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and be born every year, i. e. 3,000 every hour or 50

every minute.

Like leaves on trees, the race of man is found;
Now green in youth, now withering on the ground.
Another race the following spring supplies,
They fall successive, and successive rise ;
So generations in their course decay,
So flourish these, when those are past away. POPE.

328. As men have divided by chance or design, into separate governments, they have assumed the names of nations, republics, kingdoms, or empires; and the knowledge of these constitutes a leading feature of geographical study.

The most populous nations are, the Chinese of 300 millions, the Hindoos of 40 millions, the French of 30 millions, and the Russians of 36 millions. The most extensive are the Russians, Chinese, Turkish, French and British empires.

329. From north to south, Europe is divided into Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, Poland, Saxony, Westphalia, France, Wurtemburgh, Bavaria, Switzerland, Austria, Turkey, Italy, Naples, Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain and Ireland.

Obs. It will be highly proper that tutors point out on some map of the world, all these countries to the pupil, and render him expert in pointing to them himself. He ought also to be directed to write out the boundaries and latitude and longitude of each from the map. Nothing can be so ridiculous, as to compel children to commit verbal descriptions of the boundaries of countries to memory. The only guide is a good map; andaiat they ought to trace or copy, till they can answer any question that is put to them. No one need blush for ignorance of geography, after he has twice or thrice traced or copied maps. The scale of mountains in Goldsmith's “Illustrations of Popular Geography,” should also be copied in maps, and the lines of comparative sizes deserve some consideration. The best exercises in mechanical and mathematical geography, however, are in the Geographical Copy-Books and the Royal School Atlas.

330. The following is an enumeration of the names, capitals, and population of the countries of Europe :

Nations. Chief Cities. Sweden

Stockholm Russia in Europe Petersburgh Denmark

Copenhagen Prussia

Berlin Poland

Warsaw Batavia or Holland Amsterdam Germanic States

Dresden
Austria

Vienna
Turkey in Europe Constantinople
France (proper)

Paris
Switzerland

Berne Italy

Milan Etruria

Florence Pope's States

Rome Naples

Naples Portugal

Lisbon Spain

Madrid Great Britain and Ireland London

Population.

3 millions. 30 do. 3 do. 8 do 6 do. 3.do. 18 do. 23 do.

8 do. 30 do. 2 do. 4 do. 2 do. 2 do. 6 do. 4 do. 11 do. 17 do.

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331. Europe has three inland seas : the Mediterranean, the Baltic, and the White Sea; and its shores are washed by the Atlantic, the Bay of Biscay, the English Channel, the Northern Ocean, St. George's Channel, and the German Ocean.

332. The great European rivers are, the Danube, the Rhine, the Elbe, the Weser, the Maine, and the Oder in Germany; the Wolga and the Nieper, in Russia; the Rhone, the Garonne, and the Seine in France; the Thames, the Severn, and the Humber, in England; the Clyde, in Scotland; and the Shannon, in Ireland.

Obs.The rivers of South Britain are thus described :

From bis oozy bed,
Old father Thames advanc'd bis rev'rend head:
Around his throne the sea-born brothers stood,
Who swell with tributary urns his food.
First, the fam'd authors of his ancient dame,
The winding Isis and the fruitful Tame!
The Kennet swift, for silver eels renown'd:
The Loddon slow, with verdant alders crown'd:
Cole, whose dark streams his flow'ry islands lave :
and chalky Wey that rolls a milky wave:
The blue transparent Vandalis appears:
The gulphy Lee his sedgy tresses rears:
And sullen Mole that hides bis diving flood :
And silent Darent stain'd with Danish blood.

POPE.

333. The mountains of Europe are, the Alps of

Switzerland; the Pyrenees, between France and Spain; the Dofrafelds, in Norway; the Welsh, in Wales; and Ben Nevis and Ben Lomond, in Scotland. It has also three volcanoes, or burning mountains ; viz. Etna, in Sicily; Vesuvius, near Naples; and Hecla, in Iceland.

334. The British empire is composed of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and several small ones, as the Isle of Man, the Isle of Wight, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, Jersey and Guernsey, and the Scilly-islands. Great Britain is 700 miles long, and 250 broad ; and Ireland 300 long, and 200 broad. Great Britain includes Scotland on the North, Wales North-West, and England on the South, East and West.

335. England is subdivided into forty counties, as follow: Counties. Chief Towns. Counties. Chief Towns. Northumberland Newcastle Sussex

Chichester Durham Durham Berkshire

Reading Cumberland Carlisle Warwickshire Warwick Westmoreland Appleby Worcestershire Worcester Yorkshire

York Herefordshire Hereford Lancashire Lancaster Monmouthshire Monmouth Cheshire

Chester Gloucestershire Gloucester Shropshire Shrewsbury Oxfordshire

Oxford Derbyshire Derby Northamptonsh.Northampton Nottinghamshire Nottingham Buckinghamshire Aylesbury Lincolnshire Lincoln Bedfordshire Beaford Rutland

Oakham Huntingdonshire Huntingdon Leicestershire Leicester Cambridgeshire Cambridge Staffordshire Stafford | Norfolk

Norwich Hertfordshire Hertford Soffolk

Bury Middlesex London Essex

Chelmsford Kent

Canterbury Hampshire Winchester Surry Guilford Wiltshire

Salisbury Dorsetshire Dorset | Devonshire

Exeter Somersetshire

Bath Cornwall Launceston

336. Wales is divided into twelve counties, as foflow :

Counties. Chief Towns.

Counties. Chief Towns, Flintshire Flint Radnorshire

Radnor Denbighshire Denbigh Brecknockshire Brecknock Montgomerysh. Montgomery Galmorganshire

Swansea Anglesea

Beaumaris Pembrokeshire Pembroke Caernarvonshire Caernarvon Cardiganshire Cardigan Merionethshire Haerlech Carmarthenshire Carmarthen

337. Scotland is divided into thirty-three counties, as follow:

Shires. Chief Towns. Shires. Chief Towns. Edinburgh Edinburgh Argyle

loverary Haddington Dunbar | Perth

Perth Merse Dunse Kincardin

Bervie Roxburgh Jedburgh Aberdeen

Aberdeen Selkirk Selkirk Inverness

Inverness Peebles

Peebles Nairne and Nairne and Lanerk Glasgow Cromartie

Cromartie Dumfries Dumfries Fife

St. Andrew's Wigtown Wigtown Forfar

Montross Kirkcudbright Kircudbright Banff

Banff Ayr

Ayr Sutherland Strathy Darpoc Dumbartons Dumbarton Clacmannan Clacmannan Bute and Caithness Rothsay Kinross

Kinross Renfrew Renfrew Ross

Taine Stirling Stirling Elgin

Elgin Linlithgow Liplithgow | Orkney

Kirkwall 338. Ireland is divided into four provinces ; Ulster to the north, Leinster to the east, Munster to the south, and Connaught to the west ; and these are subdivided into thirty-two counties. Counties. Chief Towns.

Counties. Chief Towns. Dublin

Dublin King's County Philipstown Louth

Drogheda Queen's Coun. Maryborough Wicklow

Wicklow Kilkenny Kilkenny Wexford

Wexford | Kildare Naas and Athy Longford Longford Carlow

Carlow East Feath Trim Down

Downpatrick West Meath Mullinger | Armagh

Armagh Monaghan Monaghan Fermanagh Inniskilling Cavan Cavan Donegal

Lifford Antrim Carrickfergus Leitrim

Ballinrobe Londonderrr

Derry Roscommon Roscommon Tyrone

Omagh | Mayo Carrick on Shannon

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