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of 11,851 strikes, or 32.24 per cent of all strikes, were for this cause alone. This cause, in combination with other causes, produced 3,117 strikes, making 40.72 per cent of all strikes attributable in whole or in part to demands for increase of wages.

The next mcst fruitful cause of strikes was disagreement concerning recognition of union and union rules. This cause alone produced 18.84 per cent of all strikes, and both alone and combined with other causes produced 23.35 per cent of all strikes. Objection to reduction of wages alone and combined with other causes produced 11.90 per cent of all strikes. Demands for reduction of hours alone and combined with other causes produced 9.78 per cent of all strikes.

Of the total number of establishments involved in strikes, 57.91 per cent were involved in strikes caused either in whole or in part by demands for increase of wages.

The most important cause of lockouts was disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization, which cause, alone and combined with various causes, produced nearly one-half of all lockouts and included more than one-half of all establishments involved in lockouts.

The greatest number of strikes that occurred in any one industry was in the building trades, which embraced 26.02 per cent of all strikes and 38.53 per cent of all establishments involved in strikes. In the coal and coke industry were 9.08 per cent of all strikes and 9.39 per cent of all establishments involved in strikes. Many strikes were found in the following industries: Boots and shoes; clothing, men's; foundry and machine shop; and tobacco (cigars and cigarettes). The coal and coke industry included more strikers than any other industry, also more employees thrown out of work. The second industry in order in this respect was the building trades. In the building trades were 16.49 per cent of all lockouts, more than one-half of all the establishments involved, and about 30 per cent of all the employees locked out and of persons thrown out of work.

In 1903 there were 3,494 strikes, a greater number than in any other year. The number was 471 in 1881, the first year of the period, while in 1905 the number was 2,077. More strikers went out in the year 1902 than in any other year, and more employees were thrown out of work in 1894 than in any other year.

Lockouts were more frequent and included more employees in 1903 than in any other year of the period.

In the North Atlantic division were more than one-half of all strikes, establishments involved, strikers, and employees thrown out of work. In the North Central division were almost one-third of the totals in these items named.

The percentages of the total number of strikes in the principal industrial States were as follows: New York, 27.75 per cent; Pennper cent, and Ohio, 6.99 per cent. Of the strikers, 25.12 per cent of

The total number of strikes during the period from 1881 to 1905
was 36,757, the number of establishments involved 181,407, the
number of strikers 6,728,048, and the number of employees thrown
out of work 8,703,824.

For the 25-year period from 1881 to 1905 the average number of
establishments per strike was 4.9, the average number of strikers
per strike was 183, and the average number of employees thrown
out of work per strike was 237.

Considering the strikes by the years in which they occurred, it is

seen from the above table that the number of strikes per year varied

from 443 in 1884 to 3,494 in 1903, the number of establishments

involved varied from 2,105 in 1882 to 20,248 in 1903, the number of

strikers from 101,070 in 1881 to 553,143 in 1902, and the number of

employees thrown out of work from 129,521 in 1881 to 660,425 in

1894. The average number of establishments per strike varied from

3.5 in 1885, 1889, and 1893 to 7.9 in 1897; the number of strikers

per strike from 85 in 1905 to 374 in 1894, and the number of employees
thrown out of work from 107 in 1905 to 490 in 1894.

The second table of the series presents the statistics by industries:

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Agricultural implements...

87

93

1.1 16,997 195 22.912

264

Agriculture.

35

131

3.7 13.065 373 13,227

378

Automobiles and bicycles.

79

93

1.2

5,579 71 9,073

115

Awnings, tents, and sails

10

30

3.0

374

37

374

37

Bakery..

424 6,423 15.1 29,811

70 32,531

77

Blacksmithing and horseshoeing.. 88 2,979 33.9

7,423

81

7,576

86

Boots and shoes..

1,101 1,555 1.4 88,553

SO 160,059

1415

Brass and brass goods.

119 281

2.4

12,536 105 13,729

115

Brewing.

166

874 5.3 16,651 100 18,177

110

Brick and tile.

332 1,476 4.4 81,391 215 90,410

272

Brooms and lirushes.

42

1.5

40

2,050

49

Building trades (9).

9,564 69,899 7.3 917,905

96 31,083,699

Canning and preserving.

48

113

2.4 6,928 144 9,164

191

Car building

611

1.4 66,181

150 89,277

202

Carpets...

175 426

2.4 37,830 216 66,109

378

Curriages and wagons.

125 1,120

11.1 20,512 104 23,351

187

Clothing, men's.

1,147 15,996 13.9 372,211 325 459,059 400

Clothing, women's.

4,918

215,595

232,154 363

Coal and coke.

3,336 17,025 5.1 2,006,353 601 2,460,743

738

Collins and undertakers' goods.

15

27

1.8

29

916

61

Confectionery

17

39 2.3 1,383

81

2,820

160

Cooperage..

323

1,086 3.4 25,652

79 27,174

85

Cotton and woolen goods.

111

440

4.0 8,308

315

C4,928

585

Cotton goods.

832

1.3 166,357 250 277,470

417

Cutlery and edge tools..

93

96

1.0 5,202

56

8,402

90

Domestic service.

338

2,924 8.7 31,803

32,212

95

Electric and gas apparatus and

supplies....

111

1.7

6,364

99 6,768

106

Electric light and power.

82

150

1.8 4,117

50 4,371

53

Flour mill products..

42

89 2.1 3,880

92 4.723

112

Foundry and machine shop.

1,668 4,722 2.8 208.352 125 282,706

169

Freight handling and teaming

916

6.2 219,515 272 275,483

301

Furnishing goods, men's..

202

885

21,919 109 30,297

150

Furniture and upholstering..

535 1,551 2.9 54,135 101 61,869

116

a Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry affected
being building trades.

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a Not including 2 strikes involving 33 establishments not reported.

The coal and coke industry was second in importance so far as
number of strikes and establishments involved were concerned, but
first in number of strikers and employees thrown out of work. In
the coal and coke industry there were 3,336 strikes, 17,025 establish-
ments involved, 2,006,353 strikers, and 2,460,743 employees thrown
out of work. The average per strike was 5.1 establishments, 601
strikers, and 738 employees thrown out of work. So far as the aver-
age number of establishments involved was concerned, the strikes in
the coal and coke industry were considerably smaller than the strikes
in the building trades, but both the average number of strikers and
the average number of employees thrown out of work were more
than six times as great in the coal and coke strikes as in the building
trades strikes.

The average number of establishments involved per strike varied

from 1 to 33.9. Two industries averaged 1 establishment each, and

one industry (blacksmithing and horseshoeing) averaged 33.9 estab-

lishments per strike.

The average number of strikers per strike varied from 29 in the

manufacture of coffins and undertakers' goods to 684 in slaughtering

and meat packing.

The average number of employees thrown out of work per strike

varied from 37 in the manufacture of awnings, tents, and sails to 839

in slaughtering and meat packing.

The average number of strikers and of employees thrown out of work

indicate the size of a strike, but a strike of only a few men in certain
occupations or industries may as successfully tie up the establish-
ment or industry temporarily as a much larger number in other
occupations or industries.

The presentation by States and geographical divisions follows:

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT

OF WORK, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Table V, pages 480 to 485, for notes relating to general strikes extending into two or more

States.)

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77

121

415

263

21

3,624

1, 126

13

446

785

1,360

715

27

29, 176

3,533

63

1,706

6, 632

10, 525

87, 905

29, 976

3, 555

895, 593

160, 817

6,625

70,211

86

87

212

114

169

247

143

510

157

4,085

1,207,000

222, 496

7, 603

79,515

95

238

1-10

195

333

198

585

178

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