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feem to call for affistance from the Gods, more agreeable to the mind, if a multitude though despair at the sames instant over: of persons were collected together in the whelms him at the right of luis own fate, fame picture, and were made to contribute and that of his unfortunate fons, half smo- to one and the same action ; and upon that thered and devoured by the monsters, who idea he formed the plan of the epic poem. crush them all three, The exprellion of that Many years after him, Æschylus, the first group is admirable: but the sculptors have who gave some order and some propriety to diftinguished a principal cbject in it: for, the drama, took from the epic poem. the although the fons are equally well executed, plan of tragedy, which he made to be, the and the one to the left in particular claims representation of an event unfolded in all its our sympathy, by the horrid state of pain in circumttances. That great Poet likewise which he is represented, (one of the serpents underltood that this representation would beginning to tear open his fide) yet the father far more please the mind, if all the scenes of attracts the chief notice, He is that princi- it were connected by some principal action, pal part of the whole, to which all others which would help the memory to retain are referred ; and it is by that judicious sub- them easily. ordination and reference, that the artists He carried, moreover, this idea still farhave found means to impress the spectator ther, and to the unity of action joined those with all the sentiments they meant to con- of time and place. Sopbocles and Euripides, vey, and u bich, without labour to the mind, but especially the former, followed him give it all the pleasure such a representation pretty strictly, and Aristotle drew his rules is able to produce.

from their practice. Swayed by the authoThe pleasure we receive from a good rity of great names, and, perhaps, led away painting, is also chiefly owing to this subor- too far by this principle, that there is a pleadination of parts, and reference of them to Sure inherent in whatever enables the mind the principal object. Painters call it compo- to get a clear and distinct perception of the fition; and those masters bave obtained the object presented to it, the French critics defirst rank among them, who have been moft fended, and the French dramatic poets wrote attentive to it. It was Rapbael's and Rubens' after, these rules. In England, the amazing forte ; and being the happy re!ult of great genius of Shakej peare, probably unacquainted genius, combined with a well cultivated taste, with Arifiotle and his precepts, having early, is always sure of causing the moft agreeable and in general happily, soared above all re1ensacions to the mind that contemplates the Atraints, gave, perhaps, a bias to the taste of effects of it.

the nation ; or a sanction, at least, to future In poetry, but particularly in epic and dramatic authors, for not attending scrupulously dramatic performances, the observation or tothestrict unities. There, however, were alto neglect of this ruls becomes, likewise, the defended by the Englijh critics, and, in theo. left of the pleasure they afford to a person of ry, admitted by the best poets : but the talte. The different actors that appear in the practice did not correspond ; and there is narration, or on the scene, muft all concur not a theatre at present in Europe, in which in their different stations to let off the main theic rules are less observed. object, and keep the altention fixed upon it; I do not mean this as an absolute re. or else, the mind, diftracted with a multipli- proach. Convinced, as I am, that the city of objects, that seem to lay an equal pleasures of the heart are much superior to claim to its notice, and perhaps to its feelings, those of the mind, I think, that rules inventgrows weary, disgusted, and indifferent to ed to give eate and pleature to the latter, may them all. Unity of action, in painting and in ontsta be sacrificed to a multitude of interest. poetry, is another consequence of the atten- ing events and situations, that raste Itrong tion of artists to the principle I meant to il. emotions in the former, and strike it forci. lustrate. For nothing can be more satisfac- bly. But, at the same time, illution being tory to the mind, than to take in, as it were, the charm of theatrical representations, care with a glance, a multitude of facts connected ought to be taken not to dettroy it, nor die together, by their mutual relation to fome nimith the concern and sympathy of the great and important action. One may intro. spectators, by too great a deviation from prubaduce, indeed, in a poem, several tables ur bilicy. If, on the Itage, an old man were to play plots, and collect in it, as it were in a gallery the part of a young one; is, the icene hemg ia of pictures, a series of portra:cs. It is what a palace, the sceneries were to present trees Ovid, Satius, A jojo, Sbaki/peare in his hif. and landscapes to our view ; it the dretes did torical plays, and several ouers, have done. not correspond, in some degree, to the dig. But, many centuries before the oldest of them, nity of the persons represented; all these dile the great genius of Homer bad conceived, cordances would offend us. what it would be presenting a spectacle far The anis applicable to the deviation from the tfiree mnities. If, in a drama, the connected with the principal action, or elle principal actions are multiplied, if in the they become great blemishes. Milion, in this space of a few hours many centuries are respect, as indeed in many others, has the made to elapfe, if the spectator is transport- advantage over Homer and Virgil. His epied in an instant from one part of the world fode of the battle of angels, and the creation to another, all these absurdities become so of the world, is more intimately connected many warnings against the falsity of the spec. with his {ubject, than the description of tacle ; and a voice seems to illue out of them, Achilles' Thield, or even the descent of Æneas which bids us not to give sincere tears to into hell. Far from breaking the unity of feigned misfortunes.

action, it rather strengthens it, by making Such are the arguments of the critics who us acquainted with the cause of what we have follow the rules of Aristotle. Lord Kaims, on read, and of what is to follow. It is therethe other fide, proves, from the different nature fore productive of great mental enjoyment, of the Grecian and the modern drama, that as there is no relation that pleases the mind the unities of time and place are by no more, than that of cause and effect. means lo necessary with us, as they were This great rule, of the unity of action, is with the ancients.

an insaperable objection to tragi-comedy; The interruption of the representation, on and inattention to it shocks persons of taste in our theatre, between the different acts, gives some of our best plays. In the Provoked Hufthe mind a facility of supposing any length of bard, for instance, all the scenes relating to the time, or change of place ; and it becomes family of the Wrong beads, however laughable, nk more difficult for the spectator at the and characteristic in themselves, are certain. beginning of an act to imagine a new place, ly to be accounted blemishes, because they or a different time, than it was at first, to stop the side of sentiment raised by the inte. imagine himself at Athens, or in a period of resting scenes between a sensible, loving, time two thousand years back.

and justly incensed husband, and a giddy, exBut the same freedom cannot be taken travagant, though good-natured wife. with the unity of action. The pleasure This dissertation on the anities will also which the mind, as we observed above, re- be looked upon, I fear, as an excrescence to ceives from a chain of facts connected toge- this paper, ali eady too long; but I indulged ther, and tending to one common end, ren. myself in it with the thought that it might, ders this unity effential, alike in epic and probably, give room to some interesting condramatic compositions. Every thing, how. versation—the avowed purpose of the eff.ays ever beautiful in itself, that breaks this chain, presented to this Society—and in that light, I of interrupts this relation, looks like an ex- beg, and I hope for your indulgence. crescence, and becomes unpleasant. An epic From what has been read, it will appear, poem with two principal actions, like a that regularity and contrasi, proportion and play with two main plots, would soon confuse congruiry, uniformity, variery, and fimplicity, and tire the reader and the spectator ; and so far in the objects presented to the mind, give it do the rules of Ariflotle agree with nature, an exercise, which is attended with neither An episode and an under-plot may be allowed trouble nor fatigue, and wich is therefore for the sake of variety ; but they must be agreeable.

MEMOIRS of the LIFE and WRITINGS of the late celebrated L. EULER.

matics, Member of the Imperial Aca. himself, with success, to the mathematics, demy of Petersburg, ancient Director of the under the celebrated James Bernouili; and, Royal Academy of Berlin, and Fellow of the though he designed his son for the ministry, Royal Society of London, as also Correfpondo le initiated him into this science, among the tot Member of the Royal Academy of Scie other instructions of his early education. Ences at Paris, was born at Balil, April 15th, When young EULER was sent to the Uni1767, of reputable parents. The years of versity of Baril, he ittended regularly the his infancy were palled in a rural retredt, different Professors. As his memury was pica where the examples of pious and virtuous digious, he performed his academical tasks parents contributed, no doubt, to form in him with uncommon rapidicy, and all the time that amable simplicity of character, and un- he gained by this was consecrated to geomecommon punty of sentiments and manners, try, which foon became his favourite study. which were manifefted during the whole The early prout is he made in this science, Curse of his life.

only added new ardour to his application ; Though the Audies of his father were and thus he obtained a distinguished place in cluefly directed toward branches of kuow- the attention and esteem of Profesior John ledge that had a more immediate relation to Bernoulli, who was, at that time, one of the ECROP. MAG



first mathematicians in Europe. EULER be- M. EULER's merit would have given him came his favourite pupil. He was struck an easy admision to honourable preferment, with a kind of aston ihment at the aipiring .either in the magistracy or university of his genius and rapid progress of the young ma- native city, if both civil and academical hothematician: and as his own occupations nours had not been there distributed by lot. would not admit of his giving the ardent pu- The lot being against him in a certain propil so much of his time as EULER desired, motion, he left his country, set out for Pehe appointed one day in the week for re- teriburgh, and was made joint professor with moving the difficulties which bis difciple had his countrymen, Messrs. Hermann and Demet with in perusing the works of the inost niel Bernoulli, in the univerfity of that profound matlematicians.

city. In 1723, M. EULER took his degree as

At his first setting out in his new career, he Master of Arts, and delivered on that occa

enriched the academical collection with many lion a Latin discourse, in which he drew a

Memoirs, which excited a noble emulation

between him and M. D. Bernoulli; and this comparison between the philosophy of Newton and the Cartehan system, which was re- emulation always continued, without either deceived with the greatest applause. He after generating into a selfish jealoufy, or producing wards, at his father's desire, applied himself the least alteration in their friendship. It to the (tudy of theology, and the Oriental

was at this time that he carried to new delanguages. Though these studies were fo. grees of perfection the integral calculux, inreign to his predominant propensity, his suc

vented the calculation of sinulles, reduced cess was considerable, even in this line : how- analytical operations to a greater fimplicity, ever, with his father's consent, he returned

and thus was enabled to throw new light on to geometry, as his principal object, He all the parts of mathematical science, continued to avail himself of the counsels and In 1730, he was promoted to the Profelinstructions of M. Bernoulli ; he contracted forship of Natural Philofophy; and in 1733 an intimate friendship with his cwo sons, he succeeded his friend D. Bernoulli in tlie Nicholas and Daniel, and it was in confe- mathematical chair. In 1735, a problem quence of these connections, that he became was proposed by the Academy, which reafterwards the principal ornament of the quired expedition, and for the folution of Academy of Petersburg.

which several eminent mathematicians bad

demanded the space of some months. The The project of erecting this Academy had

problem was solved by EULER in three days, been formed by Peter the Great; it was exe

to the great astonishinent of the Academy; cuted by Catherine I. : and the two young

but the violent and laborious efforts it cuit Bernoullis, being invited to Petersburg in 1725, promited Euler, who was defirums of him threw him into a fever

, which endan.

gered his life, and deprived him of the use of following them, that they would use their ut

his right eye. most endi avours to procure for him an advan

The Academy of Sciences at Paris, which, tageous icttlement in that city. In the mean time, by their advice, he applied himself moir Concerning ibi nature and properties of

in 1738, had a ljudged the prize to his mewith ardour to the study of philology, to which he mide a happy application of his portant subject of the sea-tides, a problem

fire, propoted, for the year 1740, the ini. mathematical knowledge; and he attended the niedical lectures of the most eminent calculations, and comprehended the theory

whose solution required the most arducus Hofeiturs of Baril.

of the solar lyttem. Euler's discourse on This study, however, did not wholly en- this question was adjudged a master-piece of gro's lois time : it did not even relax the analysis and geometry; and it was more ho. activity of his wit zud comprehensive mind nourable for him to share the academical in the cultiv. tin of other branches of watu- prize with such illustrious competitors 19 ral (vieoco. for while he was keenly en- Colin Maclaurin and Daniel Bernoulli, than to cured in puifions with relearches, le composed have carried it away from rivals of less maga Division on bi radi use and prop iza:ion of nitude. Rarely, if ever, did such a brilliant jound, and an answer to a prize question, con. competition adorn the annals of the Academ; cerning the me,ing of jhips, which the and no subject, perhaps, proposed by that Academy of Sciences üdrudged the ancellii, or learned body was ever treated with tuch asfr-consisuk, in the year 1727. From this curacy of investigation and force of genius, taiser arcourse, and other circumstances, it as that which here displayed the philosophical a pels, lov Ern": hal ehily embarked in powers of these three extraordinary men. the crious and toportant ttudy of navigation, In the year 1741, M. EULIR was in12. b he atterwards enriched with so many vited to Berlin, to augment the lustre of the 5.Vab. ib.

academy, that was there rising into fame,


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mder the anfpicious protection of the present and 1772, were designed to obtain from the King of Prullia ; for whom the Muses and labours of astronomers a more

reperfeli Tbeory of the Sciences have prepared a wreathi, wbich ebe Moor. M. EULER, affifted by his eldest will bloom unfaded to the latest ages. He son, was a competitor for these prizes, and enriched the latt volume of the Miscellanies ohtained them both. In this last memoir, (Melanges; of Berlin with five memoirs, he reserved for farther confideration, several which make an eminent, perhaps the prin- inequalities of the Moon's mution, which he cipal, figure in that collection. These were could not determine in his first theory, on followed, with an attonishing rapidity, by a account of the complicated calculations in greje number of important researches, which which the method he then employed had enare scattered through the Memoirs of the gaged him. He bad the courage afterward Prullian Academy; of which a volume has to review his whole theory, with the aflift. been regularly published every year, since its ance of his son, and Messrs. Kraff; and Lexell, ettablidhment in 1744.

and to pursue his researches, until he had The labours of EULER will appear more

constructed the new tables, which appeared, especially astonishing, when it is considered, together with the great work, in 1772. tint while he was enriching the Academy of Inttead of confining himself, as before, to Berlin with a prodigious number of memoirs, the fruitless integration of three differential an the deepest parts of mathematical science, equations of the second degree, which are antaining always some new points of view, furnished by mathematical principles, he reoften tubime truths, and sometimes discove. duced them to the three ordinates, which 1.s of great importance ; he did not discon- determine the place of the Moon; he divi. Due his philosophical contributions to the ded into classes all the inequalities of that Acakemy of Petersburgh, which granted him planet, as far as they depend either on the a penfion in 1742, and whose Memoirs dif- elongation of the Sun and Moon, or upon the play the marvellous fecundity of EULER's excentricity, or the parallax, or the incligenu.

nation of the lunar orbit. All these means It was with much difficulty that this great of investigation, employed with such art and man obtained, jo 1766, permission from the dexterity as could only be expected from King of Pruflia to return to Petersburgi, an analytical genius of the first order, were wtiere he desired to pass the rest of his days. attended with the greatest success ; and it is Son after his return, which was gracioully impossible to observe, without admiration, rewarded by the munificence of Catherine 11. and a kind of astonishmeni, such immense he was seized with a violent disorder, which calculations on the one hand, and on the term nated in the total loss of his fight. A other, the ingenious methods employed by LI 4, formed in his left eye, which had this great man to abridge them, and to faci. been effentially damaged by a too ardent ap- litate their application to the real motion of pica ion to study, deprived him entirely of the Moon. But this admiration will become the use of that organ. It was in this diftrer- astonishment, when we consider at what ing situation, that he dictated to his servant, period, and in what circumstances all this à tailor's apprentice, and was absolutely de- was effectuated by M. EULER. It was when Fond of mathematical knowledge, his Ele- he was totally blind, and consequently obliged

#1 of Ageira; wbich by their intrinsical to arrange all bis computations by the fole merit, in point of perspicuity and meihod, powers of his memory and his genius. 16 and the unhappy circumstances in which they was when he was embarrassed in his domefwere composed, have equally excited applause tic circumstances, by a dreadful fire, that bad zu atmishment. This work, though purely consumed great part of his substance, and elementary, discovers the palpable characters forced him to qilie a ruined house, of which ities of an inventive genius; and it is here every corner was known to him by habit, ali ne tliat we meet with a compleat theory which, in some measure, fupplied the place 0.019 Analysis of Diophantus.,

of sight. It was in these circumitances that About this time M. EULER was honoured EULER composed a work, which, alone, was b; the Academy of Sciences at Paris with the fufficient to render his name inmorta'.place of one of the foreign members of that The heroic patience and tranquility of mind learned boly; and, after this, the Academic which he displayed here needs to descriptior. : Cal prize was adjudged to three of his me- and he derived them not only from the love murs, Concerning the Inequalities in the Motions of science, but from the power of religion. on the Planets.

The two prize questions His pbilosophy was too genuine and sublime poputed by the same Academy for 1770 to stop its analysis at niechanical causes; it

. J. A. EULER, a son worthy of his illustrious father, has also enriched the academical Vercuirs of Petersburgh with many learned memoirs.


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led him to that divine philosophy of religion, volous part of mankind, in our times, thall
which ennobles human nature, and can alone be buried in oblivion.
form a habit of tue magnanimity aud pa- Euler's knowledge was more universal
tience in suffering.

than could be well expected in one, who had Some time after this, the famous Wentzeli, pursued with such unremitting ardour, maby cu uching the cataract, restored Mr. Eu. thematics and astronomy as his favourite Ler's sight; but the fatisf. Etion and joy that Nudies. He had made a very confiderable this successful operation produced, were of progress in medical, botanical, and chemical short duration. Some instances of negligence, science. What was still more extraordinary, on the part of surgeons, and his own im- he was an excellent scholar, and possessed patience to use an organ, whose cure was not what is generally called erudition, in a very cumpleatly finished, deprived him of his fight high degree. He had read, with attention and a second time; and this relapse was accom- taste, the most eminent writers of ancient panied with tormenting pan. He, however, Rome : he was perfectly acquainted with with the allistance of his fons, and of Mefirs. mathematical literature, and ihe ancient bilKraffo and Lexii', continued bis labours; lory of that science. Te civil and literary neither the loss of his fight, nor the in.rmitics history of all ages od als nations was familiar of an advanced age, could damp the ardour to him; and freigners, who were only acof his genius.

He had engaged to furnith quainted with his works, were astonished to the Academy of Peterílvurgh with as many find in the conversation of a man, whose memoirs as would be suficient to compleat long life seemed tolely occupied in mathemaits Ats for twenty years after his death. In

tical and plıysical researches and discoveries, the space of seven years, he transmitted to the such an extensive acquaintance with the most Academy, by Mr. Gollwin, above je veriy me- interesting branches of literature. In this moirs, and above two bundred more, which respect, no doubt, he was much indebted to were revised and completed by the Author of

a very uncommon memory, which seemed this Paper. Such of these memoirs as were to retain every idea that was conveyed to it, of ancient date were separated from the rest, either from reading or from meditation. He and form a collection that was published could repeat the Æneid of Virgil, from the in the year 1783, under the title of sna- beginning to the end, without hesitation, and lyrisal Works. There is not one of these indicate the first and last line of every page of pieces, which does not contain fome new the edition he used. discovery, or fome ingenious view, that Several attacks of a vertigo, in the beginmay lead to the successful investigation of ing of September 1783, which did not pretru:hs yet unknown. They contain the har- vent his calculating the motions of the aero. pielt integrations, the most refined and sub

ftatical globes, were, nevertheless, the fore. Time analytical procelles, deep researches runners of his mild and happy passage from concerning the nature and properties of num. this scene to a better. While he was amusing bars, an ingenious demonftration of several himself at tea, with one of his grand-children, theorems of Fermal, the solution of many he was struck with an apoplexy, which tes• dificul problems relative to the equilibritim minated his illustrious carecr, at the age and motion of folid, flexible, and claffic bo

of 76. dies, and explications of several seeming pa- His constitution was uncommonly strong rodoxes.-No part of the theory of the and vigorous : bis health was good, and the motion of the celestial hodies, of their mutual evening of his long life was calm and serene, 3:21M1), and their anomalies, however abatract sweetened by the same that follows genius, and d ficult, was overlooked, or left unin

the public etteem and respect that are never pioved, Ly M. EULER. There is not one with-held from exemplary virtue, and leve. biznchi of mathematical science that bis not ral domestic comforts which he was capable ben ben fited by Iris labours: No geometric of feeling, and therefore deserved to enjoy. cian ever before embraced so many objects no His temper was even, mild, and cheerful; the same time: none, perhaps, crer equalled to which were added', a certain roughness

, hin, either in the number of his publications, mixed with fimplicity and good hunwur, and or in the multiaude and variety of his disco- a bappy and pleatant knack of telling a ftory, veries. Ilis uare will live as long as the which rendered liis conversation agreeable. sciences fubätt: It will go down to the latest The great activity of his mind was necesiarily ages with the immortal nanies of DESCAR- connected with a proportion of vivacity and TES, GALILFI, NEW TAN, LEIBNITZ, and quickness, wbichi rendered him susceptible other illuftrions meil, whole genius and vir- of warmth and irritation. Hs anger, how'. tues have enroh’ed humanity: it will thine ever, was never any thing more than a tran: with an unfailing luttre, when many names, fitory fath; and he knew ne fuch thing as w, ich have been called to fame by the loje permanent ill-will toward any human being.


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