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DURATION OF LOCKOUTS, NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED,

AND AVERAGE DAYS CLOSED, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881

TO 1905. [See Table XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general lockouts extending into two or more

States, establishments closed permanently, establishments in which lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which duration or time closed was not reported.]

State and geographical division.

Establish- Average
ments in days dura-
which

tion per
lockout establish-
occurred ment.

Establishments closed
by lockout.
Per cent of

Average establish

days closed ments in

per estabNumber. which lock

lishment. out OCcurred

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9 31 29 86 62 825 241 155 103 24

Alabama..
Arizona
Arkansas.
California.
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware..
District of Columbia
Florida.
Georgia
Idaho.
Illinois
Indiana.
Indian Territory.
Iowa.
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan..
Minnesota
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee.
Texas.
Utah
Vermont.
Virginia.
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin.
Wyoming.

Total..
North Atlantic.
South Atlantic.
North Central.
South Central..
Western..

32.9

3.0 85.4 139.6 23.1 45.4 59.0 10.1 47.8 20. 2 199.0 150.2 39.8 49.0 35.7 107. 2 59.8 20.7 85.4 20.6 55.6 35, 6 37.9 42.8 41.2 48.8 24.0 76.2 45.0 73.0 39. 2 13.0 82.0 83. 1 64.4 50.8 81.9 114.4 50.5 70.7 56.9

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The average duration of lockouts per establishment in the States in which lockouts were of most frequent occurrence was 73.0 days in New York, 50.8 days in Pennsylvania, and 150.2 days in Illinois. The percentage of establishments in which lockouts occurred which were closed was 51.31 per cent in New York, 75.53 per cent in Pennsylvania, and 89.24 per cent in Illinois. The average number of days closed per establishment was 28.1 in New York, 36.6 in Pennsylvania, and 64.8 in Illinois.

In the presentation by geographical divisions, it is seen that the average duration was 126.1 days in the North Central and 34.5 days in the South Atlantic division. The percentage of establishments closed was 82.12 per cent in the North Central and 39.06 per cent in the South Central division. The average number of days closed was 58.8 in the North Central and 19.7 in the Western division.

CAUSES OF STRIKES,

In the four tables which follow, certain data relating to strikes have been tabulated according to the causes for which undertaken. The classification into 14 causes is explained on pages 112 to 114. These four tables show statistics for strikes due solely to each of the 14 causes and also for strikes in which each of the 14 causes was only a partial or contributing cause. Strikes resulting from two or more causes have been counted under each of those causes combined with various causes-thus, for.example, strikes for increase of wages and reduction of hours have been included in the cause "for increase of wages combined with various causes" and also in the cause “for reduction of hours combined with various causes," as such strikes were due in part to both of these causes.

The first table shows the number and per cent of strikes due to each cause during each year from 1881 to 1905. The second table shows similar data for establishments involved in strikes, and the third table similar data for strikers. The fourth table of the series is a summary for the entire period from 1881 to 1905. This series of tablés renders easy a comparison of the relative importance of each of the 14 causes considered both separately and combined with various causes during each year of the period from 1881 to 1905. The tables are presented in order, and the discussion follows the tables.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF STRIKES DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO EACH OF THE

14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (For explanation of this table see text statement, page 55. The totals entered in the box headings

are taken from Table X, where each strike was counted but once.)

Cause or object.

1881. 1882 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890
(Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total
strikes Atrikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes'strikes
471.)

478.) 443.) 645.) 1,432.), 1,436.) 906.) 1,075.) 1.833.)

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247 217 131 242 597 483 235 322 577 For increase of wages...

Per cent. . 61. 15 54. 41 45. 40 29. 57 37.52 41. 69 33. 64 25. 94 29. 95 81.48 For increase of wages com- ) Number.. 25 11 16 16 30 124 7! 41 46 115 bined with various causes. Per cent. 5.31 2. 42 3.35 3.61 4. 65 8. 66 4.91 4.53 4.28 6. 27 Number.. 49 67 118 157 170 117 159

220 181 Against reduction of

wages

Per cent.. 10. 40 14,76 24. 69'35. 44 26. 36 8.17 11.07 20.64 20.47 9.87 Against reduction of wages Number.. 8

8 12 15 19 14 15 23 18 combined with various

(Per cent.. 1.70 1.32 1.67 2.71 2. 33 1.33 97 1.66 2. 14 98 causes.

Number.. 14 12 5 6 14 138 113 50 52 169 For reduction of hours.

Per cent.. 2.97 2. 64 1.05 1.35 2. 17 9. 64 7.87 5. 52 4.84 9.29 For reduction of hours com-) Number.. 12 5 3 7 6 105 47 22 16 59 bined with various causes. Per cent. 2.55 1. 10 63 1.58 . 93 7.33 3. 27. 2. 43 1.49 3. 22

1 3 21 16 5 10 5 Against increase of hours. Number..

Per cent..

22 21 68 .31 1.12 35 1.10 47 38 Against increase of hours) Number..

2 1
7 4

2

3 combined with various Per cent. 21

42 23
49

19 causes. Concerning recognition of Number.. 27 27 36 30 48 125 224 124 136 236)

union and union rules....Per cent. . 5.73 5. 95 7.53 6. 77 7.44 8.73 15. 60 13. 69 12. 65 12.88 Concerning recognition of

union and union rules Number.. 5 4 10 12 6 40 41 19 25 50 combined with various Per cent.. 1. 06 88 2.09 2. 71 . 93 2. 79 2. 86 2.10 2.33 2. 73

causes.
Concerning employment of Number.. 33 28 22 17 521

113
119

92 75 1361 certain persons (a).. Per cent. 7.01 6.17 4.60 3.84 8.06 7. 89 8. 29 10.15 6. 98 7. 42 Concerning employment of Number.. 3

4 5 31 22 11 13 10 16 certain persons (a) com

Per cent..
.88 .84 1.13

1.54 bined with various causes.)

.77 1. 43
Concerning employees
Number..

1
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2 10 working out of regular Per cent..

21

21 . 14 occupation..

55 Concerning employees working out of regular Number..

1 3 1 occupation combined Per cent..

. 11 28 05 with various causes... Concerning overtime worksNumber..

3

3 6 18 7 6 and pay... Per cent.. 21 .66 21 23 .47 42 1. 25 .77

38 Concerning overtime work Number..

1

5

5 1 and pay combined with Per cent.

. 21

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. 55 .09 Concerning method and Number..

6 6

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28 8 12 201 time of payment.

Per cent.. 85, 1.32 1. 26 1.58 1.09 1.54 1. 95 .88 1.12 1.09 Concerning method

and]

Number.. 1 1 2 4 31 12 10 2 4 10 time of payment com

21 Per cent..

22 42 bined with various causes.)

55 Concerning Saturday part Number..

2 8 5 3 6 holiday, Per cent.

.14 Concerning Saturday parts

Number.. with

3 1 holiday combined

1 Per cent. various causes.

. 21 . 11 .09 Concerning docking, fines,/Number..

3

31 9 15 8 2 17 and charges

Per cent.
66
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2
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1 and charges combined Per cent.

16 11 with various causes.

07

37 Concerning working con-\Number.. 6 18 20 18 25 47 41 31 39

ditions and rules (a).. |Per cent. 1. 273.96 4. 18 4.06, 3.88 3. 28 2. 86 3. 42 3.68 2. 29 Concerning working con

Number.. 6 ditions and rules (a) com- Per cent..

21

1 3 7 19 31 8 13 16 bined with various causes.

1. 27

21 68 1.09 1. 33 21 .88 1.21 871 In sympathy with strikers Number.. 2 3

6 16 20 67 34 65 181 and employees locked out,

Per cent.. 42 661 elsewhere..

42 1.35 2. 48 1.82 4.67 3. 75 6.05 9.87 In sympathy with strikers

and employees locked out, Number.. 2 1 1 3 4 15 elsewhere, combined with Per cent.. 42

21 68 62 1.05 various causes. Other causes (not above/Number.. 15 21 22 30 25 31 48 46 59 93 specified).

Per cent.. 3.18 4.63 4.60 6. 77 3.88 2.16 3. 34 5.08 5. 49 5.07 Other causes combined with various Number.. 2 2 1 3 3 11 9 12 8 11

21 68
77 63 1.32

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above- specified Per cent..

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF STRIKES DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO EACH OF THE

14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (For explanation of this table seu text statement, page 55. The totals entered in the box headings

are taken from Table X, where each strike was counted but once.]

1891. / 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. | 1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. Total, |(Total (Total (Zotal (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikerstrikes strikes strikes strikes strikes 1.717.) 1,298.) 1,305.) 1.349.) |1,215.) 1,026.) 1,678.) 1,056.) 1,797.) 1,779.) 2,924.) 3,162.) 3,494.) 2,307.) 2,077.) 36,757.)

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458 378 316 412 510 275 386 384 698 586 849 1,039! 1, 103 535 583 26. 67 29. 12 24. 21 80.54 41. 98 26. 80 35. 81 36. 36 38. 84 32.94 29. 04 32.86 31.57 28. 1928. 07 125 67 53 52 70 73 89 208 261 294 387

199 177 7.28 5. 16. 1.06 3.85 5. 76 8.09 6. 77 8. 43 11.57 14. 67 10.05 12. 24 13.85 8.63 8. 52

185 151 326 350 221 196 207 160 101 102 127 117 121 175 103 10.77 11. 63 24. 98 25.95 18. 19 19. 10 19.20 15.15 5. 62 5. 73 4. 34 3. 70 3. 46 7.59 4. 96

18 20 13 8 3 12 6 8 7 8 13 9 18 10 .99 1.39 1.53 66 29 1.11 .57

. 26 78 . 48 85 52 21 14 13 20 261 54 87 205

171

221 80 104 4. 95 5.47 3.98 1.56 1.15 1.27 1. 86 2.46 3. 01 4.89 7.01 5. 41 6.33 3.47 5.01 72 43 23 20 36 32 36 41 130

179 184 227 299 106 87 4. 193.31 1.76 1.48 2.96 3. 12 3.34 3.88 7.23 10.06 6. 297. 18 8. 56 4.59 4. 19

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167 95 100
88 81 71 77 124 168

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NUMBER AND PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED IN STRIKES DUEWHOLLY

OR PARTLY TO EACH OF THE 14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (For explanation of this table see text statement, page 55. The totals entered in the box headings

are taken from Table X, where each establishment was counted but once.]

Cause or object.

1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. | 1888. 1889. 1890.
(Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total
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For increase of wages...... Per cent.: 55.67 76. 86 60.82 34. 69 48.20 27.33 28. 82 12. 17 37. 85 36. 27

Number.. 1,630 1,618 1,678 821 1,101 2,747 1. 899 1. 489 1,433 3, 418 For increase of wages com-/Number.. 287 113 504 698 331 1, 848 1. 259 242 663 1, 434

bined with various causes Per cent.. 9.80 5.37 18. 27 29. 19 14. 19 18.38 19.11 6. 90 17.51 15. 22
Against reduction of wages.
Number.. 112 187 370

410
433 321 401 292 001

590 Per cent.. 3. 83 8.88 12. 69 17.32 18.96 3. 19 6. 09 8.33 15.87 6. 26 Against reduction of wages/ Number.. with

12
combined
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188

191 36 19 causes...... Per cent..) 2.80 57 1.45 1.31 3.59 2. So 2.85

95 For reduction of hours.

Number.. 62 45 5 236 154 3, 425 1,124 289 383 1,973

Per cent. 2.12 2.14 . 18 10.82 6. 71 31.07.17.06 8.21 10.12 20.91 For reduction of hours com-j Number.. 835 13 309 576 144 1,817 7731 6691 399 1.195 bined with various causes Per cent.. 28. 52 .62 11.20 2.33 6.30 18.07 11. 73 19.08 10.54 12.68

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Number. Against increase of hours ..

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2 123 8 39 5 7 Per cent.

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13 .09 1.22 12 1.11 13 Against increase of hours combined with Number..

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32 various

152 160

12 3 Per cent.. 03 causes..

1.16
1.51 2. 43

32 Concerning, recognition of Number.. 27

30 67 308 616 233 254 610 union and union rules.... Per cent.. 92 1.71 2.90 1.27 2.93 3.06 9.35 6.65 6. 71 6. 47 Concerning recognition of union and union rules Number.. 104 4 147 124 130 361 481 398 478 353 combined with various|Per cent..

3.55 19 5. 33 5. 24. 5. 69 3.59 7.30 11.35 12.63 3. 75 Causes. Concerning employment of Number..

36
30 38 17

118
168
95 84

172 certain persons(a). ....... Per cent.. 1.23 1.43 1.38 .72 2. 36 1.17 2.55 2.71 2.22 1.83 Concerning employment of

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81
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11 28 13 161 bined with various causes

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11 18

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Per cent..
. 14 .01 . 31

11 27 1. 88 . 16 .07 Concerning, overtiine workl Numher..

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26 27 18 1 77 various (auses.. Per cent..

. 03 .82 Concerning method and/Number..

61 6
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20 395 14 23 27 time of payment. Per cent.. 14 29 22

29 5.99 40
Concerning method and Number..
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117 107 3 23 21 bined with various causes Per cent.. .05 1.74

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16 13 SO 38 various causes. Per cent..

37 2. 11 40 Concerning docking, fines, Number..

31
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05 Concerning docking, fines, and charges combined Number..

1 2 1

1 with various causes... Per cent.

02 02

.11 Concerning working condi- / Number.. 6 32 21

18
464

34 115 93 tions and rules(a). Per cent..

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382

3 494 13 bined with various causes) Per cent.. 25. 03 . 17 .31 3.80 .05 13. So

88 In sympathy with strikers Number.. 2 31 2 25 27 118 and employees locked out,

278 121 88 752 elsewhere. "Per cent.. 07 .11 07 1.06 1.18 1.17 4.22 3. 15 2.32 7.98

. In sympathy with strikers and employees locked out, Number.. 15 8

266 16 190 elsewhere, combined wi

51 . 38 .07 11.2+

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49 61 126 specified)....

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