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Trattr9.ly 1941 i 1. etatinal law, or, as it is sometimes called, play in the nitinent, piblic international law, it was as a writer minimatiemal private law that he is chiefy known. His Das internalunule Primul- und, Strafrecht appeared in 1862 and was translated into t's w hy in 1943try (;. P. Gillespie, under the title International Law, Priol, and, Criminal. His second great work, Theorie und Praxis des internationalen Privatsrechts (2 volumes, 1889), the result of more than twenty years' thought and reflection, likewise dealt with international law and was translated into English by Mr. Gillespie under the title of The Theory and Practice of Private International Law. From the date of their publication until the present day these works have been looked upon as authorities both at home and abroad. Essentially practical, he was nevertheless deeply versed in theory. He did not accept theory, however, and find support for it in practice. He analyzed both and tested them in the light of history. He was thus at one and the same time historian, philosopher, and jurist within his chosen field. .

1 Inbrinuh den fortlichen Rechts, Vol. 4 (1910), pp. 1-55. * m., Vol. 1 (1987), pp. 1,2-13.

Those who have not had the pleasure of knowing Professor von Bar cannot gather from his large and weighty volumes the charm of manner, the felicity of expression, the keenness and subtle sense of humor, which made association with him a constant joy and an abiding memory. His very peculiarities were attractive, of which one may perhaps be mentioned for which he had good precedent, if precedent were needed. It is said of the philosopher Kant that he was accustomed to single out a student and lecture to him, and that one young man who enjoyed the distinction felt it necessary to make some changes in his dress and personal appearance. These distressed the philosopher, who appeared ill at ease at his next lecture. He sent for the young man and asked him if he would not be good enough to allow in future as in the past a button on his coat to hang loosely from the garment, as he had been accustomed to fix his eye on this when lecturing. If the loss of a button disturbed the philosopher of Königsberg, the loss of his lead pencil would have ruined the jurist of Göttingen as a public speaker, because instead of eyeing his audience or indeed of speaking to it, Professor von Bar apparently devoted his attention to a lead pencil, like himself diminutive, which he held at a distance on beginning his remarks and drew nearer and nearer to his eyes the longer he spoke until it almost threatened, so it seemed to his auditors, his vision. Great in his calling, modest, as we like to think greatness should be, attractive in all bis ways, he died rich in honor and in the fulness of years.

FRIEDRICH MEILI Professor Friedrich Meili, the distinguished international jurist, died at his home in Zurich, Switzerland, on January 15, 1914, in the 66th year of his age. To the development of international legal science, more particularly in respect of private rights, he devoted the best years of his life. He brought to his work a fervor born of a conviction that the modern development of the means of intercourse and communication among the nations, requires a broader legal science, in which selfish local prejudices must surrender to the greater needs of the international community. Indeed, it was through the study of the law applicable to the new means of intercourse, the railroad, the telegraph and telephone, that he was gradually led into the international field.

The essentially practical trend of his thought and writings was due to his long experience at the Bar. In 1885, however, he became professor of law at the University of Zurich and later gradually abandoned his practice. In 1904 he received the designation of professor of private international law, which was probably the first time that a separate chair in this field was created in any faculty. He was a member of the Institute of International Law and also represented his country as a delegate at all of the four conferences thus far held at The Hague upon private international law. His arguments were always lucid and forceful, and fortified by a wealth of practical experience gained from actual contact with life. It was this which made Professor Meili's opinions widely sought in great international cases. He advised the Governments of Denmark and Austria in important litigation; he was retained by Portugal in the Delagoa Bay controversy; by the shareholders of the Netherland-South African Railroad Company against Great Britain; and by Russia in the German Bank Deposits case, in all of which he was eminently successful.

He was a prolific writer in his chosen field; indeed, those who were not fully aware of the circumstances, often wondered how one large volume could follow another so closely, consistent with adequate preparation and reflection. But the many treatises which he published within the ten years preceding his death, were in reality the work of a lifetime, the result of patient research and of an accumulation of notes gathered throughout his active career. In 1902, he published his Handbuch des internationalen Civil und Handelsrechts (which was translated also into English and Japanese); in 1904, Das internationale Civilprozessrecht; in 1909, Das Lehrbuch des internationalen Konkursrechtes; and in 1910, Das Lehrbuch des internationalen Strafrechtes und Strafprozessrechtes. He was one of the first to attempt to work out a jurisprudence for aërial navigation.

Professor Meili was unusually well equipped for work in the fields of comparative and international law through his wide knowledge of both

ancient and modern languages. He spoke English fluently and became acquainted with many of our American lawyers and publicists through his visit to St. Louis in 1904, where he read a paper at the invitation of the American Bar Association. He was a man of the broadest sympathies; nor did his scholarly attainments tempt him to forget the social purpose to be subserved by all law. He served Justitia well, but he also made her the bandmaiden to international commerce and intercourse.

THE CARNEGIE CHURCH PEACE UNION Mr. Carnegie's purse-strings have again been opened in behalf of international peace, and the fund at his disposal for this purpose seems to be inexhaustible. On December 14, 1910, he established an organization known as the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, with a capital of ten million dollars, the income from which is $500,000 annually; and on February 10, 1914, he created a new organization, the Carnegie Church Peace Union, with a capital of two million dollars and the income thereon estimated at $100,000 annually.

The following is the Board of Trustees for the administration of the fund, composed of representatives of different religious denominations and of prominent lay advocates of international peace:

Rev. Peter Ainslie, Baltimore; Rev. Arthur J. Brown, New York; Rev. Francis E. Clark, Boston; President W. H. Faunce, Providence, R. I.; Cardinal Gibbons, Baltimore; Archbishop J. J. Glennon, St. Louis; Bishop David H. Greer, New York; Rev. Frank 0. Hall, New York; Bishop E. R. Hendrix, Kansas City; Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch, Chicago; Hamilton Holt, New York; Professor William I. Hull, Swarthmore, Pa.; Rev. Charles E. Jefferson, New York; Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, Chicago; Bishop William Lawrence, Boston; Rev. Frederick Lynch, New York; Rev. C. S. Macfarland, New York; Marcus M. Marks, New York; Dean Shailer Matthews, Chicago; Edwin D. Mead, Boston; Rev. William Pierson Merrill, New York; John R. Mott, New York; George A. Plimpton, New York; Rev. Junius B. Remensnyder, New York; Judge Henry Wade Rogers, New Haven, Conn.; Dr. Robert E. Speer, New York; Francis Lynde Stetson, New York; Dr. James J. Walsh, New York; Bishop Luther B. Wilson, New York.

The officers of the Union are David H. Greer, President; William P. Merrill, Vice President; Frederick Lynch, Secretary; George A. Plimpton, Treasurer. Two committees were appointed: namely, an executive

committee composed of Messrs. Charles E. Jefferson, Hamilton Holt, William I. Hull, C. S. Macfarland, Edwin D. Mead, Robert E. Speer, James J. Walsh; and a finance committee, consisting of Messrs. George A. Plimpton, Francis L. Stetson, Marcus M. Marks.

It is to be presumed that the Union will seek to enlist actively religious bodies in behalf of international peace. The wise expenditure of the income of such a large fund will require the best thought of the Trustees and much time to mature its plans. The ideas which prompted the generous donor to make the gift are contained in an address which he delivered at a luncheon to his Trustees at his residence on February 10, 1914, and it is quoted in full:

Gentlemen of many religious bodies, all irrevocably opposed to war and devoted advocates of peace: We all feel, I believe, that the killing of man by man in battle is barbaric, and negatives our claim to civilization. This crime we wish to banish from the earth; some progress has already been made in this direction; but recently men have shed more of their fellows' blood than for years previously. We need to be aroused to our duty and banish war.

Certain that the strongest appeal that can be made is to members of the religious bodies, to you I hereby appeal, hoping you will feel it to be not only your duty, but your pleasure, to undertake the administration of $2,000,000 of 5 per cent bonds, the income to be so used as in your judgment will most successfully appeal to the people in the cause of peace through arbitration of international disputes; that as man in civilized lands is compelled by law to submit personal disputes to courts of law, so nations shall appeal to the Court at The Hague, or to such tribunals as may be mutually agreed upon, and bow to the verdict rendered, thus insuring the reign of national peace through international law. When the day arrives, either through such courts of law or through other channels, this Trust shall have fulfilled its mission.

After the arbitration of international disputes is established and war abolished, as it certainly will be some day, and that sooner than expected, probably by the Teutonic nations, Germany, Britain, and the United States first deciding to act in unison, other powers joining later, the trustees will divert the revenues of this fund to relieve the deserving poor and afflicted in their distress, especially those who have struggled long and earnestly against misfortune and have not themselves altogether to blame for their poverty. Members of the various churches will naturally know such members well, and can therefore the better judge; but this does not debar them from going beyond membership when that is necessary or desirable. As a general rule, it is best to help those who help themselves; but there are unfortunates from whom this cannot be expected.

After war is abolished by the leading nations, the trustees, by a vote of two-thirds, may decide that a better use for the funds than those named in the preceding paragraph has been found, and are free, according to their own judgment, to devote the income to the best advantage for the good of their fellow-men.

Trustees shall be reimbursed for all expenses, including traveling expenses, and to each annual meeting, expenses of wife or daughter.

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