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possible near harbors is the watchword of the times! For the nearer oil fields are to the harbors, the more valuable they will be to the owner of the harbor, who will make every effort to get possession of them, exploit them, and conduct the oil through pipe-lines to the wharves where it will be taken as cargo on board tank-steamers; or in the form of a new elixir of life, it will in double-quick time find its way into the fuel compartments of the ships which, up to the present time, wasted days in the unclean and difficult work of coaling.

It is quite evident, therefore, that the owner of the oil wells will also control the harbors situated in their neighborhood; for at his pleasure he can limit the sale of the product and dictate the price. Whoever has lawfully acquired title to such an advantageous position will not allow himself to be crowded out, not even by the owner of the harbor.

By applying these considerations to the Panama Canal, the existence of large petroleum fields within or near the Canal Zone would be an ideal state of affairs. For instance, the oil would in that case be brought on board ships in need of it while they were passing through the locks. It would, therefore, be a matter of paramount concern to the American Government to own those imaginary oil fields, and any efforts made to that end would be considered as natural and justified.

While, however, up to the present time, no petroleum has been discovered on the Isthmus, and the geological formation of the land does not point to its presence there, yet a glance at the accompanying map of oil-fields shows that it has pleased Providence to bless countries neighboring upon the important waterway with that inestimably valuable product of nature. Indeed it seems almost wonderful, when we realize that the hand of the Creator has in this particular case anticipated the creative impulse of the engineer and the inventive spirit of the technical man.

This fact becomes even clearer, when we consider the oil production of the world which is shown in the following comparative tables, remembering at the same time that the oil can be pumped through pipe-lines extending over many miles of territory, from its source to the place where it is to be used.

WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM, 1905–1909, BY COUNTRIES 1

(Barrels of 42 gallons)

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United States (134,717,580/126,493,936 166,095,335/178,527,355 1 182,134,274 24,284,570 61.24 Russia ....

54,960,270 58,897,311 61,850,734 62,186,447 265,970,350 8.796,047 22.19 Galicia.

5,765,317 5,467,967 8,455,841| 12,612,295 3 14,932,799 2,076,740 5.02 Dutch East Indies

7,849,896 8,180,657 9,982,597 10,283,357 4 11,041,852 1,474,751 3.71 Roumania , 4,420,987| 6,378,184 8,118,207 8,252,157 5 9,321,138 1,296,403 3.13 India ..... 4,137,098 4,015,8031 4,344,162 5,047,038

6,676,517 890,202 2.24 Mexico...

1,000,000L 3,481,410

2,488,742 331,832

.84 Japan a... 1,710,768 2,010,639 2,070,929

2,012,409 268,321 .68 Peru. 447,880 536,294 756,226 1,011,180

1,316,118 175,482 Germany. 560,963 578,610 756.631 1,009,278

101

1,018,837 143,244 .34 Canada. 634,095 569,753 788,872 527,987

420,755 56,101 Italy .... 44.027 53,577 59,875 50,966

b 50,000 b 6.954 Other ....

6 30,000 630,000 € 30.000 € 30,000 13 6 30,000 64,000 Total ... 215,040,917 212,912,860 264,249,119 285,090,399 ..... 297,413,791 39,804,647 100.00 a Including Formosa, except in 1905.

6 Estimated.

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WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM, 1908–1912, BY COUNTRIES, IN BAR

RELS AND METRIC TONS 2

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United States . 178,527,355 183,170,874209,557,248 220,449,391 1222,113,218 29,615,096 63.25 Russia .......

| 62,186,447| 65,970,350 70,336,5741 66,183,691 2 68,019,208 9,317,700 19.37 Mexico.... 3,481,410 2,488,742 3,332,807 14,051,643 3 16,558,215) 2,207,762 4.71 Dutch East Ir

dies..... 10,283,357 11,041,852 11,030,620 12,172,949 10,845,624 1,478,132 3.09 Roumania .. 8,252,157 9,327,278 9,723,806 11,107,450 12,991,913 1,806,942 3.70 Galicia .... 12,612,295 14,932,799) 12,673,688 10,519,270

8,535, 174 1,187,007 India. 5.047,038 6,676,517 6,137,990) 6,451,203

7,116,672 989,801 Japan.... 2,070,145 1.889,563 1.930,661) 1,658.903

1,671,405 222,854 Peru..... 1,011,180 1,316,118) 1,330,105 1,368,274 81 1,751,143

233,486 Germany... 1,009,278 1,032,522 1,017,045

995,764 a 140,000 Canada.... 527,987 315,895 291,096

243,614 32,612 Italy..... 50,966 42,388 42,388 74,709

a 86,286 a 12,000 Other .... a 30,000 a 30,000 a 30,000. a 200,000

250,000 33,333 Total .... 285,089,615 298,326,073 327,474,30+ 345,512,185 ..... 351,178,236 47,276,725 100.00

e Estimated.

29

10

28

29

11

12

According to these statistics, Mexico as an oil producing country has leaped within the last three years from seventh to third position; and in spite of continuous disturbances going on there, the probable exports of the product in 1913 are estimated to have risen to 24,000,000 barrels (1 barrel=about 192 hectoliters).

1 Reprinted from "The Production of Petroleum in 1909," by David T. Day, U. S.. Geological Survey, p. 113.

2 Ibid., 1912, p. 137.

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WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM, 1905–1909, BY COUNTRIES 1

(Barrels of 42 gallons)

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United States 134,717,580 126,493,936 166,095,335 178,527,355

82,134,274 24,284,570 61.24 Russia ......

54,960,270 58,897,311 61,850,734 62,186,447 2 65,970,350 8,796,047| 22.19 Galicia ....

5,765,317 5,467,967 8,455,841 12,612,295 3 14,932,799 2,076,740 5.02 Dutch East In

dies..... 7,849,896 8,180,657 9,982,597) 10,283,357 4 11,041,852 1,474,751 3.71 Roumania 4,420,987 6,378,184 8,118,207 8,252,157) 5 9,321,138 1,296,403) 3.13 India. 4,137,098 4,015,803 4,344,162 5,047,038

6,676,517 890,202) 2.24 Mexico....

1,000,000 3,481,410

2,488,742 331,832 .84 Japan a.... 1,472,804 1,710,768 2,010,639 2,070,929

2,012,4091 268,321 .68 Peru...... 447,880 536,294 756,226/ 1,011,180

1,316,1181 175.4821 Germany .... 560,963 578,610 756,631 1,009, 278

1,018,837 143,244) Canada... 634,095 569,753 788,872 527,987

420,7551 56,101 Italy ... 44,027 53,577 59.875 50.9661

6 50,000 6 6.954) Other. b 30,000 6 30,000 b 30,000 6 30,000

b 30,000 b 4,000 Total ... 215,040,917 212,912,860 264,249,119 285,090,399 ..... 297,413,791 39,804,647) 100.00 a Including Formosa, except in 1905.

6 Estimated. WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM, 1908–1912, BY COUNTRIES, IN BAR

RELS AND METRIC TONS 2

101

13

1912

PerCountry 1908

1909
1910
1911

centage Rank Barrels

Metric

of total tons

produc

tion United States . 178,527,355 183,170,874 209,557,248 220,449,391 1 222,113,218 29,615,096 63.25 Russia .......

62,186,447 65,970,350 70,336,574 66,183,691 2 68,019,208 9,317,700 19.37 Mexico....... 3,481,410 2,488,742 3,332,807) 14,051,643 3 16,558,215 2,207,762 4.71 Dutch East I dies...

10,283,357) 11,041,852) 11,030,620 12,172,949| 5 10,845,624 1,478,132 3.09 Roumania

8.252,157 9.327,278) 9.723,806 11,107.450 4 12,991,913 1,806,942 3.70 Galicia ....... 12,612,295 14,932,799) 12,673,688 10,519,270

8,535,174 1,187,007| 2.43 5,047,038 6,676,517 6,137,990 6,451,203

7,116,672 989,801 Jadan... 2,070,145 1,889,563 1.930,661 1,658,903

1,671,405 222,854 Peru.

1,011,180 1,316,118 1,330,105 1,368,274 8 1,751,143 233,486 Germany..

1,009, 278 1,018,837 1,032,522 1,017,045 10 995,764 a 140,000 .28 Canada. 527,987 420,755 315,895 291,096

243,614 32.612 .07 Italy. 50,966 42,388 42,388 74,7091

a 86,286 a 12,000 .02 Other ... a 30,000 a 30,000|| a 30,000. a 200,000

250,000 33,333 .07 Total .... 285,089,615 298,326,073327,474,304|345,512,185..... 351,178,236 47,276,725 100.00

a Estimated.

India ....

2.

11

According to these statistics, Mexico as an oil producing country has leaped within the last three years from seventh to third position; and in spite of continuous disturbances going on there, the probable exports of the product in 1913 are estimated to have risen to 24,000,000 barrels. (1 barrel=about 12 hectoliters).

1 Reprinted from "The Production of Petroleum in 1909,by David T. Day, U. S.. Geological Survey, p. 113.

2 Ibid., 1912, p. 137.

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