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investigated, 72.05 per cent of the male employees in establishments involved in lockouts were locked out, while 33.55 per cent of the females were locked out. In nine out of the nineteen years presented the per cent of female employees locked out was greater than the per cent of male employees. The table showing these data for lockouts by industries follows:

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX BEFORE LOCKOUT IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACII SEX LOCKED OUT, BY INDUSTRIES, 1887 TO 1905.

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NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX BEFORE LOCKOUT IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX LOCKED OUT, BY INDUSTRIES, 1887 TO 1905–Concluded.

Male.

Female.
Per cent

Per cent
Em-
Em-

Em

Em-
Industry.

of el

of entployees · ployees

ployees
before
ployees

ployees
locked
locked
before locked

ployees lockout.

locked out.

lockout. out. out.

out

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In the industries in which a comparatively large number of both males and females are employed, the per cent of females locked out was in many cases equal to, or greater than, that of the males. Such industries are boots and shoes, women's clothing, hats and caps, and woolen goods. In the manufacture of men's clothing 78.15 per cent of the male employees and 42.62 per cent of the female employees in the establishments involved were locked out. The presentation by States and geographical divisions follows:

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX BEFORE LOCKOUT IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX LOCKED OUT, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1887 TO 1905. (See Table XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general lockouts extending into two or more

States.)

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Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas
California
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware.
District of Columbia
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho
Illinois.
Indiana.
Indian Territory
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky

847

15 102 4,553 3.836 13,561

188

252 8,597 5,128

3,000 160, 488 3,937

76.51 65.22 75.00 65.52 78. 57 82. 71 100.00 56.76 80.84 79.78 100.00 69. SO 43. 07 73. 20 76.49 48. 02 50.29

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10, 229

472

10, 635
6, 428

3,000
229, 595

6,964

56

68. 08 11. 86

732 2,277 2, 326 1,296

9, 141
1,000
2. 977
4.844
2,577

252
413
63

163
190

64.68
46.00

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX BEFORE LOCKOUT IN ESTABLISHMENTS

IN WHICH LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX LOCKED OUT, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1887 TO 1905 Concluded.

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Maine..
Maryland..
Massachusetts,
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska..
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio
Oklahoma.
Oregon..
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Utah..
Vermont.
Virginia.
Washington
West Virginia.
Wisconsin..
Wyoming

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43, 161
1,275

2.
2,549

2 420 5. 106 5,490

201

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Total..

734,875

499, 559

67.97

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North Atlantic,
South Atlantic.
North (entral.
South ('entral.
Western...

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In the States where lockouts are of most frequent occurrence the percentages of male and female employees locked out are as follows: In New York, in those establishments involved in lockouts, 73.97 per cent of male employees and 40.07 per cent of female employees were locked out; in Pennsylvaina, 57.57 per cent of the males and 37.72 per cent of the females; in Illinois, 69.90 per cent of the males and 68.08 per cent of the females. In the South Atlantic division, 74.02 per cent of the male employees and 79.25 per cent of the female employees in establishments involved in lockouts were locked out. In each of the other geographical divisions the per cent of males exceeded the per cent of females.

SEX OF EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK.

In the next series of three tables the sex of the employees thrown out of work by labor disturbances in establishments in which disturbances occurred is shown for both strikes and lockouts by years, by industries, and by States and geographical divisions. These tables cover the entire twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905. The table showing these data by years follows:

SEX OF EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905.

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129, 521 94.08 5.92 515 110 655
154, 671 92, 15

7.85 3,875 256 4,131
149, 763 87.66 12.34 15, 093 5,419 i 20,512
147,054 88.78 11.22 14,302 3,819 18, 121
242, 705 87.77 12.23 12, 920 2,504

15, 424 508, 044 86.17 13.83 64, 263 37,717 101,980 379,676 91.77 8. 23 56, 507 3,123 59, 630 147, 704 91.50 8.50 12, 070 3, 106 15, 176 249, 559 90.48 9.52 7,931 2, 800 10, 731 351, 944 90.53 9.47 15, 626

5,929 21, 555 298, 939 94.90 5. 10 18, 339 12, 675 31.014 206, 671 93.57 6. 13 30, 741 1, 273 32, 014 265, 914 93.06 6.94 18, 555 3, 287 21, 842 660, 425 90.14 9.86 25, 158 4, 461 29, 619 392, 403 84.56 15. 44 9,916 4, 869 14, 785 241, 170 87.08 12.92 6, 897 771 7,668 408, 391 88.89 11.11 i 7,091

672 7, 763
a 249, 002 285.78 a14.22 12,632 1,585 14, 217

417,072 89, 42 10.58 13, 809 1,008 14, 817
505, 066 94. SO 5.20 58, 372 4, 281 62, 653
543, 386 93.50 6.30 18, 165 2, 292 20, 457
659, 792 93. 55 6. 45 22,054 9, 661 31, 715
656,055 89.75 10.25 117, 196 14,583 131, 779
517,211 91.25 8.75 53, 195

3, 409 56, 604
221, 686 91.02 8.98 79, 714 1,034 80,748

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Total..... 97,882, 843 820,981 a8, 703, 824 290.57 a 9.43 694, 966 130,644 825,610

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a Not including 33 establishments not reported.

Considering the totals for the twenty-five-year period from 1881 to 1905, 90.57 per cent of the employees thrown out of work by strikes were males and 9.43 per cent were females. Of the employees thrown out of work by lockouts 84.18 per cent were males and 15.82 per cent were females. In 1905, the last year covered by the investigation, 91.02 per cent of the employees thrown out of work by strikes were males and 8.98 were females, while of the employees thrown out of work hy lockouts 98.72 per cent were males and 1.28 per cent were females. The table showing the data by industries follows.

SEX OF EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OCCURRED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO. 1905.

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Agricultural imple-
ments..

22, 112 830
22.942 96. 38 3.62 1.239

1.239 100.00 Agriculture.

11.702 1,525 13, 227 88. 47 11.53
Auto nobiles and bi-
cycles...

9,016
57. 9.073 99.37

152

152 100.00
Awnings, tents, and
sails

352
22

374 94. 12 5. 88 Bakery

30, 723 1, 808

32,531 94. 44 5.561 1,999 736 2,734 73.08 26.92 Blacksnithing and horseshoeing.

7,576
7.576 100.00

1.141

1,141 100.00 Boots and shoes, 117,933 42, 1261 100.059 73.08

26.32 28, 232 13, 416 41,648 67.79 32.21 Brass and brass goods 13 336 13. 97.55 2. 45 240

246 100.00
Brewing.
18, 067 110 18. 177

99.39
.61 7,502

7,503 99.99 .01 Brick and tile. 89, 915 495 90, 410 99. 45 .53 2, 391

2.391 100.00 Brooms and brushes.. 1,980) 70 2,050 96.59 3. 41 90

90 100.00 Building trades. a1.082, 037 a 1, 662' a1,083, 699 a 99.83 0.13 245, 452 310 245, 762 99.87 Canning and preserving..

6,511 2,653 9, 164 71.05 28. 95 Car building

89, 167

110
89,277 99.88 .12 3, 452

3, 452 100.00
Carpets...
37, 102 29, 007 66, 109 56. 12 43. 88 1, 392

2,325
3, 717

37. 45 62.55 Carriages and wagons. 23, 169 182 23, 351 99.22 78 3, 444 102 3, 546

97.12

2. Clothing, men's.

301.676 157.383 439.039 65. 72 34.28 27,234 23.872 51, 106 53. 29 46.71 Clothing, women's. 157, 111 75,043 232, 154 67.68 32.32 4,194 3, 638 7.832 53.55 46. 45 Coal and coke..

2, 460, 743
2, 400, 743 100.00

70, 449

70. 449 100.00 Collins and undertakers' goods.

916

916 100.00 Confectionery 1,183 1. 637 2. 820 41.95 58. 05

13 20 35.00 65.00 Cooperage.

27, 471
3 27, 474 99.99 .01 1, 203

1. 203 100.00
Cotton and woolen
goods....

34, 545 30.383

64.928 53.21 46.79 25 78 103 24.27 75. 73 Cotton goods.

135, 435 142, 035 277. 470 48. 81 51. 199, 946 10,064 20,010 49.71 50. 29 Cutlery and edge tools 8, 106

200 8, 4021 96. 48 3.52

2. 488

434 2. 922 85. 15 14.85 Domestic service.

27, 789

4. 423 32,212 86.27 13.73 836 230 1.066 78. 42 21.58 Electric and gas ap

paratus and supplies...

6,028 740 6,768 89.07 10.93 2.650 50 2.700 Ox. 15 1.85 Electric light and power..

4.371
4.371 100.00

50

50 100.00 Flour mill products 4,527 196 4, 723 95. 85 4. 15 82

82 100.00 Foundry and machine shop... 281, 349 1.357 282,706 99.52 48 16, 653

16.657 99.98
Freight handling and
tearning

275, 388 95
275, 483 99.97 03. 13.777

15.777| 100.00
Furnishing goods,
men's.

12, 120 18, 177 30. 297 40.00 60.00 851 14.096, 14, 947 5. 69 94.31 Furniture and upholstering.

60, 673 1, 196
61.869 98.07 1.93 11, 413

11, 413 100.00 Gas.

5,618

5,618 100.00 Glass., 129, 608 5,823 135, 431 95.70 4.30 25.604 1,812 27, 506 93. 41

6.59 Gloves and mittens.

6, 504 9.394 15, 898 40.91 59.09 10.217 8, 806 19.023 53.71 46.29 Hardware.

35, 746 1.316.

37,062 96). 451
3.55 3, 827 74 3.901 98. 10

1.90 Harness and saddlery. 8.570 2141 8,784 97.56

2. 44
119

119! 100.00 llats and caps.

35, 022 9,595 44, 617 78. 49 21.51 13, 209 5.023 18.232 72. 45 27.55 Hosiery

and knit goods.

9,587 18, 841 29, 428 33. 72 06.29 5, 400 9,036 14.526 37.79 62.21 Iron and steel. 435, 375 1,272 436, 647 99.71 .29 17,984

.12 Ironwork, ornamental..

4, 173
4,173 100.00

430

430 100.00 Jewelry and silverWare.

7, 493 1, 175 8,670 86, 45 13.55 1,5.53 34 1,587 97. 861 2.14 Laundry work. 3, 421 7.780 11, 2012 30.54 69. 46 189

1. 430 1,619 11. 67 88. 33 Leather.

28, 892
29, 428 98. 18 1.82 7,827

7.827 100.00 Leather goods.

1.248

86 1, 334 93.55 6. 45 Lime and cement.

7,573
7,573 100.00

1, 675

1,675 100.00 Lithographing. 3, 156 108 3, 264 96.69 3.31

8,651 1851 8. 836 97.91 2.09 Lumber and timber products...

70, 143

29
70, 172 99.96 04 3, 454

3, 454 100.00 Metallic goods.

15, 198 530

15,728 96. (3 3.37 1,311 15 1,320 98. 87 1.13 Millinery goods. 274 916 1, 190 23.03

76.97
2,000 2,000

100.00 Mining, ore

93,658
93, 08 100.00

4, 260

4, 260 100.00 Musical instruments.. 17, 817

144 17,961 99. 20

5, 113

5, 121 99. 84 .16 Paper.....

15,7311
4. 607 20,338 77.35 22.65 764 10 7741 98. 711

1.29 . Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry atfected

21, 18,005 99.88

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