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the present report. A number of important changes have been made from time to time in the method of presentation of these statistics, which make an accurate comparison of the data for the entire period impossible. Thus in the earlier reports, from 1888 to 1893, strikes and lockouts were considered separately in many of the important statistical tables, while in later years they are shown together under the general term of disputes. From 1888 to 1896 all strikes and lockouts that were reported to the department were included in the compilations, but beginning with 1897 disputes involving fewer than ten persons or resulting in less than one day's stoppage of work are not considered, except where the aggregate duration of a dispute exceeds one hundred working days. Other changes are mentioned in the form of notes to the tables and in the analysis. The collection of the original data is done by the labor department of the Board of Trade. Information regarding strikes and lockouts is obtained by consulting a large number of newspapers, trade papers, reports of unions, reports of employers' associations, etc. As soon as the department learns of the occurrence of a strike, two schedules of inquiry are mailed to the employers and to the workingmen. One schedule is to be filled out at once in order to furnish a preliminary statement for the monthly report, while the second is to be filled out at the end of the strike. By comparing the statements made by the two parties to the controversy and hy securing additional information where necessary, the department obtains the data it desires. Because of the great extent to which the organization of employers and employees has been carried, it is possible to secure information without employing special agents or making use of local Government officials. The "labor correspondents," however, are frequently called upon to assist in this part of the work.

The annual reports as now published contain an account of the disputes during the year, an analysis by industry groups, summary tables of strikes and lockouts and of conciliation and arbitration proceedings for the year and in comparison with a number of preceding years, tabular statements giving the principal facts concerning each of the most important strikes during the year and of the great strikes occurring each year since 1888, detailed statements of the work of trade boards of conciliation and arbitration, and specimen schedules of inquiry.

In Italy strike and lockout statistics have been published annually since 1892. Until the close of the year 1903 the work of compilation and verification of these statistics was in the hands of the general statistical bureau of the ministry of agriculture, industry, and commerce, but beginning with the year 1904 this work was transferred to the bureau of labor in the same ministry.

The original data are collected by the prefects of the provinces on schedules furnished by the bureau of labor, and cover strikes and The first report (") covers data for the years 1879 to 1891 and for a few months in 1878. No changes of any importance have been made in the subject-matter considered or method of presentation since that time. As now published the annual reports contain detailed tables showing for each strike and lockout the locality, number, and occupation of strikers and persons locked out; the cause or object, result, duration, total working-days lost, and whether the dispute was accompanied by violence; descriptive notes of each strike and lockout; summary tables showing strikes by duration, number of strikers, causes, results, working-days lost, etc., and a copy of the schedule of inquiry used in obtaining the information. The annual reports thus far published contain strike data for the years 1878 to 1903.

The Russian department of industrial affairs in the ministry of commerce recently published a report of the labor inspector on strikes in Russia during the years 1895 to 1904. A copy of this report was not available for the present compilation.

In the Netherlands statistics of strikes and lockouts have been published since 1901 in the form of supplements to the Review of the Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands. () The information is given in the form of an analysis, with summary tables, and a tabular statement showing in detail the important facts concerning each strike and lockout.

Spain has published but one strike report, (C) which covers the last five months of the year 1904 and the entire year 1905. This report, which was issued by the Spanish labor bureau, is announced to be the first of an annual series. The report consists of a tabular statement of each individual strike and summary tables, with analyses, showing the number of strikes, their duration, the number of persons employed in establishments involved, the number of strikers and others affected, their occupation and industries, and the causes and results of strikes. In the present compilation data for 1905 only have been used.

In Switzerland statistics of strikes and lockouts for the period 1860 to 1894 were published in the annual report of the managing committee of the Swiss federation of labor (d) for the year 1894. The report for the succeeding year contained strike data for the year 1895, after which the publication of this information was discontinued.

a Statistica degli Scioperi Avvenuti nell'Industria e nell'Agricoltura durante gli anni dal 1884 al 1891. Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio. Direzione generale della Statistica.

o Werkstakingen en Uitsluitingen in Nederland. Bijvoegsel van het Tijdschfift van het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.

c Estadística de las Huelgas (1904–5). Instituto de Reformas Sociales.

d Rapport Annuel du Comite-Directeur de la Federation Ouvrière Suisse et du Secretariat Ouvrier Suisse.

AUSTRIA.

The statistics of strikes and lockouts in Austria, compiled from the annual reports of the Austrian Government, cover labor disputes occurring in the various industrial occupations from 1891 to 1905 in the Crown lands represented in the Austrian Parliament. While the Austrian reports for the years 1891 to 1897 do not include the mining industry in the statistical presentations, the reports for 1898 and subsequent years contain summary statistics for each year beginning with 1894 which include statistics for the mining industry. This makes it possible to present a series of comparative figures for the years 1894 to 1905. In the Austrian reports strikes and lockouts are considered separately in all the tabulations, and the same has been done in the present compilation. | The following table gives the summary of all the important facts published in relation to strikes in Austria during the years 1891 to 1905:

STRIKES IN AUSTRIA, BY YEARS, 1891 TO 1905.

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a Not including strikes in the mining industry.
o Including 4 strikes the results of which were not reported.
c Not reported.
& Not including strikes in the mining industry in 1891, 1892, and 1893.
e Not including data for 1891, 1892, and 1893.

STRIKES IN AUSTRIA, BY YEARS, 1891 TO 1905--Concluded.

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1891 (2)
14.025 (6) () (6) (6) (0)

)
1892 (a)
14, 123

(6) (6) 1893 (a) 28, 120

(b)

(b) 1894.

67,061 6,133 25, 019 35, 909 7,562 2, 175 795,721 1895.

28, 652
3, 669 17,390

7,593 2,062

1,073 300, 348 1896 66, 234 3,046 41,597 21, 591 3, 473

1,389 1897

899, 939 38, 467 6,034 18,391 14,042 2,858 1,565 368,096 1898 39, 658 3,315 26, 356 9,987 5, 458

1,343 323, 619 1899

54, 763 5,594 39, 421 9,748 5,374 1,115 1.029,937 1900

105, 128 4, 891 89,921 10,316 7,737 4,346 3,483, 963 1901.

24,870 5, 007 11,895 7,968 2,846 771 157, 744 1902

37, 471 5,162 19, 739 12, 570 6,354 1, 431 284, 046 1903

46, 215 4, 620 31, 436 10, 159 5, 245 1,092 500, 567 1904.

64, 227 11,925 26, 563 25, 739 9, 301 2,817 1905.

606, 629 99,591 13,991 71, 282 14,318 11,340 3,276 1,151,310 Total (C) 728,605 473,387 € 419,010 e 179, 940 €69,610 €22,393 e 9,901,919

(0) 247,076

150, 992 (0) 518,511 100, 312 896, 033 25, 261 325, 609 37,945 937, 884 33, 392 401, 488 29, 254 352, 873 106, 248 1, 136, 185 191,753 3,675, 716 32,015 189,759 79, 168 363, 214 72, 244 572, 811 60, 029 666, 658

87, 148 1,238, 458 e 854,769 11,673, 267

a Not including strikes in the mining industry.
Not reported.
Not including strikes in the mining industry in 1891, 1892, and 1893.
d Including 56,268 strikers in strikes the results of which were not reported.
e Not including data for 1891, 1892, and 1893.

The next table shows statistics for lockouts which occurred during the years 1894 to 1905:

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During the fifteen-year period covered by the table relating to strikes 4,136 strikes were reported, involving 23,767 establishments, 728,605 strikers, and resulting in a total loss of 11,673,267 workingdays. Of the 4,132 strikes for which the results were known, 860, or 20.8 per cent, succeeded, 1,670, or 40.4 per cent, succeeded partly, and 1,602, or 38.8 per cent, failed.

During the twelve-year period, from 1894 to 1905, for which comparable statistics for all industries have been published, 3,759 strikes were reported. These affected 19,125 establishments, involved work on account of strikes, and resulted in a loss of 9,901,919 workingdays by strikers and of 854,769 working-days by others thrown out of work, or a total of 10,756,688 days. Of the 3,759 strikes reported during this period, 778, or 20.7 per cent, succeeded, 1,560, or 41.5 per cent, succeeded partly, and 1,421, or 37.8 per cent, failed. Of the 672,337 strikers involved in these strikes, 73,387, or 10.9 per cent, were in strikes which succeeded, 419,010, or 62.3 per cent, in strikes which succeeded partly, and 179,940, or 26.8 per cent, in strikes which failed.

The following table shows the number of strikes and strikers according to the results of strikes for each group of industries and each year from 1894 to 1905:

RESULTS OF STRIKES IN AUSTRIA, BY INDUSTRIES AND YEARS, 1894 TO 1905.

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