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We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these, are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the just consent of the governed, &c. [See the whole declaration, signed by the delegates of all the j states, and adopted as the basis of all the State Constitutions.

THE UNITED STATES, CONSTITUTION.

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. [In what possible manner does the most absolute slavery of, and the systematic and perpetuated traffic in, the blood, brains, and nerves of two and a quarter millions of human beings, assist; and in what possible manner does it not destroy each and all of these great objects? Among the following provisions of the Constitution, are all which the framers of it dared to insert for the security of slave property. If they had not felt guilty in holding such property, they would not have left so many hundreds of millions of it with no better security in the Constitution, and so perfectly exposed, as will appear from the instrument itself, and from all the State Constitutions, to the tremendous energy of FREE speech and a FREE PRESS.]

ART. I. Sec. 2. Third clause. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.

Sec. 8. [Among the enumerated powers of Congress are the following, which give it full authority to abolish the internal slave-trade and slavery in the District of Columbia, viz:] The Congress shall have power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, &c. The Congress shall have power to exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States. [A similar power, also, extends to the territories, as appears from] Art. IV. Sec. 3. The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory and other property belonging to the United States, &c. Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states. No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in the union, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence. ART. W. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of threefourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by Congress. AMENDMENT 1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for a redress of grievances. AMENDMENT WI. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. AMENDMENT WII. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation. AMENDMENT IX. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

CONSTITUTION OF MAINE.

Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of this liberty. No laws shall be passed regulating or restraining the freedom of the press. MASSACHUSETTS.

The liberty of the press is essential to security of freedom in a state; it ought not, therefore, to be restrained in this commonwealth.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

The liberty of the press is essential to the security of freedom in a state; it ought, therefore, to be inviolably preserved.

VERMONT.

The people have a right to a freedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments concerning the transactions of government, and, therefore, the freedom of the press ought not to be restrained.

Motto.—“FREEDom AND LIBERTY.”

CONNECTICUT,

Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press.

NEW YORK.

Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press. In all prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury, that the matter charged as libellous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.

Arms—Rising Sun. Supporters—LIBERTY AND Justice.

PENNSYLVANIA.

The printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature, or any branch of the government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Motto—WIRTUE, LIBERTY AND INDEPENDENCE.

DELAWARE. The press shall be free to every citizen who undertakes to examine

the official conduct of men acting in a public capacity; and any citizen may print on any such subject, being responsible for the abuse

of that liberty.
- MARYLAND.
The liberty of the press ought to be inviolably preserved.
Arms—Figure of Justice.

VIRGINIA.

The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty,

and can never be restrained but by despotic governments.

Motto—“So Always To TYRANTs.”

NORTH CAROLINA. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and, therefore, ought never to be restrained. Arms—Liberty AND PLENTY. SOUTH CAROLINA.

The trial by jury, as heretofore used in this state, and the liberty of the press, shall be for ever inviolably preserved.

GEORGIA.

Freedom of the press, and trial by jury, as heretofore used in this state, shall remain inviolate; and no ex post facto law shall be passed. Arms—TEMPLE of LIBERTY.

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