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REFLECTIONS ON FREE - THINKING,
By Dr. WATSON, BISHOP OF L Ļ AND AF F.
as such as man, placed on a little globe of beings. If there is one condition in this lif arth, in a little corner of the voiverse ; cut happier than another, it is, surely, that of him off from all communication with the other who founds all his hopes of futurity on the systems which are dispersed through the im- promises of the Gospel; who carefully en mensity of space ; imprisoned, as it were, on deavours to conform his actions to its pre the spot where he happens to be born; almost cepts; looking upon the great God Almighey utterly ignorant of the variety of spiritual as his Protector here, his Rewarder here existencies; and circumscribed in his know. after, aird his everlasting Preserver. ledge of material things, hy their remoteness, a frame of mind fo perfective of our nature magnitude, or minutenefs ; a stranger to the that if Christianity, from a belief of which very nature of the pebbles on which he only it can be derived, were as certainly freads; unacquainted, or but very obscurely false as it is certainly true, one could not help informed by his natural faculties of his con- wishing that it were universally received in dition after death; it is wonderful thac a the world. Unbelievers attempt to make being such as this, should reluctantly receive, proselytes to infidelity, by preiling on the or faftidiously reject the instruction of the minds of the unlearned in scripture knowEternal God ! Or, if this be saying too much, ledge, the authorities of Boling broke, Volthat he should hastily, and negligently, and taire, Helvetius, Hume, and other Deiftical triumphantly conclude, that the Supreme writers. It is proper that young men should Being never had condescended to instruct the be furnished with a ready answer to argurace of man. It might properly have been ments in favour of infidelity, which are taken expected, that a rational being, so circum. from the high literary character of those who Itanced, would have feduloudy inquireci into profess it : let them remember then that a subject of such valt importance; that he Bacon, Boyle, Newton, Grotius, Locke, would not have suffered himself to be divert. Euler,--that Addison, Hartley, Haller, Welt, ed from the investigation, by the purtuits of Jenyns,--that Lords Nottingham, King, Barwealth, or honour, or any temporal concern; rington, Lyttelton, with an hundred other ynuch less by notions taken up withgat atten. Laymen, who were surely as eminent for their Lion, arguments admitted without examina- literary attainments in every kind of science as nation, or prejudices imbibed in early youth, either Boling bruke or Voltaire, were profrom the profane ridicule, or impious jettings, felled believers of Christianity. I am quite of sensual and immoral men. It is from the aware that the truth of Christianity cannot be influence of such prejudices that I would established by authorities; but neither can its guard the rifing part of the generation com. falsehood be lo establimhed. Arguments ad mitted to our care, by recommending a serious verecundian have little weight with those perufal of the tracts which are here presen- who know how to use any other; but they ted to them. Let them not refule to follow have weight with the lazy and the ignorant this advice, because it is given by a church- on both sides of the queftion. But though I man. He can have no possible interett in have here suggested to young men a ready giving it, except what may result from the answer to such of their profiigate acquaintconsciousness of endeavouring to discharge his ance aş may wish to work upon their prejä. duty, and the hope of being serviceable to dices in favour of infidelity; yet I hope they them in this world and the next. They need will not content themselves with being prenot question his veracity, when he speaks of judiced even in favour of Christianity. They Religion as being serviceable to them in this will find, in this Collection, such solid argilworld; for it is a trite objection, and grounded ments in support of its truth; as cannot fail on a misapprehension of the desigu of Chrif- to confirm them, on the most rational grounds, tianity, which would represent it an intolerin the belief of the Gospel dispensation. able yoke, so opposite to the propenfities, as They niay wonder, perhaps, if religion be to be utterly destructive of the felicity of the so useful a thing as is here represented, that human mind. It is, in truth, quite the re- their parents should seldom or never have Terse. There is not a single precept in the conversed with them on the subject. If this Gospel, without excepting either that which ihould be the fact, I can only say, that it is a ordains the forgivenels of injuries, or that neglect of all others the mult to be regretted, which commands every one 'fto posters his vel. And indeed our mode of education, as to reTel in sanctification and honour," which is not ligious knowledge, is very defective. The calculated to promote our happiness. Chrií. child is instructed in its catechism before it is ganity regulates, but does not extinguish our able to comprehend its meaning; and that is alicctions, and in the Jue regulation of our usually all the domestic inttruction which is
ever receives. But whatever be the negligence **** The freedom of enquiry which of parents in teaching their children Christiania has subsisted in this country, during the pre!), or how forcibly foever the maxims and sent century, has eventually been of great ser customs of the world may conspire in con- vice to the caute of Christianity. It must be firming men in infidelity, it is the duty of those, acknowledged, that the works of our deistical d) whom the education of youth is intrusted,
writers have made some few converts to inDX to despair. Their diligence will have its fidelity at home ; and that they have furnithed ue; it will prevent a bad matter from becoming the Ejprits Forts of France, and the Frey Geisworie ; and if this “foolishness of preaching," ters of Germany with every material objection into which I have been betrayed on this oc- to our religion, which they have of late years afson, bas but the effect of making even one displayed with much affectation of originality ; Foung man of fortune examine into the truth but at the same time we must needs allow, of the Christian religion, who would not that these works have stimulated some dirotherwise have done it, I shall not repent tinguithed characters among the laity, and the having been " instant out of seafon." many among the clergy, to exert their calents Discite, O miseri, et causas cognoscite in removing such difficulties in the Christian
system, as would otherwise be likely to perQuid fumus, et quidnam victuri gignimur : plex the unlearnel, to shipwreck the faith ordo
of the unstable, and to induce a reluctant Qaris dacus ;
scepticism into the minds of the most feriaus quem te Deus effe juffit.
and best-intentioned. Some difficulties still
remain; and it would be a miracle greater These were questions which even the Hea
than any we are inttructed to believe, if there Nen moralists thought it a shame for a man
remained none; if a being with but five never to have confidered. How inuch more
scanty inlets of knowledge, separated but cenfurable are those among ourselves who yesterday from his mother Earth, and to-day walte their days in folly or vice, without ever
finking again into her bosom, could fathom rediseting upon the providencial dispensation the depths of the wisdom and knowledge of under which they live ; without having any “ Him, which is, which was, and which is fublimer piety, any purer morality, any better
to come-the Lord God Almighty, to whom hopes of futurity than the Heathens had.
he glory and dominion for ever and ever." For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE, ORIGINAL LETTER from THOMAS COOKE, Translator of Hesiod, &c. to
leave to affure you that I am which he poffeffed many years, and sold for much ashamed of giving you so much fix hundred pounds, about the year 1920. trouble as I have done of lale; but I fall The late Earl of Pembroke was continually henceforward, now the Parliament sits, free sending him presents for nine or ten years you from expence when I take the like free- past. He sent him, about eight years ago, dom. In an English work which I am now thirty guineas at one time by Sir Andrew publishing, I have frequent occasion to use Fountaine, since which time he has sent him Gabriel Faernus's name ; and I am at a loss several times in a year, five and two guineas to know what name to call him by in En- al a time by me. About two years ago he glkh, Faern is no Italian termination, and if received an hundred pounds by the hands of his name was Famese, I should think the Latin Mr. Morrice, just as he came from vilting would have heen Farnesius. If you will be his father-in-law Dr. Atterbury in France. to good as to inform me what name you Mr. Morrice layed he was ordered not to tell would call him by in English, I thall be from whom it came, nor did Mr. Dennis
ever know ; though he has sayed he believed Till I had the favour of your last, I was from Dr. Atterbury ; " but that's uncertain ; under a mistake about Mr. Dennis's age and the circumstances i suppose made him guess College. The Papers sayed he was in great him," and 'tis not certain that Dr. Atterbury want before he died ; if so, poor gentleman, did not send it. Sir Robert Walpole to my I was partly owing to his own extravagance, knowledge has allowed him not less than for what I now tell you, you may depend (wenty pounds a-year for several years till he 1, 2 on your own existence. After having died, on no other confideration but his age (pent his own fortune, which was left him and infirmities, and his having made a figure by his uncle, who was an Alderman of Lon- in the republic of letters. A few weeks bedan, whether his father's or mother's bro- fore he died he had a benefit given him by ther I cannot tell, the late Duke of Marlbo- one of our Theatres he, by which he got Teagh gave him a King's waiter's place above a hundred pounds. These are facts * At the Haymarket ; on which occasion Mr. Pope wrote a prologue, which was spoby Mr. Cibber junior. See Pope's Works, vol. VI.
much obliged to you.
which I relate with certainty : besides all Johannes Dennis, Francisci filius ephippiwhich he got a great deal by his writings. arti, Londini natvs, literisq; Gram. inftituitus Your commands will reach me at Mr.
fub Magiftro Ellys, deinde apud Smith's, a peruke-maker, in Red-lion court, Harrowe fub Magistro Horne per quinFleet street, London, which will be receiv- quennium, admillus est Jan. 13, 1675, ed with great respect by, Sir,
Pení. Min, in Comm. Scholar. an. natus Your obliged and most humble servant, 13, sub tutelâ Magiftri Ellys.
THOMAS COOKE. Joh. Dennis, Coll. Caii, Art. Bac. 1679. London, Jan. 24, 1734.
Regr. To the Reverend Mr. Baker,
Joh. Dennis died an. 1733-4, buried at of St. John's College,
St. Martin's church, London, Jan. 10, Cambridge.
CHARACTERS, SNECDOTES, and OBSERVATIONS, by the face
Dr. SAMUEL JOHNSON.
Continued from Page 20.)
duodecimo might be made out of the two in
Pulteney was as palery a fellow as could be. He was a Whig who pretended to be
honest, and you know it is ridiculous for a BURNET.
Whig to pretend to be honeft. He cando: The first part of Burner's History is one hold it out.-----He called Mr. Pitt a meteor : of the most entertaining books in the Englima Sir Robert Walpole a fixed ftar. language ; it is quite dramatick, while he went about every where, saw every where,
TURKISH SPY. and heard every where. By the first part, I The Turkish Spy cokl nothing but what mean so far as it appears that Burnet himself every body might have known at that time ; was actually engaged in what he has told ; and what was good in it did not pay you for and this may be easily distinguished.
the trouble of reading to find it.
We talked of Goldsmith's Traveller, of men should serve a cucumber, &c.' has no which Dr. Johnson spoke highly; and while waggish meaning with reference to inen
I was helping him on with his great coat, he flinging away cucumbers as too cooling, repeated from it the character of the English which some have thought ; for it has been a nation, which he did with such energy, that common saying of physicians in England, the tear started into his eye. that a cucumber should be well fliced, and
DUKE OF ARCYLE. dressed with pepper and vinegar, and then thrown out as good for nothing.
He maintained that Archibald Duke of
Argyle was a narrow man *.
DR. BEATTIE. fidered as a book of authority ; but it is ill On communicating to Dr. Johnson the written. The matter is diffuses into too ma- news that Dr. Beattie had got a pension of ny words ; there is no animation, no com- two hundred pounds a year, he sat up in his pieffion, no vigour. Two good volumes in bed, clapped his hands, and cried, “ U brave
* This nobleman, when Earl of Itay, began a speech in the House of Peers with, “ My Lords, I am a Preibyterian, Scc.”
KE!" a peculiar excl imation of his when he in 1667, was Aill very well toned. She rijoices.
sung along with it. Dr. Johnson seemed
pleased with the music, though he owns he HOME.
peither likes it, nor has hardly any percepOnce in a coffee-house at Oxford, he called tion of it. Ac Mr. Macpherson's in Slate, he to old Mr. Sheridan, “ How came you, Sir, told us, that “ He knew a drum from a trumw give Home a gold medal for writing that pet, and a bagpipe from a guittar, which was foolish play?" and defied Mr. Sheridan to about the extent of his knowledge of music." shew ten good lines in it. He did not infilt To-night he said, that, “ If he had learnt they should be together ; but that there were music, he should have been afraid he would post ten good lines in the whole play. He have done nothing else than play. It was a now perlifted in this. I endeavoured to de- method of employing the mind, without the tend that pathetic and beautiful tragedy, and labour of thinking at all, and with some aprepeated the following pallage :
plause from a man's self.""
Sincerity, We had the music of the bagpipe every Thoa fort of virtues ! let no mortal leave day at Armidale, Dunvegan, and Col. Dr. Thz onward path, altho' the earth Mould Johnson appeared fond of it, and used often gape,
to stand for fome time with his ear close to A from the gulph of hell destruction cry, che great drone. To take diffimulation's winding way. Jeonjona " That will not do, Sir. Nothing
Mr. HARRIS. is good but what is consistent with truth or At Lord Monboddo's, after the conversa. probability, which this is not. Juvenal, in- tion upon the decrease of learning in England, deed , gives us a ouble picture of inflexible his Lordship mentioned Hermes by Mr. Har.
ris of Salisbury, as the work of a living auEito bonus miles, tutor bonus, arbiter idem thor for whom he had a great respect. Dr. Integer ; ambiguæ fi quando citabere testis, Johnson said nothing at the time ; but when lacertzque rei, Phalaris licet imperet, ut fis we were in our post.chaise, told me, he Falfus, et admoto dictet perjuria tauro, thought Harris “ acoxcomb." This he said Summum crede nefas animum præfere pu- of him, not as a man, but as an author ; and dori,
I give his opinions of men and books, faithfulEt propter vicam vivendi perdere causas.
ly, whether they agree with my own or not. He repeated the lines with great force and
I do adinit, that there always appeared to me dig1.ly; then added, " And, after this, something of affectation in Mr. Harris's mancomes Johnny Home, with his earth gaping ner of writing ; something of a habit of clo. and his deftruction crying :--Pooh !" thing plain thoughts in analytick and categori
cal formality. But all his writings are imbued Music.
with learning ; and all breathe that philanMiss M'Lean gave us several tunes on a
thropy and amiable disposition which dirin. pimet, which, though made so long ago as guished him as a man t.
OBSERVATIONS ON SE A. BATHING,
By D BUCHAN.
O part of the practice of medicine is of ber of practical observations to regulate the
greater importance, or merits more patient's conduct in the use of these active the attention of the physician, as many lives and important medicines. are lot, and numbers ruin their healths, by Without a proper discrimination with recokal bathing, and an imprudent use of the gard to the disease and the constitution of the mineral waters. On fome future occasion I patient, the most powerful medicine is more may probably resame this subject, 'as I know likely to do harm than good. Every one not any work that contains a sufficient num. knows that the same physician who, by cold
4 " This Gentleman, thonigh devoted to the study of grammar and dialecticks, was notfío abforbed in it as to be without a sense of pleasantry, or to be offended at his favourite topicks being treated lightly. I one day met him in the street, as I was hastening to the House of Lords, and cold him, I was sorry I could not stop, being rather too late to atteod an appeal of the Duke of Hamilton against Douglas. " I thought (laid he) their contest had been over larig ago." I answered, “ The contest concerning Douglas's filiation was over long ago ; but the conteft now is, who shall have the estate." Then affuming the air of “ an ancient tage Philosopher," 1 proceeded thus: “ Were I to predicate concerning him, I should say, the contest formerly was, What is he? The conteft now is, What has he?"-' Right, (replies Ms. Harris
, ímiling,) you have done with quality, and have got into quantity."
bathing, cured Auguftus, by an imprudent be more essentially answered by the applica: use of the same medicine killed his heir. tion of salt water. This ought not only to This induced the Roman senate to make laws be preferred on account of its fuperior gravi. for regulating the baths, and preventing the ty, but likewise for its greater power of stinumerous evils which arose from an impru- mulating the skin, which promotes the perdent and promiscuous use of those elegant spiration, and prevents the patient from and fathionable pieces of luxury. But as no catching cold. such laws exist in this country, every one does . It is necessary, however, to observe, that that oubib is rigbe in his own cyes, and of cold bathing is more likely to prevent, than course many must do wrong.
to remove obitructions of the glandular or People are apt to imagine that the simple lymphatic system. Indeed, when these have element of water can do no hurt, and that arrived at a certain pitch, they are not to be they may plunge into it at any time with im- removed by any means. In this case the punity. In this, however, they are much cold bath will only aggravate the symptoms, mistaken. I have kuown palfies and apo- and hurry the unhappy patient into an untimeplexies occasioned by going into the cold bath, ly grave. It is therefore of the utmost imporfevers excited by staying too long in it, and cance, previous to the patient's entering upon other maladies so much aggravated by its con- the use of the cold bath, to determine whe. tinued use, that they could never be wholly ther or not he labours under any obstinate obcradicated. Nor are examples wanting, ei- structions of the lungs, or other viscera ; and ther in ancient or modern times, of the bane- where this is the case, cold bathing ought ful consequences which have ariien alio from strictly to be prohibited. A nervous afthma, an injudicious application of the warm bath ; or an atrophy, may be mistaken for a pulbut as warm baths are not so common in this monary consumption ; yet, in the two forcountry, and are seldom used but under the mer, the cold bath proves often beneficial, direction of a physician, 1 thall not enlarge though I never knew it so in the latter. Inon that part of the subject.
deed, all the shthifical patients I ever saw, Immersion in cold water is a custom which who had tried the cold bath, were evidently Jays claim to the most remote antiquity : the worse for it. indead it must have been coëval with man In what is called a plethoric state, or too himself. The neceflity of water for the pur- great a fulness of the body, it is likewise poses of cleanliness, and the pleasure arising dangerous to use the cold bath, without due from its application to the body in hot coun- preparation. In this case there is great dantries, muft very early have recommended it to ger of burtting a blood vessel, or occafioning the human species. Even the example of other an inflammation of the brain, or some of the animals was sufficient to give the hint. By vifcera. This precaution is the more necefinstinct many of them are led to apply cold sary to citizens, as most of them live full, water in this manner; and fome, when de- and are of a gross habit. Yet, what is very prived of its use, have been known to lan- remarkable, these people resort in crowds guith, and even to die. But wiiether the every season to the sea-side, and plunge into practice of cold bathing arose from neceility, the water without the least consideration. reatoning, or imitation, is an inquiry of no No doubt they often escape with impunity, importance ; vur business is to point out the but dues that give a sanction to the practice? avantages which may be derived from it, Perions of this description ought by no means and to guard people against an improper use to barlie, unless the body has been previously of it.
prepared by bleeding, purging, and a spare The cold bath recommends itself in a va. diet. riety of cases; and is peculiarly beneficial to Another class of patients who stand pethe inhabitants of populous cities, who in- culiarly in need of the bracing qualities of dulge in idleness, and lead sedentary lives. cold water, is the nervous. This includes a In persons of this description the action of great number of the male, and almost all the the solids is always too weak, wluch induces female inhabitants of great cities. Yet even a languid circulation, a crude indigefted mass those persons ought to be cautious in using of humours, and obstructions in the capillary the cold bach. Nervous people have often vefsels and glandular system. Cold water, weak bou els, and may, as well as others, be from its gravity as well as its tonic power, subject to congestions and obstructions of the is well calculated either to obviate or remove visiera ; and in this case they will not be able these symptoms. It accelerates the motion to bear the effects of the cold water. For of the blood, promotes the different secre- them, therefore, and indeed for all delicate tions, and gives permanent vigour to the fo.. people, the best plan would be to accuftom lids. But all these important purposes will wornícives to is by the mult pleasing and gen