rela- partial cannot be cruel ; he who is rectitude con, partiality to some interest or valued pur. itself, cannot act injuriously.” pofe, the solicitations of superiors or the faf- In the second discourse, the preacher takes cination of bribery, may blind the eyes of occasion to enquire into the common excep men of understanding, and make them accep- tion expressed hy infidelity or discontent, ters of persons in their judicial administrations. against that soothing and interesting article But the all-wise, the independent, the Al- of religious faith, the superintendence of Promighty One must be inaccessible to such finis- vidence; and thews, that they are supposi. ter influences. Perfectly knowing the rule tions without truth, or inferences without of equity, and neceffarily judging of things as reason. In the third he pursues the lubject, they really are ; able to execute what is right and enquires from what reasonings on the naand fit according to that knywledge, without ture of God and ourselves it is satisfactorily any poflible temptation to deviate from it; in- deducible that “ the Lord is our keeper." capable of being mided, moved by any bias, These arguments are founded on the attributes or awed by any power ; such a Being muft of God, a spirirual sovereign, wife, power. evidently always act without iniquity, with ful, and good. Without design or direction, out partiality, without prejudice, without re. what is wisdom? Locked up from exertion, spect of persons, consequently “ righteously if every thing be done without interference, in all his ways."

what is power? Without a distribution of The Ductor's arguments to prove that “the rewards and punishments, what is justice ? Lord must be bely in all his works" are equal. These attributes have a reference, therefore, ta ly clear, clore, and conclusive,

objects; their efsence confifts in action, their “ He who has will with reason must be a perfection in exercise. To suppose the con. moral agent: he who has reason in the high- trary would be to reduce the Creator below est and most perfect degree must be in the his creatures to a mere pageant. This reahighest and most perfect degree a moral roning is ftrongly corroborated by the evi. agent: he who is above every temptation to dence arising from the situation of man. be bad, must be uniformly good : in other Born in a state of debility and helplessness, words, he who hath an infinite understanding what would become of him, were it not for with an unbiaffed will, must always perceive the yearnings of parental instin&t, wlich canthe best murives, and act conformably; that not be accounted for without the guidance of is, must be " holy in all his works."

a contriving and observing Providence. The

fame protection, (however invisible the work- the husbandman commits his grain to the ings of it) is extended in his nonage, and is ground, the physician prescribes his drug, or cqually necessary in his adult state.

the artist constructs his machine, anticipating “ Man,” says our author, “ is, from vari. refpectively, with happy confidence, the ac. ous causes, susceptible, in various degrees, of complishment of his purpose from the fame pleasure and pain : can it be fupposed that revolutions of the heavenly bodies, the same there is no provision, no regimen, for the ad- vicissitudes of seasons, the same action of me. justment of these? By the incitements of the chanical and physical powers. But take away one, ne perfoi ms many a necessary function, and from the objects of the universe this unity of engages in many an important pursuit ; by character ; let them appear or act with the impressions of the other he presages fickle or lawless mutability ; agriculture, m. and evades many a calamity. Can it he sup- dicine, pilotry, mechanism, all calculation, posed that all this is exclusive of regulation ?" the whole process of induction, the whole

In addition to the arguments advanced to force of analogy, the whole directory of exse. obviate the pretences urged against the doc. ' rience, is precluded and cancelled : the purtrine of a superintending Providence, and to suit of knowledge becomes vain toil, the apestablish the truth of it, the Doctor has in the plication of it desperate diffidence; observafourth Sermon examined the complaint, that tion is without use, reflection without decie "this is an evil among all things that are done fion, provision for self-preservation without under the sun, that there is one event unto security, and solicitude without eud or remeall;" from which inferences have been drawn dy. in disparagement of this important tenet. “If such be the conceivable consequences of

After observing that there may be a refem- the projected alteration in the natural world, blance of circumstances without a coincidence its inconveniences would not be less in the of consequences; that what is visible of con- moral. Substitute in the regimen of the moditions or incidents is but a precarious index ral world particular laws for general, that is, of pleasure and pain ; and that pleasure or success and disappointmeirt, recompence and pain are still more indeterminate of benefit or punishment, adjusted to actions and agents, disadvantage ; he asks, Is it not then falsely or with accurate and immediate discriminations, very questionably suggested against Providence what would obviously result? In the first peas an evil, or indeed as a fact, except in a ve- riod of life, before the formation of moral ry lax sense, “ that there is one event unto character, under the common lot of original ail?” But that he may not be thought, by thus equality, either an utter suspension of every arglung, to evade rather than encounter the influencing principle, or distinctions without difficulty, he enters into a more direct discur. diversity, preferences without recommendafion of it; which we shall lay before our rea. tions, and sufferings without demerit : in ders in his own words, to enable them to subsequent periods, a bar to the formation of form their own opinion of the author's style moral character, that would operate univerand mode of reasoning.

sally. For under the dominion of Justice so “ Permit me to suppose (no unreasonable awfully present, with arm perceivably expostulate) that humanity is a system, for some tended for inftant retribution, who would wise reason, of fupreme design, and necessary dare to reject her allurement, or brave her in the constitution of Nature, What does infliction? Would not the consequence be the objection demand? An abolition of ge- one determined course of conduct ? Would neral laws in this system; for there must be not duty be so irresistibly connected with in general laws promiscuous events. But gain, as to leave no room for the indulgence from the proposed innovation, what mischiefs of inclination, the growth of desert, and the would follow? In the first place, the destruc- display of disposition ; for the proof of fincetion of order, with which vanishes at once rity by resolution, of benevolence by disinteevery idea of ceconomy and beauty in creation; restedness, of faith by contentment; in short, its parts no longer simple and congruous ; its for many exercises of virtue particularly exmovements no longer regular ; its beings no alting and perfecting man, particularly venelonger determinate in agency, or specific in rating and pleasing God? character. In the next place, an utter ex- “ It is now perhaps perceived, that geneclufion of certainty, with which vanith all the ral laws, from which arise indiscria inate acquisitions of science, all the principles of events, in the administration of the world, art, all the comforts of life. Of causes and carry with them a large and satisfactory coneffects we know little, except their connexi. fideration of benefit ; and that therefore the on; and while this connexion continues ta. objection which demands the reversal of ble, wlilft objects exhibit in general, with ob. them, demands an impropriety. Let us next servable conftancy on fimilar trials, fimilar see (ftill retaining the supposition, for the appearances, the mariner pursues his course, truth of which we kave the pledge of Infinite

G&82

Wife eloquently to the found mind ; it appears the Hifiory of the Commerce of both the laditi, animated to the feeling heart ; it preferves and all those grand compositions which do peace of mind, and even restores it when dit- honour to the preseat age, seem to be proturbedd; it diffipates mean and haughty par. duced under the happy influence of hamlets, frons, the torments of men in the bufle of life, and the waving shade of foretts. and calms the violent convulsions coucupis- Could cities furnish, in their narrow bounds, cence inspires. The country is the parent those ravishing scenes which are so bountiof virtuous sentiments ; and independent of ful to the poet's pens, and more so to pbillothe natural advantages it procures, such as pher's meditations, when the ruddy clouds wholesome food, tranquillity, pure air, wbich melt and embrace the lofty circular heads of restore or improve health, it has many re

the tallest trees; when the sparkling rays dismarkable moral advantages ; the more play, by their prodigious refrangibility, all the Thameful vices avoid of themselves that afy- dazzling pomp of the fun; when the lighi, lum where the woods, the graffy verdure, increasing its ardent fire, swiftly transforms the fields, the blooming bedges, seem form- one landscape into another, by the ardent vied for simple taste and peaceful virtue. gour of its cints; when meadows, in those

The country! the poets have sung it, the rapid moments, are metamorphosed even to painters have transmitted it on canvas, philo. the proprietor's eye, who Nands astonished, fophers have extolled it ! More happy the and scarcely recognises the place the foft mild man who, enamoured with its attractions, ray of dawn enlightened ; so forcibly is the contemplates it, knows how to enjoy its va- magic of those striking lively colours, such a rious treasures, and preserve his mcrals pure, magnificent and no less admirable diversity refpiring the balsamic fragrant air, and every does it imprint on the same ohjects! morning treading tlie odoriferous plants. And at night, when the tranquillake re

Who has not felt the neceility of visiting flects the silver face of the moon and brilliant the country, at least on the return of fine stars; when the light clouds that surround it weather, when the tender green turf, the ear- pas like moving images, on the clear furly melody of birds, the active rays of the sun face of the waters beneath the contemplator's haften vegetation, and call upon the most in- feet; when he hears the lengthened cry of different being to admire the nidden hand that the night bird ;-when he sees the smoothi but spreads the tufted grass, unfolds the shoots, trembling lake reproduce the fresh landscape furnithes the trees with budis impatient to he around him; where could he meet such comopened, and which will soon adorn the leaves plete repose, such soft tranquillity? where with fruit and fowers ?

can he so well feel the voluptuous sentiment Enchanting picture ! spectacle, more of an indefinite reverie? interesting than all which art can offer ! How In the morning, when the atmosphere is pleasing it is to gather the first bouquet of vi- clear, when the silver clouds are scattered olets by the side of a serpentine rivulet, gent- over the horizon, like woolly fleeces, he fees ly watering the mofly ground; and to have the labourer already in the field pretting the the foot moistened with the fresh and spark- plough share, breaking the clod, and marking ling dew at the dawn of a fine day in spring, out the deep and straight furrow frou and the series of fine days that are to come to whence the golden Harvest is to rise; he perpetuate the innocent pleasures of man! smiles with joy at the seeds of fertility con

It is in the country that writers acquire fided to the maternal bosom of the earth. more elevated and sublime ideas, become

Tell the blind insensate, that this husband. more energetic and moving ; it is there that man, by daily renewing bis labour, gains the generous works are compofed, that is to fay, noblest conquests over na!ure, and contne thore relztive to the plan of public happiness. butes more than any oiher to the splendour, In the country our thoughts are necesarily led prosperity, vigour, and life of the state, by to the largest portion of the human rice; producing the principal objets of neceility! they are visible, they are present before our and yet he is deprelfed by idle and in iolent eyes, bending under the yoke, and labourig arrogance; his laborious hands, that steer the at the first works of necesity, those primitise plough and wield the nourishing (pade, are works, which ever awaken and recil fimple debased and banithed to the very lowest cijfs ideas, productive of great ones; whilft in ci- of society. Were it not for those callous ties the arts, perhaps too refined in our time, hands, dearth, poverty, famine, and forrow, pursue the niceties of form, to attract and would devour the great in their fumptuous please, for a moment, the forrowful eye of palaces. But such is the incredible injustice, the wealthy.

such the absurdity of man, that to be useful In populous cities they write voluptuous to him is to be unworthy in his Sgbt. romances, lighe elegant verses, and comedies Manual labour, the first exercise of man, in an affected Itile ; but the Natural Hiftory, the sacred employment of the ancient pairi

arvis,

ordained by the Almighty himself ; labour, ty of arrogant disdain, the crime of opulence ; the only power on earth that can vivify and they have all unanimously exclaimej, Immora put idle matter in motion, is looked upon as sul boncur to faci ed agriculture! They have al. a disgraceful employment in our degenerate ways revered it in their writings; the plough days; while the unjust financier, the cruel has been a hallowed object with themfoldier, the indolent citizen, dares to take They have celebrated princes that handled it precedency over the man who, by giving with pomp and solemnity on certain annual the first motion to the fap, has more just ob- festivals. Virgil, even in the court of Aufervations in his head, and more hospitable gustus, has described the harrow, the mattock, virtues in his heart, than those who view the fpade, the rake, the plough which lays him with disdain ; a disdain which can only the earth equally on both sides; and all the here be repaid with contempt; for that kind writers whom I stile munificent, have preferof disdain ought to be considered with the red the implements of rustic fimplicity to all greatest justice, as the last stage of human the ornaments of luxury and favour, that the frenzy. The husbandman, who affects only corruption of morals and the arts could offer. an equality, does not go to the door of a Those judicious interpreters of the public courtier lo beg an employment, nor expose voice will be held in greater csteen as the himself to the insulting ridicule of a clerk in world becomes more enlightened ; they had office, the insidious dispenser of favours he the courage to celebrate, with all their powers, has purchased by the meanest acts; he the labours of agriculture ; they have knows the earth will supply his wants, and restored dignity to the grey-headed man, who he is attached to her all-nourishing bosom. during fixty years procured raiment and sub. -Alas! what will the vain and haughty be- fiftence to his equals, and, as an additional beings, who, decorated with the livery of luxu- nefit, has given his country his own children ry, and are its perpetual Naves, set up in op- for hardy and tractable soldiers--Must not pofition! Do they dare think themselves fu- this countryman appear to be, in the view of perior to him. What, alas! will they set up? a philosopher, after so many sacrifices, la · Too well we learn from experience, idleness, bours and fatigues, the real Allas, supporting vice, and crimes.

the whole weight of the globe on his truly Philosophical writers have never been guil- laborious shoulders ?

THE

LONDON REVIEW,

A N D

LITERARY JOURNAL.

Quid for surpe, quid uile, quid dulce, quid non. Eermons preached before the Hon. Societies of the Inner and Middle Temple, by the late Wil.

liam Stafford Done, D.D. Prebendary of Lincoln, and Archdeacon of Bedford. Publithed by the Rev. R. Shepherd, B. D. F. R. S, Archdeacon of Bedford. 8vo. 6s. Flexney. 1786.

THE Rev. Editor, after paying a complio ence before whom they were preached ;

ment to the taste of the age, which, he men of learning, who are in the constant says, readily listens to lessons of virtue and in- habit of pursuing arguments, of detecting falle. struction ; and bestowing that tribute of praise hood, and investigating truth. They are which they so eminently deserve on the Ser- chiefly argumentative ; and if the arguments mons published by Dr. Blair, Mr. White, fometimes appear too abstracted, even when and the Bishop of Chester,“ which through most abftrufe they discover in the author a the understanding make their way to the full posseflion of his subject. They are al. lieart, the road that discourses from the ways ingenious; and, if not always new, his pulpit should take;" gives the following chae method of producing them makes them pecuracter of the present work:

liarly his own.” To this opinion we heartily “ The nature of the discourses now offered subscribe, and fincerely recommend them to to the public, is happily adapted to the audi- all who are capable of foilowing the author

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