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SEX OF EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905—Concluded.

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Paper goods
Planing mill products.
Pottery..
Printing and publish-
Public works
Railroad, canal, and

road building Railroad transporta

tion.
Rope, twine, and bag-

ging.
Rubher goods
Shipbuilding.
Silk goods.
Slaughtering and

ineat packing.. Smelting and refining. Stone quarrying and

cutting.. Stoves and furnaces. Street railway trans

portation Streets and sewers. Telegraph and tele

phone.. Tin and sheet metal

goods.. Tobacco: chewing and

smoking.. Tobacco: cigars and

cigarettes. Trunks and valises.. Typewriters, cash registers, and sewing

machines.. Watches and clocks Water transportation Wooden goods.. Woolen goods.. Miscellaneous.

142, 451
40, 052

21

142, 451 100.00
40,073 99.95

.05

57 24, 518 99.77

7,044 100.00

7,044

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Total.

07.882, 843 0820, 981 68, 703.824 090.57

b 9. 13 694, 966 130, 644 825, 610

84. 18

15. 82

a Less than 0.01 per cent.

Not including 33 establishments not reported.

In the industries where the largest numbers of employees were thrown out of work by strikes most of the employees thrown out were males. But in such industries as coal and coke, building trades, iron and steel, railroad transportation, and street railway transportation very few females are employed. In 11 of the 82 industries more than half of the employees thrown out of work by strikes were females. These industries were confectionery; cotton goods; men's furnishing goods; gloves and mittens; hosiery and knit goods; laundry work; millinery goods; paper goods; rope, twine, and bagging; silk goods, and tobacco (chewing and smoking). For the percentages in each industry, both for strikes and lockouts, the reader is referred to the table. The corresponding data, by States and geo

SEX OF EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Tables V, pages 480 to 485, and XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general strikes or

lockouts extending into two or more States.)

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93, 435

8. 87

84 26. 19

3 2

15. 24 40. 10

3. 24 1. 21

4. 90 & 09

. 44

. 15

16. 48

9. 63 20. 92 3. 91 3. 72

.76

3, 545

3,682)

9. 72

Alabama.

80,068
83 SO, 151 99.90 0.10 887

887 100.00 Arizona.

4, 324
4,324 100.00

15

15 100.00 Arkansas

11,310
13 11, 323 99. 89 11 102

102 100.00 California.

97,058

5,822
102, SSO 94. 34 5. 66 7, 326

713 8,039 91. 13
Colorado.
92,276 1, 159

98. 76

1. 24 4,030 34 4.064 99. 16 Connecticut.

75, 456 20,854 96, 310 78. 35 21. 05 19,300 6,850 26,156 73. 81 Delaware.

8,344
1, 488

9,832
84. 87 15. 13 188

188 100.00 District of Columbia.. 11, 425

12 11, 437
99-90 . 10

382 100.00 Florida.

83, 469 15, 204 98, 073 84. 59 15. 41 10.057 1,808 11, 865 84. 76 Georgia.

31,043
5,797
36.840 84. 26 15. 74

0,102

4,090 10.199 59. SO Idaho.

4,084
1 4,085 99.98 .02

3.000

3,000 100.00 Illinois. 1, 162, 494 44, 506 1,207,000 96. 31 3. 69 211, 202 7,083 218, 285

96. 76 Indiana..

218,503 3,993

222, 496 98 21 1. 79 4, 5741 56 4.630 98 79 Indian Territory

7,603
7,603 100.00

732

732 100.00 Iowa.. 77, 715 1,800 79, 515

97.74 2. 263, 165 103 3,328 95. 10 Kansas. 36, 827 164 36.991 99. 56

4.690 413 5,103 91. 91 Kentucky.

67.816 2,118 69,934 96. 97 3. 03 2,043 3 2.046 99. 85 Louisiana. 85, 152 2,749 87,901 96. 87 3.13 1, 596

1, 596 100.00 Maine..

30, 874 11,533

42, 407

72. SO 27. 20 5,820 1, 148 6, 968 $3.52 Maryland.. 70,217 5, 745 75.962 92. 44 7. 56 2, 355 251 2, 606

10. 37 Massachusetts.

368, 048 152, 779 520, 827 70. 67 29. 33 33, 448 8,83042, 2018 79. OS Michigan.

131.551

4, 233 135, 784 96. 88 3. 12 8, 209 334 8, 543 96. 09 Minnesota

88, 427
678 89, 105 99. 24

137

96. 28 Mississippi.. 2.822) 162 2,984 94. 57

5. 43 Missouri. 171, 673 5, 389 177,062 96. 96 3. 04

5,005 539

5, 544 SO. 28 Montana. 0 19.020 a 138 a 19, 158 a 99. 28 a. 72 1,695

1.695 100.00 Nebraska. 28, 703 170 28,933 99.41 . 59 2,618

303 2,921

89. 63 Nevada

242

242 100.00 New Hampshire.

18, 966 12,368 31.334 60. 53 39. 47 1,714 407 2, 121 80. 81 New Jersey

197, 173
to, 607

257, 840 76. 47 23. 53 17,475 4,266 21,741 80. 38 New Mexico.

4,764
4,764 100.00

2080

200 100.00 New York,

01.375, 929 0 298, 361 61, 674, 290 6 82. 18 17. 82 195, 657 73,758 209, 415 72. 62 North Carolina. 5,081 196 5, 277 96. 29 3. 71 827 575

1, 402

58. 99 North Dakota.

2,070
14 2.084 99. 33

15

15 100.00 Ohio.

564, 674
19, 257

583.931 96. 70 3. 30 22,082 3.840 25, 922 85. 19 Oklahoma.

830

16
846 98. 11 1. 89 407

2 409 99.51
Oregon.
18,280 745 19,025 96. 08 3. 92

420 1.020 58. S2 Pennsylvania

2, 137, 882 105,052 2,242, 934 95. 32 4. 68 77, 112 7, 262 84,374 91. 39 Rhode Island.

44, 480 20, 706 65, 186 68. 24 31. 76 7.887 5, 490 13.377 58 96 South Carolina

3.774 399
4,173 90. 44 9. 56 770 67 837

92.00 South Dakota.

1, 423
6 1, 429 99. 58 . 42 73

73 100.00 Tennessee

71,799

72, 403 99. 17 .83 2,038 100 2, 138 95. 32 Texas..

33. 814 1,153

34,967 96. 70 3. 30 2,010 16 2,026 99. 21 Utah..

6.349

281
6, 630 95. 76 4. 24 345

345 100.00 Vermont..

11, 340
716 12,056 94. 06 5. 94 8,073.

8,073 100.00 Virginia.

42, 475 3. 4231 45, 898 92. 54 7. 46 2,982 1. 426 4, 408 67. 65 Washington.

24, 334

24, 808 98. 09 1.91 1,775 10 1.785 99. 44 West Virginia.

124,910 1,547 126, 457 98 78 1. 22 4,789 121 4.910 97. 54 Wisconsin

117,994
8, 406 126, 400 93. 35

6. 65 5,705 109 5, 814 98. 13 Wyoming..

7,898
7,898 100.00

331

331 100.00

10. 37

19. 19 19. 02

27. 38 41,01

14. 81

. 49 41, 18

& 61 41.04 800

4. 68 .79

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a Not including 12 establishments not reported.
o Not including 21 establishments not reported.

STRIKES BY SEMIMONTHLY PERIODS.

A table has been prepared showing the number of strikes that began in each half month during the years 1901 to 1905.

NUMBER OF STRIKES FOR THE UNITED STATES BEGUN DURING EACH HALF

MONTH, 1901 to 1905.

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62

January 1 to 15.
January 16 to 31.
February 1 to 15.
February 16 to 28.
March to 5.
March 16 to 31.
April 1 to 15.
April 16 to 30.
May 1 to 15.
May 16 to 31
June 1 to 15.
June 16 to 30.
July 1 to 15.
July 16 to 31
August 1 to 15.
August 16 to 31
September 1 to 15.
September 16 to 30.
October 1 to 15.
October 16 to 31..
November 1 to 15..
November 16 to 30.
December 1 to 15..
December 16 to 31.

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55 99 76 167

66 245

72 111

68 101

65 132

88 105 74 67

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87

142

95 116

75 105

112

67 107 48 75 50

88
53

45 67 46

27

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13,964

100.00

From this table it is seen that more strikes occurred each year except 1904 in the first half of May than in any other half month; in 1904 the same number began during the first half of May as during the first half of April. During the five years 1,656, or 11.86 per cent of all strikes, began in the first half of May. The next highest period of frequency was the first half of April, which half month was the second highest in each of the five years except in 1904 when it was equal to the first half of May. In this period, within the five years there occurred 1,342, or 9.61 per cent of all strikes. The third highest period of frequency varied in the several years, but for the entire five years it was the first half of June, there being in that period 802 strikes, or 5.74 per cent of the total number of strikes. As a rule more strikes occurred in the first half of each month than in the second half. In only one month in the five years was there an exception to this rule.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OF LESS THAN ONE DAY'S

DURATION

In the present investigation covering the years 1901 to 1905 data were collected for strikes and lockouts of less than one day's duration, These fractional-day strikes and lockouts are not included in any of in this report. The principal facts that could be obtained relating to these brief labor disturbances are here presented. No disturbances are included unless there was an actual, well-defined cessation of work for the express purpose of enforcing a demand. The period of cessation of work ranged from a few minutes to several hours. It is probable that this presentation for fractional-day strikes and lockouts is not complete, as, owing to the comparative insignificance of such disturbances, some of them may have escaped notice and the memory of the persons consulted.

Data for 641 strikes lasting less than one day were obtained for the five years from 1901 to 1905. The reports relating to the fractionalday strikes show the following facts:

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Employees after strike (not including 3 establishments not reported).

Male.
Female.

70, 440 11, 831

Of the 641 fractional-day strikes which occurred during the years 1901 to 1905, 324, or 50.55 per cent, were in the building trades, 33, or 5.15 per cent, in telegraph and telephone construction and operation, 28, or 4.37 per cent, in freight handling and teaming, 17, or 2.65 per cent, in domestic and personal service, and 16, or 2.50 per cent, in street railway transportation. In no industry other than the 5 just enumerated were more than 14 fractional-day strikes reported for the five years from 1901 to 1905.

In the following table are presented certain facts under each of the causes for which fractional-day strikes were undertaken: SUMMARY OF STRIKES LASTING LESS THAN ONE DAY FOR THE UNITED STATES, BY

CAUSES, 1901 TO 1905. (This table shows statistics for strikes due solely to each of the 14 causes enumerated on page 112, and

also for strikes in which each of the 14 causes was only a partial or contributing cause. A strike due to several causes (each of which was a partial or contributing cause) has been entered under each of the causes involved, and because of this repetition no total can be made from the figures shown in this table.)

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Em

ployees Strikers. thrown

out of work.

6,552

1,685

507 1,579

1,273.

55

9,685

585

3, 733

268

314 414

77

124

42 125

6 187

933

29

205 782

89

a Not involving union rules. The above presentation by causes shows that of the 641 fractionalday strikes, 268, or 41.81 per cent, were concerning recognition of union and union rules, and that 158, or 24.65 per cent, were for

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