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and be born every year, i. e. 3,000 every hour or 50
Like leaves on trees, the race of man is found;
328. As men have divided by chance or design, into separate governments, they have assumed the names of nations, republics, kingdoms, or empires; and the knowledge of these constitutes a leading feature of geographical study.
The most populous nations are, the Chinese of 300 millions, the Hindoos of 40 millions, the French of 30 millions, and the Russians of 36 millions. The most extensive are the Russians, Chinese, Turkish, French and British empires.
329. From north to south, Europe is divided into Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, Poland, Saxony, Westphalia, France, Wurtemburgh, Bavaria, Switzerland, Austria, Turkey, Italy, Naples, Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain and Ireland.
Obs. It will be highly proper that tutors point out on some map of the world, all these countries to the pupil, and render him expert in pointing to them himself. He ought also to be directed to write out the boundaries and latitude and longitude of each from the map. Nothing can be so ridiculous, as to compel children to commit verbal descriptions of the boundaries of countries to memory. The only guide is a good map; andaiat they ought to trace or copy, till they can answer any question that is put to them. No one need blush for ignorance of geography, after he has twice or thrice traced or copied maps. The scale of mountains in Goldsmith's “Illustrations of Popular Geography,” should also be copied in maps, and the lines of comparative sizes deserve some consideration. The best exercises in mechanical and mathematical geography, however, are in the Geographical Copy-Books and the Royal School Atlas.
330. The following is an enumeration of the names, capitals, and population of the countries of Europe :
Nations. Chief Cities. Sweden
Stockholm Russia in Europe Petersburgh Denmark
Warsaw Batavia or Holland Amsterdam Germanic States
Florence Pope's States
Madrid Great Britain and Ireland London
3 millions. 30 do. 3 do. 8 do 6 do. 3.do. 18 do. 23 do.
8 do. 30 do. 2 do. 4 do. 2 do. 2 do. 6 do. 4 do. 11 do. 17 do.
331. Europe has three inland seas : the Mediterranean, the Baltic, and the White Sea; and its shores are washed by the Atlantic, the Bay of Biscay, the English Channel, the Northern Ocean, St. George's Channel, and the German Ocean.
332. The great European rivers are, the Danube, the Rhine, the Elbe, the Weser, the Maine, and the Oder in Germany; the Wolga and the Nieper, in Russia; the Rhone, the Garonne, and the Seine in France; the Thames, the Severn, and the Humber, in England; the Clyde, in Scotland; and the Shannon, in Ireland.
Obs.The rivers of South Britain are thus described :
From bis oozy bed,
Switzerland; the Pyrenees, between France and Spain; the Dofrafelds, in Norway; the Welsh, in Wales; and Ben Nevis and Ben Lomond, in Scotland. It has also three volcanoes, or burning mountains ; viz. Etna, in Sicily; Vesuvius, near Naples; and Hecla, in Iceland.
334. The British empire is composed of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and several small ones, as the Isle of Man, the Isle of Wight, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, Jersey and Guernsey, and the Scilly-islands. Great Britain is 700 miles long, and 250 broad ; and Ireland 300 long, and 200 broad. Great Britain includes Scotland on the North, Wales North-West, and England on the South, East and West.
335. England is subdivided into forty counties, as follow: Counties. Chief Towns. Counties. Chief Towns. Northumberland Newcastle Sussex
Chichester Durham Durham Berkshire
Reading Cumberland Carlisle Warwickshire Warwick Westmoreland Appleby Worcestershire Worcester Yorkshire
York Herefordshire Hereford Lancashire Lancaster Monmouthshire Monmouth Cheshire
Chester Gloucestershire Gloucester Shropshire Shrewsbury Oxfordshire
Oxford Derbyshire Derby Northamptonsh.Northampton Nottinghamshire Nottingham Buckinghamshire Aylesbury Lincolnshire Lincoln Bedfordshire Beaford Rutland
Oakham Huntingdonshire Huntingdon Leicestershire Leicester Cambridgeshire Cambridge Staffordshire Stafford | Norfolk
Norwich Hertfordshire Hertford Soffolk
Bury Middlesex London Essex
Canterbury Hampshire Winchester Surry Guilford Wiltshire
Salisbury Dorsetshire Dorset | Devonshire
Bath Cornwall Launceston
336. Wales is divided into twelve counties, as foflow :
Counties. Chief Towns.
Counties. Chief Towns, Flintshire Flint Radnorshire
Radnor Denbighshire Denbigh Brecknockshire Brecknock Montgomerysh. Montgomery Galmorganshire
Beaumaris Pembrokeshire Pembroke Caernarvonshire Caernarvon Cardiganshire Cardigan Merionethshire Haerlech Carmarthenshire Carmarthen
337. Scotland is divided into thirty-three counties, as follow:
Shires. Chief Towns. Shires. Chief Towns. Edinburgh Edinburgh Argyle
loverary Haddington Dunbar | Perth
Perth Merse Dunse Kincardin
Bervie Roxburgh Jedburgh Aberdeen
Aberdeen Selkirk Selkirk Inverness
Peebles Nairne and Nairne and Lanerk Glasgow Cromartie
Cromartie Dumfries Dumfries Fife
St. Andrew's Wigtown Wigtown Forfar
Montross Kirkcudbright Kircudbright Banff
Ayr Sutherland Strathy Darpoc Dumbartons Dumbarton Clacmannan Clacmannan Bute and Caithness Rothsay Kinross
Kinross Renfrew Renfrew Ross
Taine Stirling Stirling Elgin
Elgin Linlithgow Liplithgow | Orkney
Kirkwall 338. Ireland is divided into four provinces ; Ulster to the north, Leinster to the east, Munster to the south, and Connaught to the west ; and these are subdivided into thirty-two counties. Counties. Chief Towns.
Counties. Chief Towns. Dublin
Dublin King's County Philipstown Louth
Drogheda Queen's Coun. Maryborough Wicklow
Wicklow Kilkenny Kilkenny Wexford
Wexford | Kildare Naas and Athy Longford Longford Carlow
Carlow East Feath Trim Down
Downpatrick West Meath Mullinger | Armagh
Armagh Monaghan Monaghan Fermanagh Inniskilling Cavan Cavan Donegal
Lifford Antrim Carrickfergus Leitrim
Derry Roscommon Roscommon Tyrone
Omagh | Mayo Carrick on Shannon