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mer in order to lay it up for their winter's these substances act, is not, perhaps, eafily ftock.
explained ; but as the use of them would, These facts lead to the confideratiou of the doubtless, cause an accumulation of fimilar question, whether salted meat be prejudicial parts in the body, and as we find all animals an account of the quantity of salt it contains; destined to endure the severe cold of the or merely hecause the falc fails to preserve arctic climates, are copioufly furnished with the juices of the flesh in such a state as to af- fat, we may conclude, that it possesses fome ford proper nutriment? The latter, I believe, peculiar efficacy in defending from the imis the more prevalent opinion ; yet, I con- pressions of cold. fels, I cannot but think, that sea-falt itself, With respect to the warm rein-deer's blood, when taken in large quantities, must prove
which the Russian sailors seem to have thought unfriendly to the body. The septic quality To falutary, and the use of which is confirmoffmall proportions of salt mixed with animal ed in one of the quotations ; if it has any mulers (and small proportions only can be particular effect in preventing the scuivy, bereceived into the juices of a living animal) has yond that of the juices extracted from recent been proved by the well-known experiments animal feth by cookery or digestion, it must ei Sir Julin Pringle. but besides this ic may probably reside in some unasimilated parti. prove hurtful, by the acrimonious and cor- cles, derived from the vegetable food of the rohte property with which it may impreg- animal, and Itill retaining considerably of a nite the fluids. It is universally allowed, vegetable nature. It is well known that the due much salt and salted meats are very chyle does not immediately lose its peculiar preulicial in the disorders vulgarly called properties, and mix undistinguishably with fcorbutic amongst us ; which, though in ma- the blood ; and that the milk, that secretion Dy refpects different from the genuine sea. the most speedily and abundantly separated kurvy, yet resemble this disease in many from the blood, poflelles many properties in lexing symptoms, as laifitude, livid blotches, common with vegetable substances.
As to ipingy gums, and disposition to hæmorrhage. their other preservative, the swallowing of And lome of the symptoms of the sea-scurvy raw frozen meat, I am at a loss to account fcem to indicate a Juline, and not a simple püs for any falutary effects it may have, except rid acrimony; such as that of the disjoining as an aliment rendered enfy of digestion, by or bmes formerly broken ; in which case, the the power of frost in making subítances tene divus matter of the callus is probably redir- der. folved by the faline principle contained in To proceed to the next important article, the animal Auids. On the other hand, it that of drink. It appears, that in all the unseems to be a fact, that several of the nor. successful instances, vinous and spirituous lie them nations, whose diet is extremely putrid, quors were used, and probably in considerable ( before hinted with respect to the people quantņties. Thus, in one of the Dutch jourof Kamtschatka) are able to preserve them. nals, notice is taken, that an allowance of felves from the scurvy; therefore putrid ali- brandy began to be served to each man as Hients alone will not necessarily induce it. foon as the middle of September. Writers
On the whole, on an attentive considera- on the scurvy seem almost unanimously to contion of the facts which have been recited, fyder a portion of these liquors as an useful some of which are upon a pretty extensive addition to the diet of persons exposed to the kale, 1 cannot but adop: the opinion, that causes of this disease ; and due deference the use of jea-sult is a very principal cause of ought certainly to be paid to their knowledge be farvy; and that a total abstinency from it, and experience : but, convinced as I am, ise of the most important means fy preventing that art never made so fatal a present to man.
kind as the invention of distilling spirituous & confiderable article of the diet of the liquors, and that they are seldom or never a tght coglifhmen, though necessity alone necessary, but almost always a pernicious arFuld have brought them to use it, was pro- ticle in the diet of men in health, I cannot bably of confiderable service in preventing the but look with peculiar satisfaction on the diorders to which their situation rendered confirmation this opinion receives by the them liablç. This was the avbuld's fritters, events in these narratives. which, though deprived of great part of their Indeed, from reasoning alone, we might eil
, taust fill contain no small share of it. naturally be led to the fame conclufion. A All voyagers agree, that the Samoides, Ef- great degree of cold renders the fibres rigid ; qu:maux, Greenlanders, and other inhabie and by repelling the blood and nervous tants of the polar regions, make great use of principle from the surface of the body, inthe fat and oil of fish and marine animals in creases the vital energy of the internal organs. their diet, and indeed can scarcely subfift Hence, the heart contracts more forcibly, without them. In what precise manner
and the stomach has its warmth and mufcu.
lar action augmented. In these circumftan- notwitbftanding their weak and fickly ftate, ces, stimulants and astringents seem by no they had nearly completed, before they found means indicated; but rather substances of an the work unnecessary. The three Ruffians opposite nature. We have acquired by asso- on Eaft Spitzbergen who survived, are exciation the idea 'of oppofing actual cold by prestly said to have used much exercise by matters potentially or metapborically hot ; but way of preservative ; as also, according to this is in great measure a fallacious notion, Counsellor Muller, do those who winter in On the contrary, it is found that the effects of Nova Zembla. A difficulty, however, here exceflive heat are best resisted by warm and accurs; which is, that we know it to be the acrid substances, such as the spicy and aromatic custom of the inhabitants of the very norvegetables which the hot climates most abun- thern regions, to spend their long winter night dantly produce, and which are so much uted almost entirely under ground ; seeming, in in the diet of the inhabitants. And if it be that respect, to imitate the animals of the admitted as a general law of nature, that country, which lie torpid in their holes and every country yields the products best adapte dens during the winter. From the journal ed to the health and sustenance of its inhabic of the eight Englishmen, too, I should juuge, tants, we should conclude, that aromatic ve- that they were inactive during the greatest getables and fermented liquors are peculiar- part of the time that the sun was invisible. ly appropriated to the warmer climates ; But it is to be remarked, that in these inwhile bland, oily animal matters are rather stances, what I consider as the most powerdesigned for the use of the frigid regions. ful cause of the scurvy, the use of salted proSpirits, as antiseptics, may, indeed, seem to visions, did not exist ; and therefore less be indicated u here there is a neceflity of li powerful preservatives would be necessary. ving upon corrupted putrescent flesh; but Further, the English crow had a very scanty they cannot act in this way without, at the allowance of provision of any kind; which lame time, rendering the food harder and would, doubtless, take off from the neceility more indigeftible, and, consequentiy, lefsen- of much exercise. Thus, the animals which ing the quantity of nutriment to be derived Neep out the winter, take in no nutriment from it. The temporary glow and elevation whatsoerer, and therefore are not injured by caused by spirituous liquors are, I imagine, absolute reit. very fallacious tokens of their good effects; Exercise is probably serviceable, both by as they are always succeeded by a greater re- promoting the discharge of effete and cora verse, and tend rather to consume and ex- rupted particles by excretion, and by aug. hauft, than to feed and invigorate, the genu- menting the animal heat. As far as cold ine principle of vital energy. Another ex- in itíelf can be supposed a cause of disease, tremely pernicious eftect of these liquors, is, its effects will be most directly opposed by the indolence and stupidity they occasion, increasing the internal or external heat. rendering men inattentive to their own pre- And this leads to the consideration of the fur, servation, and unwilling to use those exer- ther means for guarding against and tempertions, which are so peculiarly necessary in ing the intense severity of the wintry air in situations like those described in the foregoing there climates. narratives. And this leads me to the confi- It appears from the journals of the unfor. deration of a third important head, that of tunate sufferers in these attempts, that they Exercise.
endured great miseries from the cold ; their The utility of regular and vigorous exer- fuel soon proving insufficient for their con: cise to men exposed to the causes inducing sumption, and their daily increasing weakness scurvy, is abundantly confirmed by experi- preventing them from searching for more, or ence. Captain Cook seems to attribute his keeping their fires properly supplied. On remarkable success in preserving the health the other hand, the English and Ruflians bad of his crew, more to great attention to this not only made their huis very sulu ntial, point, than to any other circumstance. but had secured plentiful supplies of fuel. This opinion is greatly corroborated by And the nations who constantly inhabit the the relations before mentioned, Captain arctic regions, are represented as living in an Monck's crew, wintering with their ships actually warm atmosphere in their subter. in safety before them, and well surn th- raneous dwellings, and guarded by impeneed (wih all kinds of sei-ftores, could have trable coverings when they venture abroad. little occasion for labour. The two compa- The animals, too, which retire during the nies of Dutchmen seem to have done little winter, are alu a s found in close caveros or during their melancholy abode, but drink deep burrows, rolled up, and frequently brandy, and imuke tobacco orer their fires. beaped together in numbers, so as to preOn the other hand, Captain James's men serve a considerable degree of warmth. Of tvere very sufficiently employed in the labo. the several methods of procuring heat, there rious talk of builuing their pionne, which can be little doubt, that warm clothing, and the mutual contact of animal bodies, must be These are the most material observations the most friendly, as being most equable, that have occurred to me, on reflecting upon and not inviting such an influx of cok air, the remarkable histories and facts before reas is caused by the burning of an artificial Jated. I would fitter myself that they fore. And the advantage of subterraneous might aslift in the framing of such rules and bodgings is proved by the well-known fait of precautions, as would render the success of the unchanging temperature of the air at any future attempts of the like kind less certain depths beneath the surface.
Extract from An ESSAY on the PLEASURE which the MIND receives from the
EXERCISE of its FACULTIES, and that of TASTE in PARTICULAR. BY CHARLES DE POLIER, Esq. Read Feb. 27, 1582.
[From the SAME.] THE agreeable sensations we receive from inculcate, however forcibly expresied, da
the productions of the fine arts, are, in not easily reçur to the memory : and I dare a great measure, owing to the order and say, that for one person who remembers a symmetry, which enable the mind to take passage from Milion, Young, or Akonid, in, without labour, all the different parts of there are twenty who will quote some froin them. It is by this, that rbyme becomes agree. Pope, Dryder, or Prior. able in poetry. Some have contended, indeed, This controversy has long been decided in me this return of the same sounds, invented France, where, not withstanding the strenuous in the Gothic ages, ought to be classed among efforts of one of its greatest poets (Moonfieur the Acrostics, Anagrams, and such other de la Motte) rhyme has kept in poetry the scivolous productions, whose only merit lies dominion which the nature of the French in their difficulty. They instance the Greeks language incontestably gave it. and ibe Romans, whofe poetry, far more In England, where a Shakespeare and a harmonious than ours, charms the lense, Milton have written, the matter seems yet and delights the ear, without the help of to be sub judice. It would ill beconie me, rhyme. But they do not seem to have at - as a young man, and a foreigner, to be that tended sufficiently to the use of poetry, and judge; but I may be indulged in supporting the nature of the ancient languages. Verses what I have alludged here in favour of rhyme, are made to be sung, or to be rehearsed. by the opinion of the best critic now living From the mouth of the actor, the musician, in this nation, Dr. Jobsson; who, admiring or the reader, whoever he may be, they are the powers of Milton, and the amazing digsupposed to pass into the minds of a whole nity given to his sentiments, by a verliticapeople; and their composition is the more tion which he otherwise rather disapproves, perfect, the more readily they present them, adds, “ He that thinks himself capable of selves to the memory.
astonishing, may write blank verle: but The Greek and Latin tongues, by means those that hope only to please, must conof their long and short fyllables, and the va- descend to rhyme."* rious measures into which they may be re. Another general objection has been brought duced, form a kind of chaunt, melody or noted against rhyme. “ How comes it, says Monair, which the memory can easily lay hold sieur de la Motte, that this monotony, whiala of; and therefore, the return of the same you affirm to be, by its nature, so agreeabic lounds becoming useless, would cause nothing in poetry, is almost constantly so unpleasant þut a disagreeable repetition.
in a sister art, in music?" To this might be Our modern languages have not the same answered, that the chief object of the mua. advantage, or possess it, at least, in a much cian being to delight by the Counds, he can. less degree. The blank verse if the English, not fucceed better than by varying them German, and Italian, except in very few judiciousy: whereas a Poet is not satisfied shining exceptions, seems to be verse only to with charming the ears of his audience ; be be sys, or depends at least so much on the wishes to impress on their memory a series filfulness of the reader, as not to obtain the of ideas, of sensiments, of exprellions; and effect above-mentioned, with by far the there are none of his verses which he would greatest part of those who read them. Poems not be glad to engrave, with indelible chawhere it is used, are not popular : the ideas racters, on the hearts of all mankind. He avails they convey, the sentiments they mean to himself, therefore, of the rhyme which
Dr. Jobnson's Life of Miltos.
modern languages offer him, as the most in order to set off the beauty of a Demus, a favourable help towards the attaining of his Grace, or an Apolls, used to place them in a purpose.
niche formed in the statue of a Fawr, or a 11 But to returu to our subject, from which Satyr; and Virgil, in order to paint more I must beg pardon for having wandered so strongly the agitation of Dids's heart, places far. Imitation, which is the principle of the scene of her agonies in the night, when all the fine arts, is another species of fyin- Alorpheus spread his peaceful influence over metry, whether it acts by means of colour, all the rest of mankind. of founds, of gestures, or of words. The There are, besides symmetry, certain ree objects it presents, casily take hold of our lations or proportions, which the mind easily imagination, by the comparison we make conceives, and which therefore become of them with objects already known to us. agreeable. Thus, in architecture, for in.
Ariftotle and his followers lave maintain- stance, the height of the porticos, in regu. ed, that the pleasure produced in the mind, lap buildings, is double the breadth : the by the representation of any object, was height of the entablature, is a fourth, and oring to its acquiring, by that means, a that of the pedestal, a third of the height of new degree of knowledge. This opinion the column. All eminent architects, among seems wrong, because it allows no difference the different proportions adapted to their de between a juft and an unfair representa- fign, have always made choice of those ticn; nor any gradation of pleasure, from wbich the mind could comprehend without the different degrees of execution. The any difficulty. The same may be observed mind every way makes a new acquisition of in music. Of all concords, the unison and kootyledge, and must, therefore, receive the atave should be the most agreeable, heassecable fenfations alike, front the Iliud of cause they excitę more vibrations in the fibres umrer, and the Thebaid of Statius; the pic- of the ear : but the pleasure we receive from tures of Raphael, ard those of a sign-painter; this enchanting art, depends more on the the mufic of lluniel, and the uncouth potes mind, than on the organ adapted to convey dan Brith piper.
it. The fifrb is the most agreeable of all Other philosophers have asserted, that the concords, because it presents to the mind a representation of an subject pleases, only by its proportion, the finding out of which gives increiding the pasions. And so far it is it a degree of exercise, that causes no wearie tvis, lot the foul cannot be moved, or ness, consequently no disgust. strongly affected, without it. But does not Some compositions there are in music, even the learnt interesting object make a night which please only profound musicians, and imprellion of pleasure, at least on the sur- ftrike, perhaps, the rest of the hearers as face of the soul, if it is well represented, ha: 1h and discordant. May not this be owand if an exakt symmetry is to be seen be- ing to the very fine taste of the former, by tween the picture and the original ? Every which they are enabled, in the midst of boly must have felt it; and it proceeds from seeming diffonances, to find out relations, this principal law is the nature of our sen- which do not affect ears less exercised than sations that any object becomes agreeable, theirs ? whose parts are lo formed, and so disposed, The analogy which we find in all the as to present the mind with an easy, clear, works of nature, allows us to conjecture, and liftinct idea of the whole.
that the same law which determines the What is called Contrast in painting, poe. agreeableness of sounds, bas also an influence try, and eloquence, is another fort of sym. upon other objects, of our senses. Some comerry, which, by bringing con:rary cbjects lours, for instance, set together, give an pear to each other, sets off the featuris of agreeable sensation to the eye, and more' ía the one, by the comparison we make of than if they appeared single. The same them uith the features of the other. This principle may, perhaps, be extended ta relation has been taken from nature, in (meils, and to savours, with some restricwhore works it feldom fails of having a tions, however ; for, though it may be gepleasing effect. It is from it, that the views nerally asserted, that those which are faluin Switzerland, and in other mountainous brious are agreeable, yet it must be owned, countries, are so particularly agreeable, that their agreeableness does not always seem The didimilitude of the objects which the to depend on their falubrity. eye
en braces, renders them all more strik- But it is not just proportion and symmee ing, and helps the mind to get a clearer idea trical relation alone that renders the works of the whole. Thus, when skilfully ap- of the fine arts agreeable. They are chiefly plied to the productions of art, contrast is made fo, by one principal object, or comgenerally attended with great success. We mon end, to which all their different parts accordingly riad, lliät the ancient sculptors, are adapted, and which enables the mind the
inore easily to comprehend, and to retain human powers, which Michael Angelo, himthem.
felf a wonder of modern times, used to call Wisdom, in morality, has been defined a miracle of art, This description I shall, The having one good purpose in view, and for the most part, take from a French book, using the best means to attain that purpose. which deserves to be better known in this So beauty, in the imitative arts, might be country, from whence so many annually go faid to confift in the choice of a good object, to visit the claffical ground of Italy, and so and in making every thing tend to the ex. many in vain, from the want of proper prelfion of it, as to one common end. Cer- guides : I mean, Le Description biftorique et cain it is, that this correspondence of the critique de l'Italie, par Monf. l'Abbé Ricbard, parts with the whole, is to be considered as
6 vol. 12mo. Paris 1769. In English, A1 The first and principal cause of agreeable historical and critical Description of Italy. fensations. It is alone sufficient to give By Abbé Richard, 6 vols. 12 mo. beauty to the most fimplc objects; and, if The group of Laocoon was found in tlie other embellishments are wanted, it becomes Tbermes, or Barbs of. Titus, about the year the standard of their propriety, and the rule 1506, under the pontificate of Julius II. by which we can determine, whether they who iminediately bought it from the poffeffor are real beauties, or only shining blemishes. of the field, where it had been dug out, But to give the mind an easier and more The figures are higher than nature, and of Agreeable perception of the object, art has so beautiful white marble, that the sight of fill gone farther. Among all these parts, it alone charms the eye. The workmane which are made to refer to one common fhip is exquisite, of such a noble style, and etd, a principal one is chosen, to which all such a correctness of execution, as bespeak others are subordinate, and which becomes it a work of the best Grecian age. It is aut like a center of re-union for them. Archi- the Laocoon described by Virgi!, as rending lecture can illustrate this. Unacquainted the sky with his shrieks, fruggling hard for with the real beauties of their art, the Go. his life, and roaring, like a bull flying from thic architects never failed to place, on both the altar where he has been wounded. fides of the body of their buildings, such enormous wings, or rather malles of Itone,
« Clamores fimul horridos ad fidera tollit, 2 almost totally eclipsed it, and kept the Quales musicus, fugit cùm saucius aras light divided and undetermined. Bromante, Taurus."
VIRO, Æneid. II. Palladio, and after them mott of the modern
“ His roaring fills the flicting air around. architects, taught, perhaps, by Villkvius, Thus, when an ox receives a glancing woun', but certainly more acquainted than their pre. He breaks his bands, the fatal altar flies, decetiors with what would strike the eyes And with loud bellowings breaks the yieldagreeably, have placed, in the middle of
DRYDEX. their buildings, a principal part, which, eminent above the relt, gives the right a It is not that man, execrated by a whole fixed point, from which it can glance over people for hiving discharged a pear agzınt all the reft, and so enable the mind to get, the horse consecrated to Minerva, and whom at once, a clear and distinct idea' of the
the vengeance of the Gods puriues : whole,
All sculptors, in those works where the “ Scelus expendisse merentem Eye might be divided by the number of Laocoonta ferunt, facrum, qui culpide rohur
Virc. ibid. figures, such as groups, entaglios, balto-re- Læserit." liivsi, shew great attention to this rule, and
" The general cry always chase a principal object, to fix the
Proclaims Laocoon juilly dooni'l to die, fight of the beholders. The three Rbodian
Whose hand the will of Pallas had witblood, artists, whose joint work, according to the
And dar'd to violate the sacred wood :" elder Pliny, * bas produced the famous group
DRYDEN. of Laccoon, which now stands in the Belvi. dere at Rome, seem to have had that principle it is a wretched parent, who feels his strongly in view, in the disposition of their strength exhausted, and is ready to link une figures. The Society, I trust, will forgive der the accumulated weight of exquisite prin me, if, by way of illustration, I here join a and deep-felc affliction. His mouth lialf description of that celebrated monument of opened, and his eyes lifted up to heaven,
« Sicut in Laocoonte, qui est in Titi domo, opus omn b is, et picturæ et fa uariæ artis, anteferendum, ex uno lapide, cum et liberos, draconum mirabiles nexus, de Cootilii teatencia fecere, fummi Artifices, Agriander, Polidorus, et Athenedorus, Rhodii."
Pan. Klitt. Nat. Lib. XXXVI. cap. 5,