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In New York the employees succeeded in enforcing their demands in 64.73 per cent of the establishments involved in strikes, succeeded partly in 10.32 per cent, and failed in 24.95 per cent. The employers succeeded in enforcing their demands in 49.80 per cent of the establishments involved in lockouts, succeeded partly in 10.95 per cent, and failed in 39.25 per cent. In Pennsylvania the employees succeeded in 37.03 per cent of the establishments involved in strikes, succeeded partly in 23.27 per cent, and failed in 39.70 per cent. The employers succeeded in 83.29 per cent of the establishments involved in lockouts, succeeded partly in 0.31 per cent, and failed in 16.40 per cent. In Illinois the employees were successful in 52.56 per cent of the establishments involved in strikes, partly successful in 11.75 per cent, and failed in 35.69 per cent. The employers were successful in 53.82 per cent of the establishments involved in lockouts, partly successful in 15.26 per cent, and failed in 30.92 per cent.

In the second part of the table, relating to geographical divisions, it is seen that the employees were successful in the largest percentage of establishments involved in strikes in the North Atlantic division and failed in the largest percentage in the South Central division, while in lockouts the employers were successful in the largest percentage of establishments in the South Central division and failed in the largest percentage in the South Atlantic division. SETTLEMENT BY JOINT AGREEMENT AND BY ARBI

TRATION.

In recent years there has been an increasing disposition on the part of employers to unite in associations or organizations to promote their mutual interests, so that a labor organization in entering a strike or lockout often has to meet the opposition not only of the individual employer but of an entire association of employers. Where such an association of employers exists strikes and lockouts are sometimes settled by the joint agreement of officials of the organizations on both sides rather than by the action of the employers and employees directly involved.

Another form of settlement of strikes and lockouts sometimes resorted to is that of arbitration, wherein the parties submit their dispute to the decision of a disinterested third party. The facts relating to these two methods of settling strikes and lockouts were secured in the present investigation for the years 1901 to 1905.

These facts are set forth in Tables I, II, XIII, and XIV, and are here summarized in a series of three tables.

The first table shows by years the number of strikes and lockouts which occurred in the United States during the years 1901 to 1905, the number settled by joint agreement, and the number settled by

NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS SETTLED BY JOINT AGREEMENT AND BY

ARBITRATION, BY YEARS, 1901 TO 1905.

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Of the 13,964 strikes which occurred during the years 1901 to 1905, a total of 803 strikes, or 5.75 per cent of all strikes, were settled by joint agreement between organizations on both sides, and a total of 223 strikes, or 1.60 per cent of the entire number, were settled by arbitration.

Of the 541 lockouts in the five-year period, 66, or 12.20 per cent, were settled by joint agreement between organizations on both sides, and 11, or 2.03 per cent, were settled by arbitration.

Computing percentages from the figures of the table, it is seen that the percentage of strikes settled by joint agreement was 5.10 per cent in 1901, 6.45 per cent in 1902, 7.04 per cent in 1903, 5.64 per cent in 1904, and 3.56 per cent in 1905. The percentage of lockouts settled by joint agreement was 11.36 per cent in 1901, 14.10 per cent in 1902, 11.69 per cent in 1903, 15.18 per cent in 1904, and 9.17 per cent in 1905.

The second table of this series shows by industries the number of strikes and lockouts that occurred in the United States during the years 1901 to 1905, the number settled by joint agreement, and the number settled by arbitration:

NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS SETTLED BY JOINT AGREEMENT AND BY

ARBITRATION, BY INDUSTRIES, 1901 TO 1905.

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Agricultural implements.
Agriculture...
Automobiles and bicycles.
Awnings, tents, and sails.
Bakery.
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing
Boots and shoes..
Brass and brass goods.
Brewing...
Brick and tile
Brooms and brushes.
Building trades.

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NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS SETTLED BY JOINT AGREEMENT AND BY

ARBITRATION, BY INDUSTRIES, 1971 TO 1905-Concluded.

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Car building
Carpets..
Carriages and wagons.
Clothing, men's.
Clothing, women's
Coal and coke.
Coffins and undertakers' goods.
Confectionery.
Cooperage.
Cotton and woolen goods.
Cotton goods....
Cutlery and edge tools.
Domestic service.
Electric and gas apparatus and supplies..
Electric light and power..
Flour mill products..
Foundry and machine shop.
Freight handling and teaming.
Furnishing goods, men's.
Furniture and upholstering
Gas.
Glass..
Gloves and mittens.
Hardware..
Harness and saddlery
Hats and caps.,
Hosiery and knit goods.
Iron and steel.
Ironwork, ornamental
Jewelry and silverware
Laundry work.
Leather..
Leather goods.
Lime and cement.
Lithographing.
Lumber and timber products.
Metallic goods.
Millinery goods.
Mining, ore.
Musical instruments.
Paper.....
Paper goods.
Planing mill products.
Pottery...
Printing and publishing.
Public works.
Railroad, canal, and road building.
Railroad transportation.
Rope, twine, and bagging.
Rubber goods.
Shipbuilding.
Silk goods.
Slaughtering and meat packing
Smelting and refining.
Stone quarrying and cutting
Stoves and furnaces..
Street railway transportation.
Streets and sewers.
Telegraph and telephone.
Tin and sheet metal goods.
Tobacco: chewing and smoking.
Tobacco: cigars and cigarettes.
Trunks and valises.
Typewriters, cash registers, and sewing

machines.
Watches and clocks.
Water transportation..
Wooden goods..
Woolen goods.
Miscellaneous.

Of the strikes settled by joint agreement, 397, or practically onehalf, were in the building trades, 111 were in the coal and coke industry, 33 in freight handling and teaming, 25 in stone quarrying and cutting, 25 in tobacco (cigars and cigarettes). In several industries no strikes were thus settled.

Of the 223 strikes settled by arbitration, 58 were in the building trades, 29 in coal and coke, 11 in freight handling and teaming, and 10 in boots and shoes. In 32 of the 82 industries no strike was settled by arbitration.

The next table shows, by States and geographical divisions, the number of strikes and lockouts that occurred in the United States during the years 1901 to 1905, the number settled by joint agreement, and the number settled by arbitration.

NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS SETTLED BY JOINT AGREEMENT AND BY

ARBITRATION, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1901 TO 1905.

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Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California.
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware.
District of Columnbia.
Florida.
Georgia
Idaho..
Illinois.
Indiana.
Indian Territory
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Maine..
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada..
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina
North Dakota.
Ohio. :
Oklahoma.
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah.
Vermont

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NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS SETTLED BY JOINT AGREEMENT AND

BY ARBITRATION, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1901 TO 1906– Concluded.

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Of the 803 strikes settled by joint agreement between organizations on both sides, 113 were in Illinois, 106 in New York, 87 in Indiana, 84 in Ohio, 74 in Pennsylvania, 62 in New Jersey, and 51 in Massachusetts. The percentage of all strikes thus settled in each of these States was as follows: Illinois, 11.48 per cent; New York, 2.83 per cent; Indiana, 15.16 per cent; Ohio, 8.41 per cent; Pennsylvania, 5.64 per cent; New Jersey, 8.83 per cent; and Massachusetts, 4.77 per cent. Of the 223 strikes settled by arbitration, 41 were in Massachusetts, 30 in Indiana, 26 in Illinois, 13 in Ohio, and 12 each in New York and Pennsylvania.

Eleven lockouts were settled by joint agreement in New York and in New Jersey, 6 in Pennsylvania, and 5 in Indiana and in Michigan. Three lockouts were settled by arbitration in New York, 2 in Massachusetts and in Illinois, and 1 each in Connecticut, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio.

SEX OF STRIKERS.

The following tables show, by sex, the number of persons employed immediately preceding strikes in establishments involved in strikes, and also the number and per cent of employees striking. The three tables which relate to strikes and the three which follow, relating to lockouts, cover the years from 1887 to 1905 only, for the reason that the first investigation of strikes and lockouts conducted by the Bureau, covering the years from 1881 to 1886, did not include an inquiry as to the sex of strikers or employees locked out. Data for strikes are tabulated under years in the first table, under industries in the second, and

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