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establishments. Where this cause was combined with other causes, however, lockouts were failures in about two-thirds of the establishments involved.

Lockouts against demand for increase of wages, both alone and combined with various causes, succeeded in whole or in part more often than they failed. Sympathetic lockouts were successful in nearly three-fourths of the establishments involved. Lockouts because of disputes concerning the employment of certain persons were even more generally successful.

About one-third of all employees locked out and of all employees thrown out of work were included in lockouts due to disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers'organization.

Lockouts due to disputes concerning wages were next in importance when measured by the number of employees locked out or thrown out of work.

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

The following tables present the results of both strikes and lockouts, the first of the three tables presenting these data by years, the second by industries, and the third by States and geographical divisions.

A strike in an establishment was reported as successful, when the employees succeeded in enforcing full compliance with all of their demands; partly successful, when they succeeded in enforcing compliance with a part of their demands or partial compliance with some or all of their demands; and failed, when they did not succeed in enforcing even partial compliance with any of their demands.

A lockout in an establishment was reported as successful, when the employer succeeded in enforcing full compliance with all of his demands; partly successful, when he succeeded in enforcing compliance with a part of his demands or partial compliance with some or all of his demands; and failed, when he did not succeed in enforcing even partial compliance with any of his demands.

The table presenting the results of strikes and lockouts by years follows:

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Tables IV, pages 478 and 479, and XVI, pages 736 and 737, for notes relating to establishments in

which strike or lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which result of strike or lockout was not reported.]

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During the twenty-five-year period from 1881 to 1905 the employees won their demands in 47.94 per cent of the 181,407 establishments involved in strikes; they won their demands in part in 15.28 per cent of the establishments, and they failed entirely in 36.78 per cent. In 57.20 per cent of the 18,547 establishments involved in lockouts the employers succeeded in forcing compliance with their demands; in 10.71 per cent there was partial compliance, and in 32.09 per cent of the establishments the employers failed.

The percentage of establishments involved in strikes in which the employees were either wholly or partly successful varied greatly from year to year, reaching as high as 73.24 per cent successful and 14.25 per cent partly successful in 1899 and falling as low as 34.51 per cent successful and 18.85 per cent partly successful in 1886, and 37.88 per cent successful and 8.29 per cent partly successful in 1891. In 1905, the last year of the investigation, the employees succeeded in enforcing their demands in 40.17 per cent of the establishments involved in strikes, succeeded partly in 11.45 per cent, and failed in 48.38 per cent. In 1905 the employers succeeded in enforcing their demands in 31.60 per cent of the establishments involved in lockouts, The second table of this series presents results of strikes and lockouts by industries:

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Tables III, pas 472 to 477, and XV, pages 732 to 735, for notes relating to establishments in

which strike or lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which result of strike or lockout was not reported.]

Strikes.

Lockouts.

Industry.

Per cent of estab-
Total

lishments in which
estab-

strike--
lish-
ments
in- Suc-

Suc-
volved. ceeded.

ceeded Failed.
partly.

Per cent of estabTotal

lishments in which estab

lockout-
lish-
ments

Suc-
in- Suc-
volved. ceeded.

ceeded Failed.
partly.

1, 476

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269,899

113

10,142

458

1

Agricultural implements.

93 20. 43 16. 13

03. 44
13 92. 31

7. 69 Agriculture..

131 22. 90

22.90 54.20 Automobiles and bicycles.

93 40. 86 2.15

56.99
4 75.00

25.00 Awnings, tents, and sails.

30 26. 67 10.00 63.33 Bakery

6,423

61.44 4.06 34.50 165 40.00 46.06 13.94 Blacksmithing and horseshoeing 2,979 86.74 4.06 9.20 739 99.46

.54 Boots and shocs.

1,555 38.01 10.03 51.96 337 39.17 12.76 48.07 Brass and brass goods..

284
14.44 19.36 66.20

8 87.50

12.50 Brewing.. 874 32.49 32.15 35.36 204 69.12

30.88 Brick and tile. 32.45 17.35 50.20 52 55.77

44.23 Brooms and brushes.

65 46.15 10.77 43.08

1 100.00 Building trades.

052.47 a 17.42 030.11

66.23 4.47 29.30 Canning and preserving

43.36 3.54 53.10 Car building

614 24.43 21.99 53.58 12 91.67 8.33 Carpets..

426
30.05 17.13 52.82

4 75.00

25.00 Carriages and wagons,

1, 420 28.17 27.5.3 44.30 214 6.54 93.46 Clothing, men's.

15,9961 75.51 6.49 18.00

1, 803 9.00 10.49

79.91 Clothing, women's.

4,918
66.37 6.83 26.80 140 40.71

59.29 Coal and coke 17,025 22.52 28.00 49.48

10.26 85.37

4.37 Collins and undertakers' goods.

27 7.41 29.63 62.96 Confectionery.

39! 43.59

50.41

2
50.00

50.00 Coope rage

1,0861
62.71 7.46 29.83 24 79.17

20.83 Cotion and woolen goods.

440 13.64 9.54 76.82

1

100.00 Cotton goods.

832 18.43 11.69 69.88

64 65.62 4.69 29.69 Cutlery and edge tools. 37.50 9.37 53.13 141 71.43

28.57 Domestic service.

2,924 18.09 15.90 66.01

61 45.90

54.10 Electric and gas apparatus and supplies... 111 34.24 1.80 63.96 24 50.00

50.00 Electric light and power.

150 26.00 8.00 66.00

3 100.00 Flour mill products.

89 21.35 8.99 69.60

3 100.00 Foundry and machine shop.

4,722 37.70 16.52 45.72 100 78.00 1.00 21.00 Freight handling and teaming, 5,665 25. 49 11.53 62.98 404 73.02

14.85 12.13 Furnishing goods, men's.

885 75 34 5.32 19.34

40 77.50 2.50 20.00 Furniture and upholstering

1,551

40.36 9.61 50.03 193 09.43 5.70 24.87 Gas..

52 15 39 13.46 71.15 Glass.

1,0301
35.81 6.52 57.67 145 55.00

44.00 Gloves and mittens. 2411 33.19 51.87 14.94 72 54.17

45.83 Hardware.. 305 23.61 10.49 65.90 23 65.22

21.74 13.04 llarness and saddlery

340
46.02 7.96 46.02

7 85.71

14.29 llats and caps.

600 44.00 13.67 42.33 133

55.80 .72 43.48 Hosiery and knit goods.

251
27. 09 11. 16 61. 75

74 94. 60 1. 35 4. 05 Iron and steel..

1,219
25. 12 15. 60 59. 28

46 84. 45 2. 22 13. 33 Ironwork, ornamental

101 23. 76 14. 85 61. 39

37 100.00 Jewelry and silverware.

315 18. 73 34. 92 46. 35

74 100.00 Laundry work.

482
21. 99
62. 45
15, 56

31 77. 42 19. 35 3. 23 Leather...

346
28. 33 16. 76 54. 91 138 85.51

72 13. 77 Leather goods..

71 67. 60 2. 82

29. 58 Lime and cement. 40. 24 14. 64 45. 12 36 11. 11

88 89 Lithographing.

170 23. 53 34. 12

42. 35 91 3. 30 96, 70 Lumber and timber products.

806 30. 89 19. 73 49. 38

26 73. 08

26. 92 Metallic goods.

83 22. 97 18. 73 58 30

12 10.00 Mill nery goods.

24 45. 83 8. 34 45, 83

19 100.00 Mining, ore

503 19.01
6. 39 74. 60
11 63. 64

36. 36 Musical instruments.

208 31. 25
12.02 56. 73

18 100.00 Paper..

177 29. 94 14. 69 55, 37

2 100.00 Paper goods..

112 14. 29 41. 07 44. 64

2 50.00

50.00 Planing mill products.

1,532 31. 85 11. 88

56. 27

57. 41 !

1.85 40. 74 Pottery..

195 13. 33 42. 57 44. 10

35. 48 61. 29 3, 23 Printing and publishing.

2,999 45. 01 7. 75 47. 24 394 37. 79 . 20 61. 95 Public works.

155 32.90 10, 32 56. 78

1 100.00 Railroad, canal, and road building.. 532 23. 31 8. 27 68. 42

e Incuding 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry afected being building trades.

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905-Concluded.

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In some of the important industries most affected by labor disturbances the results were as follows: In the strikes in the building trades the employees succeeded in enforcing their demands in 52.47 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 17.42 per cent, and failed in 30.11 per cent. In coal and coke the employees succeeded in 22.52 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 28 per cent, and failed in 49.48 per cent. In the manufacture of men's clothing the employees succeeded in 75.51 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 6.49 per cent, and failed in 18 per cent.

In lockouts in the building trades the result was favorable to the employers in 66.23 per cent of the establishments involved, partially so in 4.47 per cent, and against them in 29.30 per cent. In coal and coke the employers succeeded in 10.26 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 85.37 per cent, and failed in 4.37 per cent. In men's clothing the employers succeeded in 9.60 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 10.49 per cent, and failed in 79.91 per cent. The third table of this series shows the

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS,

1881 TO 1905. (See Tables V. pages 480 to 485, and XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general strikes or lock

outs extending into two or more States, establishments in which strike or lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which result of strike or lockout was not reported.]

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11

1 14 241

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207

1 41 88 109

6 4,555

233

27.27 100.00 35. 71 48.96 69.84 62. 80) 100.00

2. 44 46. 59 51.38 66. 67 53. 82 74. 25 100.00 43.63 88. 89 SO. 64 37.93 50.00 19. 35 33. 82 34.03 CO.00

39

131

9 31 29 86 62 825 241 155

Alabama
Arizona.
Arkansas..
Caliiornia.
Colorado..
Connecticut.
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho.
Illinois.
Indiana.
Indian Territory
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland..
Massachusetts.
Michigan..
Minnesota.
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana
Nebraska.
Nevada
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio..
Oklahoma,
Oregon..
Pennsylvania
Rhode Islandi.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas.
U'tah..
Vermont,
Virginia.
Washington.
West Virginia
Wisconsin.
Wyoming..

Total.

737

25. S2 18.03 28

39. 29 28. 57 175

35. 88 13. 53 3,357 33. 34 10. 43 3,663 53. 45 9. 08 2,111 39.96 12. 99 279

37.63 13. 98 785 48. 15: 27. 52 1,300 44. 58 20. 191 715 12. 91 17. 50 27

20.77 7. 69 29,176 52. 56 11. 75 3,533 31. 98 24. 18

63 4. 76 1. 59 1,706 34. 98

10.09 477 30. 25 20. 23 1,345 44. 79 15. 63 2,098 11. 49 6. 15

431 38.08 10.75 1,565 44.03 22.30 10,003 38. 05 15. 27 2, 409 46. 29 15. 60 2,435 47.73 17.90

87 12. 64 3. 45 6, 496 42. 67 14. 02 230 45.52

25. 22 44.98 10.84 80.00

28. 27 14. 13 6,722 42.77

24. 06 45 51. 11 2. 22 51,597 64.73 10.32

21. 43 2. 38 34 50.00 14. 71 10,207 | 33.01 24.01 34 21.87 3. 13

56. 15 32. 141 50. 59 56. 23 37. 47 47.05 48. 39 24. 33 35. 23 69. 59 61. 54 35. 69 43. 84 93. 65 54.93 39. 50 39. 58 82. 26 51. 17 33. 67 46.68 38. 11 34. 37 83. 91 42.71 28. 26 44. 18 20.00 57. CO 33. 17 46. 67 24.95 76. 19 35. 29 42.98 75.00 82. 74 39.70 30. 23 43.00 33. 33 61.74 38. 52 18.53 10. 20 50. 23 34. 02 53. 51 46.59 58. 33

103 24 90

498

45 946

1 6,422

21

3 386 27

6781

95. 56 57.72 100.00

49. SO 100.00 100.00 58. 81 96.30 100.00 83. 29 30. 30 100.00 50.00 72. 22 90. 15 100,00 90. 26 54. 90 77.68 84. 21 61. 62 50.00

18

2 37 132

12 394

51 112 19 93 21

North Atlantic. South Atlantic. North Central. South Central.

45. 46

27. 27

2. 49
6. 35
9. 66

64. 29
48. 55
23. 81
27. 54

2. 27
1.83

97.56 51. 14 46. 79 33. 33 30.92 21.03

15. 26
4.72

56. 35

16.13

11. 11

3. 23
62.07
6.98

23. 27
41. 49
5. 16

43. 02 80. 65 42. 91 24. 48 34. 84

9. 29 7.97 24,985 37.03

23. 27 1,376 57.34 12. 43 101 50.00 7.00

40 60. 61 6.06 1,2:9 25. 10 13. 16 1,343 44. 56 16. 92 248

71.77 9.68 490 70. 41 19. 39

30. 66 19.11 879 37.88 28. 10 1,128 27. 20 19. 29 3, 402 35. 63 17. 78

CO 26. 67 15.00

41.75
33. 33
98.89

8.74
4. 17

49. 51 02. 50

1.11

4. 44 7. 40

34. 88

10.95

30. 25

81 2,276

5. 96

25. 23 3. 70

. 31 36. 37

16. 40 33. 33

19. 43

50.00 S. 33 9.85

9. 64 3.92 13. 39

41. 18

8.93 15. 79 27.27 50.00

11. 11

181, 407

47.94

15. 28

36.78

18,547

57. 20

10.71

32.09

98,004

6,649 60, 413 7,121

52. 60 36. 84 44. 87 28. 42

15. 22
20. 44
15. 69
12. 50

32.18
42.72
39. 45
59. Os

11,267

410
6,007

57.83
47.32
54.76
79. 62

9. 43

1. 46 14. 30 9. 72

32. 74 51.22 30.94 10.00

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