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already taken rank among the classics of the subject. Mr. Root is a member of the Institute of International Law, to which the Nobel peace prize was awarded in 1904,—the first and only instance since the fund was established in which an institution has been thus recognized. The Nobel peace prize for the year 1911 was awarded to the distinguished founder of the Institute, the late Dr. T. M. C. Asser; and now again for the third time in thirteen years, the services of international law and the international lawyers to the great and growing cause of world peace, are fittingly recognized.



Henri LaFontaine, of Belgium, who has been awarded the Nobel peace prize for 1913, has devoted his life with complete consecration to the work of internationalism, and is identified with this movement in many of its phases. Allying himself when a young man with organized labor, he later became a socialist as well, and as the representative of the social democrats was elected a member of the Belgian Senate in 1895, of which body he still continues to be a member. Sir William Randal Cremer, with whom Senator LaFontaine was intimately associated and from whose example he drew much of his inspiration, is the only other representative of organized labor who has been recognized in the award of the Nobel prize.

In 1894, Senator LaFontaine became one of the founders of L'Université Nouvelle, at Brussels, in which he has since occupied the chair of international law. In 1897, he founded his famous "House of Documentation," where he proposes to file and index everything printed in the world. This institution was followed in 1910 by the organization of the Union of International Associations, the Central Office of which is now established in Brussels, in commodious quarters furnished by the government. Two world congresses of international associations have since been held under its auspices. They demonstrated the practicability and the advantage of a central organization for all international associations, scientific, literary, sociological,--of whatever character, through which their coöperation and close sympathy can be secured in all fields of internationalism.

Senator LaFontaine is one of the most active members of the Interparliamentary Union. He has been the president of the Bureau Inter

nationale de la Paix at Berne since 1907, and secretary of the Belgian Society for Peace and Arbitration since 1889.

In all of these capacities his tireless pen is constantly adding to the literature of pacifism. The Annuaire de la Vie Internationale is his conception, and largely his work, as is also the new periodical, La Vie Internationale. His most important contributions to permanent literature are The Code of International Arbitration; Documentary History of International Arbitration (1794–1900) and Bibliography of Peace and Arbitration. The second of these works, published under the title Pasicrisie Internationale, is recognized as his most important contribution to literature, and as the standard authority on the subject. It is a history of what may be termed modern international arbitrations from 1794 to 1900. In this connection it will be recalled that the Treaty of November 19, 1794, between the United States and Great Britain, provided for the settlement of a number of outstanding questions by mixed commissions. Prior to this date, there had been no general resort to arbitration. The year 1794, therefore, has been selected by international lawyers as marking the beginning of modern international arbitration; and Mr. LaFontaine's work was prepared with a view to giving the texts of all compromis entered into between the nations of the world from that date to the year 1900. It is the most comprehensive work of this kind ever published, and is recognized as of the highest importance and authority to those interested in studying the development of international arbitration as a method of settlement of disputes between nations.

It is thus plain that the Nobel Committee of Award has bestowed the prize for 1913 upon one whose devotion to the cause of internationalism has been proven by life-long service and by contributions whose value the world has long recognized.



Abbreviations: Ann. sc. pol., Annales des sciences politiques, Paris; Vie Int., La Vie Internationale, Brussels; Arch. dipl., Archives Diplomatiques, Paris; B., boletin, bulletin, bolletino; P. A. U., bulletin of the Pan-American Union, Washington; Clunet, J. de Dr. Int. Privé, Paris; Doc. dipl., France, Documents diplomatiques; B. Rel. Ext., Boletin de Relaciones Exteriores; Dr., droit, diritto, derecho; D. 0., Diario Oficial; For. rel., Foreign Relations of the United States; Ga., gazette, gaceta, gazzetta; Cd., Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers; Int., international, internacional, internazionale; J., Journal; J. O., Journal Officiel, Paris; L'Int. Sc., L'Internationalism Scientifique, The Hague; Mém. dipl., Mémorial diplomatique, Paris; Monit., Moniteur belge, Brussels; Martens, Nouveau recueil générale de traités, Leipzig; Q. dipl., Questions diplomatiques et coloniales; R., review, revista, revue, rivista; Reichs G., Reichs-Gesetzblatt, Berlin; Staats., Staatsblad, Netherlands; State Papers, British and Foreign State Papers, London, Stat. at L., United States Statutes at Large; Times, The Times (London).

January, 1912. 10-23 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY-SERVIA. Exchange of ratifications of

treaty of extradition signed March 17/30, 1911. French and German texts: Oesterreichisches Gesetzblatt, 1912, No. 6; Martens,

7:595. 10-23 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY—SERVIA. Ratifications exchanged of a con

sular convention signed March 17/30, 1911. French and German texts: Oesterreichisches Gesetzblatt, 1912, No. 6; Martens, 7:564.

February, 1912. 10 FRANCEITALY. Ratifications exchanged of an arrangement con

cerning the protection of young workmen, signed June 15, 1911. Italian text: Ga. Ufficiale, 1912, No. 53; French text: Martens,

7:528. 29-June 19. BULGARIA SERVIA. Secret treaty of alliance and secret

annex signed at Sofia, Feb. 29, 1912. The additional convention agreeing to submit differences to the arbitration of Russia, and a military convention was signed June 19, 1912. This treaty was an agreement as to the conduct of the first Balkan campaign.

February, 1912.

Bulgaria and Greece signed a treaty of alliance May 16, an & military convention on Sept. 22, 1912. By the Treaty of London, which concluded this campaign, nearly the whole of Servia's share of the spoils was made into the state of Albania. Bulgaria insisted upon a strict compliance with the terms of the secret treaty and upon Servia's refusal the second Balkan campaign was instituted. The Treaty of Bucarest closed the second campaign, and gave to Servia a greater share than the secret treaty of Sofia. The Treaty of London was signed May 30, 1913, between Turkey and the Allies; the Treaty of Bucarest Aug. 10, 1913, between Bulgaria and Servia, Greece, Montenegro and Roumania; the Treaty of Constantinople, Sept. 29, 1913, between Bulgaria and Turkey; the Treaty of Belgrade, November 4, 1913, between Montenegro and Servia; the Treaty of Athens, Nov. 11, 1913, between Greece and Turkey.

April, 1912. 26 UNITED STATES. The Senate advised and consented to the rati

fication of the Declaration of London, signed at London, Feb. 26, 1909. An. de l'Union Interparlementaire, 1913:231; United States Senate, 61st Cong. 1st sess. Confidential, Ex A.

May, 1912. 16 BULGARIA-GREECE. Treaty of defensive alliance, with additional

declaration signed. French text: Mém. dipl., 51:617; Q. dipl.


relating to state lotteries was signed by these countries July 29, 1911. Ratifications were exchanged between Wurttemburg and Prussia, May 24, 1912, between Prussia and Baden, May 20, and between Prussia and Bavaria, Nov. 30, 1912. German text: Preussische Gesetzsammlung, 1912:128; Martens, 7:493.

June, 1912. 7 BELGIUM—GERMANY. Exchange of notes approving convention

signed June 25, 1911, relating to boundary between Belgian Congo and German East Africa. French and German texts: Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1912, No. 14; Martens, 7:372.

June, 1912. 19 BULGARIA SERVIA. Military convention signed, in conformity

with the treaty of defensive alliance signed Feb. 29, 1912. French text: Q. dipl., 36:691; English text: Supplement to this JOURNAL, pp. 1, 3, 5, 10.


gated by Great Britain carrying into effect the agreement relating to fur seals, signed July 7, 1911. Great Britain, Seal Fisheries Act (North Pacific), 1912; English text: Martens, 7:718.

September, 1912. 22 BULGARIA-GREECE. Military convention signed completing al

liance of May 16, 1912. French text: Mém. dipl., 51 :617.

October, 1912. 12 FRANCE-GERMANY. Declaration signed relating to civil procedure,

in accordance with the Hague convention of July 17, 1905. French text: R. de dr. int. privé et de dr. pénal int., 9:673.

November, 1912. 20 BULGARIA-TURKEY. Protocole armistice of Tchatalda. French

text: Arch. dipl., 125:84.

December, 1912. 20 SWEDEN. Decree concerning the admission of foreigners on board

war ships. Svensk Författnings-Samlung, 1912, No. 401, 402; Swedish text: Martens, 7:414.

January, 1913. 24 CUBA-VENEZUELA. Ratifications exchanged of the extradition

treaty signed July 14, 1910. Spanish text: Martens, 7:352.

February, 1913. 22 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. Ordinance announcing the abolition of con

sular jurisdiction in Tripoli. Oesterreichisches Reichsgesetzblatt,

1913, No. 18; French text: Martens, 7:345. 23 FRANCE,SPAIN. Tribunal met to settle Moroccan questions still

pending. Tribunal consists of M. Léone for Spain, and M. A.

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