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for him is too elusive and vague. As he puts it, his method, which is realistic and critical, does not abandon itself to the "seductions of intellectualism,” but is based upon a pragmatic theme which urges an equilibration of interests as the supreme end of justice.

This is neither the time nor the place to find a quarrel with Geny's point of view. Undoubtedly there may be much to suggest contention, especially where he leaves the groundwork of analysis, where he has rendered incomparable service, and ventures into the field of synthesis and construction. The next years of activity in legal science will find it necessary repeatedly to cover Geny's positions and ideas, and much permanent value undoubtedly will accrue from his pioneer labors.

As yet nothing has been said here specifically of Geny's book, because it is simply a convenient vehicle to carry to a conclusion the ideas already discussed. A “lettre missive" is defined as a written conversation. The subject is well chosen for application of the process of "libre recherche,” in that the author is not inconvenienced at every point, by & large mass of legal materials which have already officially given a quietus to every legal question to be considered, and which, therefore, would leave to the author nothing to do except to record his agreement or dissent. The law of "lettres missives" is an open sea, and accordingly affords the utmost scope for putting into concrete form the abstractions of a theory of legal method.

The entire elaboration of the law governing letters is founded on a central principle of a right of secrecy in letters which is a special aspect of the liberty of the person, which includes freedom of thought and opinion. Geny opposes the view of Valery and Jardel, who recognize no special right of secrecy in letters and put the limits of protection of correspondence at the points where there is a violation of some special or general obligation. His method of attack is hierarchical. He develops his subject in the following order: (1) the general right to liberty and inviolability of correspondence; (2) the right of secrecy; (3) right to the use and possession of letters; (4) the right of publication; and (5) proof of letters for civil and commercial purposes. In a second part he considers in a parallel fashion the law concerning letters in connection with powers and authority over infants, lunatics, prisoners, etc., rights of spouses, heirs, creditors, and letters in the administration of criminal justice. The perpetual contest between form and reason is always resolved by the author as hardly needs to be stated, in favor of the latter.

One's curiosity is aroused in the subject by the fact, apart from the

considerations already noticed, that a great variety of the questions treated touch matters which rarely come into legal conflict, although the possibilities of such conflicts are readily seen. Geny has apparently exhausted everything that has to do with French legislation, jurisprudence, doctrine, and legal history. It does not appear that he has overlooked any source of information. Novel as his subject appears to be in view of the neglect of positive law to deal with it, it is disclosed by his valuable bibliographies that the French and the Germans have contributed an amazing number of monographs in this field. The present work beyond question will be considered a valuable addition to legal literature. It will be commended for its sane idealism, and its clear and outspoken emphasis of the rights of personality which, in a sociological atmosphere, are in danger of being unduly pushed aside by the overwhelming force of the undifferentiated crowd. The world is not yet ready to dispense with individuals. Lastly, this work will be approved not only as based on an essentially sound starting-point, but also as an authoritative reference work in France on these questions as they happen to enter the sphere of litigation.



(For List of abbreviations see Chronicle of International Events, p. 890)


Academy of International Law. Internationale Hochschule für internationales Recht

in Haag, Die. Heinrich Harburger. Deutsche R., 39:187. Aug. Africa. Neutralisierung Afrikas, Die. Deutsche R., 51:99. July.

Allemagne au cœur de l'Afrique, L'. Angel Marvaud. R. pol. et parl., 81:29. July.

Africa (French Equatorial). Prochain remaniement du territoire du Tchad.
Q. dip., 38:121. July.
Albania. Albanian anarchy, The Economist, 79:63. July.

Albanian tangle, The. E. J. Dillon. Fort. R., 95:1. July.
Albanian sea-coast. E. Aubry. Asiatic R., 5:56. July.

Du gouvernement des Albanais. Etienne Fournol. Revue Bleue, 52:2, 129. July, Aug.

Oesterreich-Ungarn und Italien in Albanien. Freihr. v. Jellel. Deutsche R., 39:28. July.

Truth about Albania, The. C. Telford Erickson. Asiatic R., 5 (n. 8.):163. Aug. Armaments. Défense nationale, La. (Norway.) Q. dip., 38:118. July.

Deutsch-russische Annäherung, Rüstungstreibereien, ein ausländischer Diplomat über den deutschen Chauvinismus etc. Völker-Friede, July-Aug. 1914.

P. 91.

Philosophy of army discipline, The. Economist, 79:54. July.

Revue des questions militaires. Simon Robert. R. pol. et parl., 81:174. July.

Loi de trois ans et l'alliance Russe, La. Commandant de Thomasson. Q. dip., 38:1. July. Austria-Hungary. Emprunts de l'Autriche-Hongrie en Orient, Les. Paul Patsy.

British R.,: 7:193. Aug. Balkans. Alleged atrocities of the Greeks in Macedonia. Asiatic R., 5:98. July.

Balkan immigration. R. A. H. Bickford Smith. Asiatic R., 5 (n. s.):155. August.

Enquête dans les Balkans, L'. Emmanuel Bourcier. La Grande R., 18:185. July.

Footnote to the Balkan War. John Mavrogordato. Asiatic R., 5:49. July.

Motor traction and the Balkan War. A. H. Trapman. Asiatic R., 5 (n. 8.): 249. August.

Principal lesson of the Balkan Wars. Max Wachter. 19th Cent., 76:59. July.




Entwicklung Rumaniens unter König Carol under der Balkankrieg, Die. Demeter A. Sturdza. Deutsche R., 89:146. Aug. Channel Tunnel. The Channel Tunnel. Lord Sydenham. Empire R., 28:11. July. Colombia. Roosevelt and Colombia. McGregor. Harpers W., 59:100. Aug. Diplomacy. Adventures in American diplomacy. Frederick Trevor Hill. Atlantic, 114:23. Aug.

Chapter of English diplomacy 1853–1871. J. A. K. Marriott. Edinb. R., 220:1. July.

Beilage zur Geschichte der österreichisch-ungarischen Diplomatie, Ein. Freihr. v. Hengelmüller. Deutsche R., 39:33, 271. July, Aug.

Finance et Diplomatie. Victor Berard. La Grande R., 85:553. June July, 86:5.

Ideal Alliance, An. (Germany, Great Britain, United States.) Alsager Pollock. 19th Cent., 76:51.

Faiblesses d'une grande puissance, Les. René le Conte. Q. dip., 38:84. July. Eastern Question. Politics and British trade in the near East. Dixon Johnson. Asiatic R.,

Affaires d'Orient, Les. Q. dip., 38:44, 112. July.

Eastern question. E. J. Dillon. Contemp. R., 106:109. July.
Economics. War and our economic policy. Protectionist, 26:281. Sept.

Economic relations of the British and German Empires. Edgar Crammond. J. of R. Stat. Soc., 77:777. July. Europe. Genève entre la France et l'Allemagne. Berthe-Georges Gaulis. La Grande

R., 86:94. July.
European War. Allemagne et Russie. Maurice Lair. Revue Bleue, 52:71. July.

Alliances that made the war. Rollo Ogden. World's Work, 28:15.
A propos du crime de Serajevo. Le Corresp., 220:165. July.
Armies that menace the Teuton world. Colliers, 53:12. Aug.

Armies of Europe, The. Frederic L. Huidekoper. World's Work, 28:22. Sept.

Asia, Africa and the islands of the seas. World's Work, 28:50. Sept.

Aus der Bewegung: England und Deutschland etc. Völker-Friede, JulyAug. 1914. p. 92.

Aus Bosniens Okkupations. Öster. Runds, 40:262.

Aus dem Ellernhause Erzherzog. Franz Ferdinands-Edwin Rollell. Öster. Runds, 40:155.

Austria's civilizing mission. By an Austrian diplomat. World's Work, 28:103. Sept.

Autriche-Hongrie et les Slaves du Sud, L'. Gabriel Hanotaux. La. R. hebdommadaire, 7:449. July.

Balkans, The. World's Work, 28:129. Sept.

Bulgarie au seuil de la guerre européenne, La. Andre Chéredame. Le Corresp., 220:621. Aug.

Calais harbor. Arnold Bennett. Harp. W., 59:222. Sept.

Crime de Sérajévo et la question yougo-slave, Le. Commandant de Thomas8on. Q. dip., 38:65. July.

Caring for the soldier's health. World's Work, 28:115. Aug.

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Chance for American shipping. Sylvester Thompson. World's Work, 28:119. Sept.

Closed for war. Amos Stote. Harp. W., 59:23. Sept.
Conflit austro-serbe, Le. La R. hebdommadaire, 8:135. Aug.

Deutsche Volkernährung im Kriege. Carl Ballod. Preussische Jahrbücher, 157:101. July.

Deutschen Kaisermanöver und die Probemobilmachungen und Truppenverstärkungen im Westen des Russischen Reiches, Die. D. V. Görtz. Deutsche R., 39:211. Aug.

Effect of the war on American business, The. Isaac F. Marconnor. Colliers, Aug. 29, p. 2.

Effect of the war in the United States. Chas. F. Carter. World's Work, 28:113. Sept.

England and Germany. George Renwick. British R., 7:40. July.
England goes to war. Henry Beach Needham. Colliers, Sept. 5, p. 16.

Englische Kriegsflotte in Kiel, Die. D. V. Ablefeld. Deutsche R., 39:1. July.

Erzherzog Franz. Leopold Freihr. v. Chlumecky. Öster. Runds, 40:85. July.
Esprit public et la situation en Angleterre, L'. Le Corresp., 220:581. Aug.
European Situation. By Diplomatist.” Empire R., 28:1. Aug.

Europe in the clutch of war. Philip Russell. Int. Socialist Review, 15:133. Sept.

Europe's food supply in war time. Jas. Middleton. World's Work, 28:106. Sept.

Financial aspects of the War. Alex Dana Noyes. World's Work, 28:122. Sept.

Fruchte der Bluttat von Serajevo, Die. Freiherr v. Götz. Deutsche R., 39:131. Aug.

German Emperor, The. Munsey, 52:465. Aug.
German War Trust, The. Robert Crozier Long. Colliers, Sept. 12, p. 7.
Hun at the Gate, The. Colliers, Sept. 19, p. 14.

Italy's peril. Amenta Uniston. (An interview with Guisseppe Garibaldi.) Harp. W.59:179. Aug.

Jaurès and the General Strike against war. William D. Hayward. Int. Soc. R., 15:144. Sept.

Kaiser and the 'mailed fist,' The World's Work, 28:68.
Kronprinz Wilhelm. Öster. Runds, 40:1.

Macht des Goldes und der Krieg, Die. Freiherr v. Sattenhausen. Deutsche R., 39:4.

Men who control the destinies of Europe. World's Work, 28:72.
Modern warfare. John Randolph. Int. Soc. R., 15:136. Sept.
Nation armée, La. A. Roux. La Revue, 25:289. Aug.
Navies of Europe. World's Work, 28:53. Sept.
New things in war. John S. Gregory. World's Work, 28:97. Sept.
On Motors and War. World's Work, 28:198. July.

Österreich-Ungarn und Serbien. Leopold Freihr. v. Chlumecky. Öster. Runds, 40:167. Aug.



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