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General strikes and lockouts involving two or more States, where it was impossible to make such division of the facts as would allow of their tabulation in proper proportion under each of the States involved, have been tabulated under the State most affected and cross references made to the other States involved.

In the Third Annual Report the establishment and not the strike or lockout was made the unit of the tabular presentation. In including the data of that report in the summaries of this report the data for all general strikes in the period covered by that report have been assembled so as to make the strike or lockout the unit for the entire twenty-five-year period, from 1881 to 1905.

The number of strikes ordered by labor organizations includes all strikes ordered by direct vote of a labor organization and also all ordered by a business agent or committee of such organization acting under powers conferred by the organization. Lockouts ordered by organizations are those which were ordered by some organization of the employers.

The word “establishment” as used in this report means the place or places of work operated by a person, firm, or corporation in a locality. The plants of different employers in the same locality, or of the same employer in different localities, are considered separate establishments.

An establishment was considered closed when its usual productive work was discontinued. Aggregate days closed represent the sum of the calendar days each of the establishments was closed. The figures indicating average days closed per establishment were found by dividing the aggregate days closed by the number of establishments closed.

Aggregate days until strikers or employees locked out were reemployed or places filled by others represent the sum of the calendar days' duration of the strike or lockout in each establishment. The average per establishment was found by dividing the aggregate by the number of establishments involved. In computing duration the day on which employees first ceased their work was regarded as the beginning of a strike or lockout. The day when the employees went back to work, or when a sufficient number of new employees had been taken on to put the establishment in practically good running order, was regarded as the end. Duration of strikes or lockouts should not be considered a measure of time lost by employees, because a few, and possibly all, employees may secure work elsewhere during the disturbance, or a temporary closing of an establishment by a strike or lockout may mean a prolongation of the working season or more regular work during the remainder of the year, and thus as many days may be worked within the year as though no strike or lockout had


· In general strikes and lockouts the employees in the various establishments often did not strike on the same day and often did not return to work on the same day. In all such disturbances the aggregate days' duration for the general strike or lockout was found by adding the days' duration in the individual establishments. Under like conditions where establishments were closed the aggregate days closed were computed in the same way.

The results of strikes and lockouts are shown by establishments, for the reason that a strike or lockout involving several establishments may be successful in some of the establishments, partly successful in others, and fail in others. A strike is successful in an establishment when the employees striking accomplish that for which they struck. A lockout is successful in an establishment when the employer accomplishes that for which the lockout was undertaken. In the column “succeeded partly" are included all strikes and lockouts which met with success in a part of the demands, or with partial success in some or all demands.

“Settled by joint agreement," as shown in Tables I, II, XIII, and XIV, means that the strike or lockout was settled by an agreement made between organizations on both sides and not between the employers and employees who were actually parties to the labor disturbance.

“Settled by arbitration" means that the issue which caused the strike or lockout was referred to and settled by a disinterested third party. The arbitration may be by one person, several persons, a State bureau or official, or a tribunal appointed by a court at the request of the contending parties.

Under "employees before strike or lockout” are shown, by sex, the number of employees in the establishments involved immediately preceding the strike or lockout. All employees in the establishment are included, except in a few instances where in large industries the work of the various departments are so radically different as to partake of the nature of separate establishments.

In such cases, only the number in the particular department in which the strike or lockout occurred was reported. Thus, for instance, when a strike or lockout occurred in a railroad car shop only the number of employees in the car shop was reported and not the number employed on the whole railroad system.

The number of strikers includes only those who actually joined in the demand and followed their demand by a cessation of work. Employees locked out are those against whom the demand of the employer is directed and who are refused work by reason of noncompliance with the demand.

“ Employees thrown out of work by strike or lockout" include

employees in the establishments involved who are thrown out of their employment by reason of the strike or lockout. The number thrown out of work is usually larger than the number of strikers or employees locked out. The reason is that the nature of the employment of a very few strikers or employees locked out may be such that the strike or lockout will throw out of work all or a large part of the employees in the establishment.

The number of employees after strikes or lockouts, as shown in the tables covering only the period from 1901 to 1905, is the number employed by the establishments immediately after the strike or lockout was ended.

In the Third and Tenth Annual Reports of the Bureau each covering strikes and lockouts for a period of years, the facts for each disturbance were presented in detail and then summarized. In the Sixteenth Annual Report, covering strikes and lockouts, the facts were summarized by industries no data being shown for individual disturbances because of the great amount of space that would have been required.

The classification of industries used in the Tenth and Sixteenth Annual Reports is the same as that adopted for the Third Annual Report. That classification, fairly satisfactory at the time it was made, became more and more subject to objection in later years as disturbances became more frequent in other industries and new industries developed.

An entirely new classification has been prepared for this report. All strikes and lockouts covered in preceding reports have been reclassified in accordance therewith and are included in the summaries on this report.

In making a new classification of industries the object has been to bring together in groups or classes, as nearly as practicable, those establishments and industries in which the employees and employers, respectively, have a common interest and consequently are likely to act together.

Strikes and lockouts at times occur in practically every industry in which men sustain the relation of employer and employee and, in the handling of a great mass of data, classification is necessary. Any classification of establishments and industries is subject to criticism. This criticism may be because the grouping is too comprehensive or, on the other hand, because it is too narrow. There also may be criticism because of classifying establishments in certain industries. It is believed that the classification used in this report is as satisfactory as any that can be devised. This classification comprises 82 groups of industries. Should the reader desire to make a more general classification by combining any of these groups, little In the tables where the presentation is made by years all strikes and lockouts have been tabulated under the calendar year in which they began, although in many cases they were not settled within the year.

. Anything that may produce a disagreement between employer and employee may be the cause of a strike or lockout; yet, while there are many differently stated causes, an examination shows that nearly all of them fall within a comparatively few leading causes or groups

of causes. Space does not permit the publication in this report of all causes in detail. For all practical purposes a study of causes can better be made when they are classified. All causes have been classified under 14 groups, 13 of them being specific and the fourteenth being a miscellaneous group. These causes or groups of causes are practically the same for both strikes and lockouts, except for the necessary change of wording.

A list of the fourteen causes or groups of causes as applied to strikes and lockouts is given below:


1. For increase of wages.
2. Against reduction of wages.
3. For reduction of hours.
4. Against increase of hours.
5. Concerning recognition of union and union rules.

6. Concerning employment of certain persons (not involving union rules).

7. Concerning employees working out of regular occupation.
8. Concerning overtime work and pay.
9. Concerning method and time of payment.
10. Concerning Saturday part holiday.
11. Concerning docking, fines, and charges.

12. Concerning working conditions and rules (not involving union rules).

13. In sympathy with strikers and employees locked out, elsewhere.

14. Other causes (not above specified).


1. Against demand for increase of wages.
2. To enforce reduction of wages.
3. Against demand for reduction of hours.
4. To enforce increase of hours.

5. Concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' 6. Concerning employment of certain persons (not involving union rules).

7. Concerning employees working out of regular occupation.
8. Concerning overtime work and pay.
9. Concerning method and time of payment.
10. Concerning Saturday part holiday.
11. Concerning docking, fines, and charges.

12. Concerning working conditions and rules (not involving union rules).

13. In sympathy with lockout and against strike, elsewhere. 14. Other causes (not above specified).

A short explanation is given of each of the 14 causes under which strikes are classified. Practically the same explanation will apply to the causes of lockouts. The causes of strikes were not always so clearly stated as this list would seem to indicate, and occasionally difficulty has been experienced in classifying them.

By far the greater number of strikes included under the cause “for increase of wages” were thus literally reported, but under this cause are also included strikes for adoption of a new scale, for adoption of union scale, for a change from piece to day work, etc., in which the object of the strike really was to secure an increase of wages. The cause "against reduction of wages” is equally comprehensive.

The causes for reduction of hours" and "against increase of hours” apply to regular hours of labor.' They do not include disputes concerning overtime work or concerning Saturday part holiday. It will be observed that the causes involving wages and the causes involving hours are each divided into two classes.

Under the cause “concerning recognition of union and union rules" are classed the various causes relative to dealing with union officials and the adoption or enforcement of rules and regulations of unions governing the work of their members, one of the most frequent and important rules being against working with nonunion men.

Under the cause "concerning employment of certain persons” are included demands for or against discharge of certain employees or foremen, objections against working with negroes or foreigners, etc., in which disputes the question of union rules is not involved.

“Concerning employees working out of regular occupation” includes protests of employees against being asked to do work not belonging to their trade, against employers doing journeymen's work, etc.

Under the cause “concerning overtime work and pay” are classed disputes as to whether overtime shall be worked, whether payment shall be made therefor, concerning the amount of such payment, etc., also disputes as to work on Sundays and holidays, etc.

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