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NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT IN LOCKOUTS DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO

EACH OF THE 14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. [This table shows statistics for lockouts due solely to each of the 14 causes enumerated on pages 112 and

113, and also for lockouts in which each of the 14 causes was only a partial or contributing cause. A lockout due to several causes (each of which was a partial or contributing cause) has been entered under each of the causes involved, and because of this repetition no total for the year can be made from the figures shown in this table. The totals entered in the box headings are taken from Table XIX, where each employee locked out was counted but once.]

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Against demand for increase of wages.
Against demand for increase of wages

combined with various causes.
To enforce reduction of wages..
To enforce reduction of wages com-

bined with various causes. Against demand for reduction of hours. Against demand for reduction of hours

combined with various causes To enforce increase of hours... To enforce increase of hours combined

with various causes.. Concerning recognition of union and

union rules and employers' organi

zation. Concerning recognition of union and

union rules and employers' organi

zation combined with various causes. Concerning employment of certain per

sons (0) Concerning employment of certain per

sons (a) combined with Various

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causes.

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Concerning employees working out of

regular occupation.. Concerning employees working out of

regular occupation combined with

various causes.. Concerning overtime work and pay.. Concerning overtiine work and pay

combined with various causes. Concerning method and time of pay

ment. Concerning method and time of pay

ment combined with various causes. Concerning Saturday part holiday Concerning Saturday part holiday

combined with various causes. Concerning docking, fines, and charges. Concerning docking, fines, and charges

combined with various canses. Concerning working conditions and

rules (a) Concerning working conditions and rules (a)

combined with various causes. In sympathy with lockout and against

strike, elsewhere. In sympathy with lockout and against

strike, elsewhere, combined with va

rious causes... Other causes (not above specified). Other causes combined with various

above-specified causes..

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NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT IN LOCKOUTS DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO

EACH OF THE 14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (This table shows statistics for lockouts due solely to each of the 14 causes enumerated on pages 112 and

113, and also for lockouts in which each of the 14 causes was only a partial or contributing cause. A lockout due to several causes (each of which was a partial or contributing cause) has been entered under each of the causes involved, and because of this repetition no total for the year can be made from the figures shown in this table. The totals entered in the box headings are taken froin Table XIX, where each employee locked out was counted but once.]

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SUMMARY OF LOCKOUTS FOR THE UNITED STATES DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO

EACH OF THE 14 CAUSES, 1881 TO 1905. [This table shows statistics for lockouts due solely to each of the 14 causes enumerated on pages 112 and

113, and also for lockouts in which each of the 14 causes was only a partial or contributing cause. A lockout due to several causes (each of which was a partial or contributing cause) has been entered under each of the causes involved, and because of this repetition no total can be made from the figures shown in this table. The totals entered in the box headings are taken from Table XX, where each lockout was counted but once.]

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Against demand for increase of wages.
Against demand for increase of wages

combined with various causes.
To enforce reduction of wages...
To enforce reduction of wages combined

with various causes.. Against demand for reduction of hours... Against demand for reduction of hours

combined with various causes. To enforce increase of hours. To enforce increase of hours combined

with various causes.. Concerning recognition of union and union

rules and employers' organization.. Concerning recognition of union and union

rules and employers' organization combined with various causes. Concerning employment of certain per

sons (C). Concerning employment of certain per

sons (c) combined with various causes.. Concerning employees working out of

regular occupation.. Concerning employees working out of

regular occupation combined with

various causes. Concerning overtime work and pay. Concerning overtime work and pay com

bined with various causes.. Concerning method and time of payment. Concerning method and time of payment

combined with various causes. Concerning Saturday part holiday. Concerning Saturday part holiday com

bined with various causes.. Concerning docking, fines, and charges... Concerning docking, fines, and charges

combined with various causes. Concerning working conditions and

rules (C). Concerning working conditions and

rules (C) combined with various causes.. In sympathy with lockout and against

strike, elsewhere.. In sympathy with lockout and against

strike, elsewhere, combined with various

causes.. Other causes (not above specified).. Other causes combined with various above

specified causes...

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a Not including 1 establishment in which lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

Not including 147 establishments in which lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

Not involving union rules.

SUMMARY OF LOCKOUTS FOR THE UNITED STATES DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO

EACH OF THE 14 CAUSES, 1881 TO 1905-Concluded.

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Against demand for increase of wages... 37. 77 23. 05 39. 18 75,714
Against demand for increase of wages
combined with various causes.

51. 16 11. 75 37.09

20,600 To enforce reduction of wages.

a27.47 245.34 a 27. 19 101,412 To enforce reduction of wages combined with various causes..

25. 19 3. 70 71. 11 5,949 Against demand for reduction of hours. 71. 78 6. 64 21. 58 14,262 Against demand for reduction of hours combined with various causes....

28. 47

53. 22 18. 31 8,268 To enforce increase of hours.

80. 38

19. 62

21,703 To enforce increase of hours combined with various causes..

92. 86

7.14

1,013 Concerning recognition of union and union

rules and employers' organization. 070.72 04.26 25. 02 231,562 Concerning recognition of union and union

rules and employers' organization combined with various causes.

22. 65 11. 43 65. 92

46, 124 Concerning employment of certain persons (c).

93. 88

6. 12

6,733 Concerning employment of certain persons (c) combined with various causes.. 88. 89 11.11

3,979 Concerning employees working out of regular occupation...

87.50

12. 50 748 Concerning employees working out of

regular occupation combined with

various causes. Concerning overtime work and pay.

2. 27

97. 73 1,210 Concerning overtime work and pay combined with various causes..

75.00 25.00

744 Concerning method and time of payment. 66. 67

33. 33

285 Concerning method and time of payment combined with various causes.

100.00

349 Concerning Saturday part holiday..

6. 25

93. 75 2, 439 Concerning Saturday part holiday combined with various causes..

12. 50 87.50

815 Concerning docking, fines, and charges.. 55. 56

22. 22 366 Concerning docking, fines, and charges combined with various causes..

100.00 Concerning working conditions and rules()

6. 25 8. 95 84. 80 13,868 Concerning working conditions and

rules () combined with various causes. 41. 10 6. 85 52.05 3,652 In sympathy with lockout and against strike, elsewhere

74. 77 8.95 16. 28 70,275 In sympathy with lockout and against

strike, elsewhere, combined with various causes.

100.00 30,095 Other causes (not above specified)... 56.99

13. 07 29.94 114,732 Other causescombined with various abovespecified causes..

30. 27 22.94 46. 79 3,006

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a Not including 1 establishment in which lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

Not including 147 establishments in which lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

Not involving union rules. d Less than 0.01 per cent.

one

The first table of the series shows that a much greater number of lockouts arose from disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization than from any other one cause. A greater number of lockouts were undertaken for that cause than for any other in eighteen of the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905, and not only was the actual number generally increasing during those years but the proportion of lockouts from this cause was also increasing

The second cause in importance, so far as number of lockouts was concerned, was to enforce reduction of wages. A greater number of lockouts were undertaken for that cause than for

any

other in five of the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905. That cause appears to be of decreasing importance when measured by the number of lockouts.

Considering the number of establishments involved, as shown in the second table of the series, the largest number was due to lockouts from disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization. A greater number of establishments were involved in lockouts due to that cause than to any other one cause in sixteen of the twenty-five years included in this report.

Another important cause when considered in connection with the number of establishments involved was in sympathy with lockout and against strike, elsewhere.

The third table, relating to the employees locked out, shows that in thirteen of the twenty-five years included in the report the largest number of employees were locked out by reason of disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization. Comparatively large numbers of employees were locked out by reason of lockouts to enforce reduction of wages, and against demand for increase of wages, also by reason of sympathetic lockouts.

The cause of the greatest number of lockouts, as shown in the fourth table of the series, which is a summary of the twenty-five years from 1881. to 1905, was disputes concerning the recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization. This cause alone accounted for 669 lockouts, or 43.27 per cent of the total of 1,546 lockouts that occurred in the twenty-five-year period from 1881 to 1905. Alone and combined with other causes it accounted for 47.80 per cent of all lockouts. The lockouts to enforce reduction of wages numbered 199 and those against demands for increase of wages 185.

Practically one-half of all establishments involved in lockouts were so involved because of disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization either as a whole or partial cause. Lockouts for this cause succeeded in 70.72 per cent of the

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