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PER CENT OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT,
AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO
Concluded.

1905

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The largest number of lockouts occurred in the building trades, being 16.49 per cent of all lockouts. The second industry in importance in the number of lockouts was the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes, with 9.77 per cent, and the third in importance was printing and publishing, with 7.44 per cent. In the building trades were 54.68 per cent of all establishments involved, 30.87 per cent of all employees locked out, and 29.77 per cent of all employees thrown out of work. Second in importance, so far as establishments are concerned, was the manufacture of men's clothing, with 9.72 per cent. Second in importance to the building trades, so far as employees locked out and employees thrown out of work are concerned, was coal and coke, in which industry the employees locked out numbered 8.56 per cent of the whole, and the employees thrown out of work 8.53 per cent of the whole.

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In the following table similar statistics are presented by States and geographical divisions:

PER CENT OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905.

[See Table XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general lockouts extending into two or more

States.)

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Alabama..
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California.
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia
Idaho.
Illinois,
Indiana.
Indian Territory
Iowa..
Kansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Maine..
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee.
Texas,
Utah.
Vermont.
Virginia..
Washington.
West Virginia.
Wisconsin.
Wyoming.

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15 102 7,763 3,870 25,382

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252 9,958 10, 192

3.000 188,849 4,373

732 2,788 2,516 1,612 1,286 6,951 2,061 40,113 7,047 2,276 5,508 1,164 2,821

1,504 20,397

200 222,853 1,252

15 23,876

409 1,020 70,543 13,377

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329 8,058 4,322 1,770 4, 125 5,319

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3,000 218,285 4,630

732 3,328 5,103 2,046 1,596 6,968 2, 006 42, 298 8,543 3,682 5,544 1,695 2,921 2, 121 21,741

200 269, 415 1, 402

15 25,922

409 1,020 84,374 13,377

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The largest number of lockouts occurred in New York, the second largest number in Pennsylvania, and the third largest in Illinois. In New York State were 21.09 per cent of all lockouts, 34.63 per cent of all establishments involved, 31.11 per cent of all employees locked out, and 32.63 per cent of all employees thrown out of work by lockouts. In Pennsylvania were 10.60 per cent of all lockouts, 12.27 per cent of all establishments involved, 9.85 per cent of all employees locked out, and 10.22 per cent of all employees thrown out of work. In Illinois the number of lockouts was less than in Pennsylvania, being but 9.12 per cent of the whole, but the number of establishments was 24.56 per cent, the number of employees locked out 26.37 per cent, and the number of employees thrown out of work 26.44 per cent of the total.

The portion of the table presenting lockouts by geographical divisions shows that 49.94 per cent of the lockouts were in the North Atlantic division; 5.95 per cent in the South Atlantic, 32.08 per cent in the North Central, 5.63 per cent in the South Central, and 6.40 per cent in the Western.

STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS. The tables which follow show the proportion of strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, and also compare the results of the two classes of strikes. In these tables all strikes, lasting one day or more, which occurred during the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905 have been tabulated in two classes, so that this comparison can easily be made. The strikes that are tabulated as not having been ordered by labor organizations are not necessarily strikes begun and carried on by employees who were not members of an organization. They include not only this class of strikes, but also strikes carried on by members of organizations, when these strikes were without the authority of such organizations. It would have been desirable, but it was not practicable, to secure sufficiently definite information to separate these last two classes of strikes; therefore, they have been combined under the single head of “Strikes not Ordered by Labor Organizations."

An examination of these tables shows that 68.99 per cent of all strikes during the twenty-five-year period, 1881 to 1905, were ordered by labor organizations and 90.34 per cent of all establishments involved in strikes were included in strikes ordered by labor organizations. Of the strikes ordered by labor organizations the employees were successful in 49.48 per cent, partly successful in 15.87 per cent, and failed in 34.65 per cent of the establishments involved, while in strikes not ordered by labor organizations the employees were successful in 33.86 per cent of all establishments involved, partly suc79.69 per cent were in strikes ordered by labor organizations, and of all employees thrown out of work 77.45 per cent were in establishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organizations.

The first series of three tables shows the number of strikes and of establishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organizations and the number and per cent of strikes and of establishments involved in strikes not ordered by labor organizations. The first table presents these facts by years, the second by industries, and the third by States and geographical divisions.

The table by years follows:

STRIKES AND ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED IN STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR

ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. [See Table VII, pages 490 and 491, for notes relating to strikes not reported whether ordered or not

ordered.]

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The percentage of strikes ordered by labor organizations varied from 47.35 per cent in 1881 to 82.14 per cent in 1904. The percentage of establishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organizations varied from 72.81 per cent in 1885 to 95.49 per cent in 1903.

The table presenting similar figures by industries follows:

STRIKES AND ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED IN STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR

ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Table VI, pages 486 to 489, for notes relating to strikes not reported whether ordered or not ordered.)

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Agricultural implements.

55 63. 22 32 36. 78 61 65. 59 32 34. 41 Agriculture.. 6 17. 14 29 82. 86 53 40. 46

78 59. 54 Automobiles and bicycles.

48 60. 76 31 39. 24

66. 67 31 33. 33 Awnings, tents, and sails.

5 50.00
5 50.00 24 SO. 00

6 20.00 Bakery..

392
92. 45 32

7.55
6,350 98. 86

73 1. 14 Blacksmithing and horseshoeing.

83 94. 32
5. 68 2.936 98. 56

43 1. 44 Boots and shoes.

786 71. 39 315 28. 61 1, 215 78. 14 340 21. 86 Brass and brass goods.

79 66.95 39 33. 05

219 77. 39

64 22. 61 Brewing.

150
90. 36
16 9. 64 856 97.94

18 2. 06 Brick and tile.

193 58. 13 139 41.87 1,044

70. 73 432 29. 27 Brooms and brushes.

32 76. 19

10
23. 81

83. 08 11 16. 92 Building trades 28,836 a 92. 39 728 7.61 268, 523

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1,376 1.97 Canning and preserving.

11
22. 92
37 77.08
49 43. 36

64

56. 64 Car building..

245 55. 56 196 44. 44

67. 43 200 32. 57 Carpets..

62 35. 43 113 64. 57 161 37. 79 265 02. 21 Carriages and wagons..

71
56. SO

54 43. 20 1,365 96. 13 55 3. 87 Clothing, men's.

1,035 90. 24 112 9.76

15,779 98. 64 217 1. 36 Clothing, women's..

539 84. 22 101 15. 78

4,780

97. 19 138 2.81 Coal and coke.

1,879 56. 38
1, 454 43. 62 13,757

81.27 Coffins and undertakers' goods.

3,171 18. 73 8 53. 33 7 46. 67 20 74. 07

7 25. 93 Confectionery.

8 47.06
9 52. 94
30 76. 92

9 23. 08 Cooperage.

230 71. 21

93 28. 79 800 79. 19 226 20. 81 Cotton and woolen goods.

16. 22 93 83. 78 342 77.73 98 22. 27 Cotton goods.

162 24. 36 503 75. 64 305

36. 66 527 63. 34 Cutlery and edge tools..

41 44. 09
52 55. 91

45. 83 52 54. 17 Domestic service..

216 63. 91 122 36. 09

2,780
95. 08

4. 92 Electric and gas apparatus and supplies..

38 59. 38 26 40. 62 85 76. 58 26 23. 42 Electric light and power.

56 68. 29
26 31. 71 121 SO. 67

29 19. 33 Flour mill products..

32 76. 19
10 23. 81
79 88. 76

10 11. 24 Foundry and machine shop.

1,167

70. 01 500 29.99 4, 201 88. 99 520 11. 01 Freight handling and teaming.

504 55. 02

44. 98

4,797 84. 68 868 15. 32 Furnishing goods, men’s.

146 72. 28 56 27.72

63.95 319 36. 05 Furniture and upholstering.

443 82. SO 92 17. 20

93. 29

104

6. 71 Gas..

14 29. 17
34 70.83

14 26. 92 38 73. 08 Glass,

292 53. 28 256 46. 72

69. 33 323 31. 67 Gloves and mittens.

27 54. 00
23 46.00 218 90. 46

23 9.54 Hardware..

111 39. 78 168 60.22 134 43. 93 171 56. 07 Harness and saddlery.

131 87. 33 19 12. 67 321 94. 41 19 5. 59 Hats and caps.

308 82. 35

17.65 523 87. 17 77 12. 83 Hosiery and knit goods.

18 8. 74 188 91. 26

22. 31 195 77.69 Iron and steel.

318 38. 08 517 61.92 025 51. 27 594 48. 73 Ironwork, ornamental.

30 88. 24

4 11.76
90 89. 11

11 10. 89 Jewelry and silverware. 59 76. 62 18 23. 38 297 94. 29

18 5. 71 Laundry work...

46 68. 66
21 31. 34 454 94. 19

28 5. 81 Leather..

102 49, 51 104 50. 49

230

66. 47 116 33. 53 Leather goods.

11 52. 38
10 47.62

84. 51

11 15. 49 Lime and cement. 19 39. 58 29 60. 42 34 41. 46

58. 54 Lithographing.

90. 63
6 9. 37 164 96. 47

6. 3. 53 Lumber and timber products.

130 48. 51 138 51. 49 353 43. 85 452 56. 15 Metallic goods..

120 59. 11
83 40. S9 195 18. 90

88 31. 10 Millinery goods.

7 46. 67
8 53. 33
16 66. 67

8 33. 33 Mining, ore.

70 30. 97 156 09.03 282 50. 18 280 49. S2 Musical instruments.

104 83. 20 21 16. 80 187

89.90 21 10. 10 Paper....

48 53. 33 42 46.67

132

74. 58 45 25. 42 Paper goods. 27 43. 55 35 56, 45 77 68. 75

31, 25 Planing mill products.

326 83. SO

63 16. 20

1,438
93. 86

6. 14 Pottery 45 53. 57 39 46. 43 129 66. 15

33. 85 Printing and publishing.

868 86.71 133 13. 29 2,827 94. 26 172 5. 74 Public work.

31 21. 23 115 78. 77 38 24. 52 117 75. 48 Railroad, canal, and road building. 40 10. 58 338 89. 42

187

35. 15 345 64. 85 Railroad transportation.

198 39. 29 306 60.71 323 47. 64 355 52. 36 Rope, twine, and bagging.

8 17. 39
38 82. 61

26. 42

39 73. 58 Rubber goods.....

65. 12 a Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry affected being building trades.

21 27. 27 56 72. 73 301 34. 88

1,447

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