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energy shown in the stellar universe and the energy shown in energies are dependent directly or indirectly upon the capture life.

of light also. Then as life developed the interaction of the Osborn first poses the questions as to the origin of life; -and various chemical life elements became infinitely more complex. here again his complete freedom from the obsessions of dogma All of this is fact. But the mode of the actual origin of life is deserves allusion. He does not attempt to furnish more of an pure speculation, and this Mr. Osborn explicitly states at the answer than the facts permit, and is careful always to indicate same time that he sketches five hypotheses, representing five that the answer is partial or merely suggestive--or perhaps as successive physicochemical stages, of the origin and earliest yet entirely non-existent. He treats of the energy concept of stages of the evolution of the life organism out of some ten of life, and he bases the theory of the evolution of life upon the the chief chemical life elements. action, reaction, and interaction of four kinds of energy, namely: The third and concluding chapter of the first part of Mr. (1) the inorganic environment--that is, the energy of soil, air, Osborn's book treats of the early energy evolution as seen in water, sun-heat; (2) the organism or energy shown in the living bacteria, algæ, and plants. Doubtless the world during unbody itself, whether simple or complex ; (3) the germ cells or counted æons of time was habitable only for organisms as energy shown in the sharply segregated portion of the body simple as bacteria, while these were slowly making it ready for which has to do with reproduction; and (4) the life environ the lowest forms of plant and animal life. The lowest bacteria ment, the energy of the other living things which surround any derive their energy and nutrition directly from the lifeless one evolving life unit. This means that each evolution consists world. At the higher levels of bacterial life the protoplasm (the in reality of four simultaneous and interacting evolutions. body form) and the chromatin (the reproductive substance)

The bulk of the book is divided into two parts: first, the are developed ; and then these become the two structural comadaptation of energy ; second, the evolution of animal form. ponents of the living world. This second part is presented with admirable interest and clear Professor Osborn explicitly disclaims any attempt to interness, and in the principles set forth Osborn shows his usual pret the phenomena of life appearance with dogmatic assertion characteristics of seizing with well-nigh unerring skill the essen as to whether there is or is not something that can be disassocitials, the things that underlie and are basic, and of flatly refus- ated from the functioning of energy as we understand it. The ing to be led into sacrificing his grasp of the whole aspect of point is far less important than it has seemed both to certain the matter by absorption in one minute phase thereof. In other theologians and to certain scientists, for the excellent reason that words, he possesses the rare gift of generalizing boldly and on a there are plenty of phenomena unquestionably proceeding from large scale, but never recklessly, and never on insufficient data ; natural law which nevertheless have in them an element totally so that he stands equally far from the crude generalizer whose incomprehensible to, and probably totally incapable of comprework is worthless, and from the laborious specializer whose work hension by, our intelligence. All successful scientific discoveries has a real, but an exceedingly limited, value. His whole discussion have been anathematized by certain pietistic theologians, and exof " character evolution in the chapter on mammals offers a ultantly screamed over by certain materialists, as marking the end case in point.

of religion. The discovery that the earth was round, the discovery This second part is the easier and in some ways the more that the world went round the sun, the discovery of enormous interesting to read. But it is the first part which represents the geological ages, the growth of appreciation of law in the natural greater and more original contribution to scientific thought. world, the discovery of the law of gravitation, and recently the In this part Professor Osborn deals with the adaptation of understanding of the law of evolution (which, incidentally, had energy to the formation of life. He is dealing with matters as to been at least strongly suspected by thinkers as far apart as which it is, at this stage of our knowledge, imperative to feel our Aristotle and St. Augustine), were all in succession treated as way tentatively; and the number of unknown factors is so large, mischievous heresies by certain champions of orthodoxy, and and so many of the known factors are familiar only to experts, were also, with equal folly, accepted by certain skeptical mathat it requires close attention for a layman clearly to grasp terialists as overthrowing spiritual laws with which they had what is set forth. We have long passed the stage when men no more to do than the discovery of steam-power has to do with thought that Darwin had discovered a solution, at once entirely altruism. complete and entirely simple, of the origin of species and The outcome of the working of purely natural law often shows the development of life-the stage when well-read men some element which no explanation on our part enables us to who were in no sense thorough scientific students (men like interpret and which no speculation would explain save by the Fiske, for instance) produced smooth offhand solutions of prob- substitution of one form of verbiage for another; a line of lems for which at present we at least know that we have dis- uninterrupted and gradual causative changes may result at the covered no solution. A half-truth is often of extreme simplicity; end in something of which there was no vestige at the begin. but the whole truth is usually of such complication that the ning; and with our brains we may show with flawless logic that utmost effort is necessary in order merely to state it.

something cannot occur when, as a matter of fact, it does occur. This first part of his book Mr. Osborn divides into three Three examples will illustrate these three statements. chapters. The first chapter treats of the lifeless earth, air, and Hydrogen and oxygen combine into water, which contains water of the primordial globe, which differed chemically from nothing but the total elements of the two gases and yet also the world of to-day; and Professor Osborn shows that life contains qualities totally different from either; for example, it has taken up and made use of almost all the chemical elements freezes or solidifies at a temperature which has no effect on which occur frequently in the soil, the water, and the atmos either of them; and to explain that this probably implies some phere. He shows that life doubtless originated in water, and rearrangement of the speed or position of chemical atoms probably in fresh water on the primitive continents.

leaves us precisely where we were before. The second chapter is in some ways the most important in The tracing of an unbroken line of descent from the prothe book, for it treats of the effect of the sun on the physico tozoan to Plato does not in any way really explain Plato's conchemical origin of life. Professor Osborn lays special stress on sciousness, of which there is not a vestige in the protozoan. the chemical side of life energy ; on the chemical messengers There has been a non-measurable quantity of actual creation. which produce special and general interaction among the vari There is something new which did not exist in the protozoan. ous parts of the organism. The light and the heat of the sun It has been produced in the course of evolution. But it is a were captured by the primordial life forms, which thus trans play on words to say that such evolution is not creation. formed lifeless into living energy. This transformation meant Very intellectual Greek philosophers were able to prove that that the properties of the chemical life elements in the lifeless there could not be any such thing as movement ; just as equally world became functions of the organisms in the world of life. wise persons to-day are able to prove that there is no such thing The electric energy of life depends on the original heat energy as freedom of the will, and therefore no individual responsiof the sun or earth; and apparently life at its outset thus cap- bility; and one statement is as flawlessly logical, and as utterly tured heat energy, whereas the capture of the light energy by absurd, as the other

. This fact is worth pointing out, because life occurred only much later, through the agency of chloro in the world of thought there are just as mischievous dogmaphyl, the green coloring matter of plants. Bacteria appear tists among twentieth-century scientists as ever there were when only heat has been captured by life; but all higher life

among mediæval theologians-exactly as, in the world of action,

the Bolsheviki of liberty, at home and abroad, are as mischiev to lay down laws of sweeping application to thought and conons as the Romanoffs of reaction in politics and industry. As an dact. instance, most scientific men nowadays disbelieve in the inheri

One of the prime merits-one among the many prime merits tance of acquired characteristics, and in consequence a British -of Professor Osborn's book lies in his absolute refusal to be scientist and Socialist blatantly insisted that habitual drunken.

led into this type of statement. He combines to an extraordiness in the father had no effect on the children. Immediately nary degree wise boldness and wise caution in his speculations afterwards experiments on guinea pigs showed that alcoholism and his conclusions. He is never afraid to say that he does not in the parent induced physical degeneracy in the offspring. It know; and this trait is one of the contributing causes in was then explained by the scientists that this was not the in- enabling him to add so richly to our store of knowledge and of heritance of an acquired characteristic, but merely the inheri- wisdom. tance of an acquired pathological condition which made it easy This is not a "review" of Professor Osborn's book, in the for the characteristic to be subsequently acquired. There was a ordinary sense ; for the book comes in that very small class certain warrant for the distinction as a matter of scientific which cannot be "reviewed ” save as we can say that Huxley speculation ; but as a matter of practical action the value of the “reviewed ” Darwin, and for this the present writer is not Lesson lay in inculcating a lively distrust of dogmatism among competent. I am not trying to review the book. I am merely those men of science who believe that with our limited intelli- calling attention to a really great work of productive scientific gence, and after utterly insufficient investigation, we are able scholarship.

KNOLL PAPERS

BY LYMAN ABBOTT

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THE CHILDREN OF THE CHURCH
What is the relation of the Sunday-school to the Church? two or three collects, and a five-minute sermon. The children
Please give to me in a short outline the points of relationship

, in attended in goodly numbers; they appreciated the service be.

cause the service appreciated them. In a Presbyterian church THIS is one of several similar letters which I have recently of my acquaintance the pastor preaches every Sunday morning

received. They represent a problem which perplexes every two sermons -one of three minutes to the children, and one of I share. The fact that we are perplexed is a good sign. For it ably more than two hundred children. But not every preacher indicates that we are beginning to realize that the Church is understands children and can preach to them as Dr. Coffin does. not doing its duty by the children, and that we do not know Some of his sermons to children the readers of The Outlook how to remedy that very serious defect in our understanding have seen in our pages. and our fulfillment of our duty.

The churches have attempted to supply the lack of church Once some parents brought their little children to Jesus for service for the children by the Sunday-school. But in attempta blessing: The disciples would have turned these children ing to make something which would provide both worship and away. Why trouble the Master about little children? He had education, we have made something which provides neither. weightier things to think of. But the Master sharply rebuked The atmosphere of worship, is generally lacking. A.. social the disciples. The little children, he said, belong to the king- assembly, characterized by the cheerful noise of a vivacious and dom of heaven. It is not easy to understand how, in the face sometimes merry conversation, cannot be instantly transformed of this incident, one large section of the Church should have into a worshiping assembly by the tap of a bell

. The atmostaught that children cannot be saved unless they are baptized, phere of a school is equally lacking. The lesson has rarely another large section that they cannot be saved unless they are been looked at through the week. The teachers who have done converted after they come to years of discretion, and, with few anything more than read over the “ lesson helps ” are not in. exceptions, the churches generally have done so little, and that frequently in the minority. The lessons are frequently-would little so inadequately, to recognize the citizenship of children in it be unjust to say generally?-expository sermonettes preached the kingdom of heaven. The State in this respect is in advance by untrained and often untaught teachers. of the Church, for the State recognizes as a legal principle that There lies before me, as I write, the report of the correchildren are citizens of the Republic.

sponding secretary of the Board of Sunday-Schools of the In traveling about the country, when on Sunday morning I Methodist Episcopal Church for 1908–16. "Its figures indigo to church, I usually meet a group of children, between six cate what can be accomplished by a vigorous, concerted, and and sixteen years of age, coming away from the church. There efficient action to make of the Sunday-school a true Bible are rarely less than twenty-five ; often there are over a hundred. school. Readers of The Outlook who are interested in my corI conclude that not only are we not teaching the children to go respondent's inquiry will find useful and illuminating informato church, we are training them not to go. When I get into the tion in this report. I have no doubt that copies can be obtained church, I usually find very few children under sixteen years of by addressing Edgar Blake, Corresponding Secretary, 58 East age in the congregation, and very little in the service to lead Washington Street, Chicago, Illinois. Here I can only hint at them to come or to encourage their parents

to bring them. . its significance as a chapter in Church history. Sometimes a children's hymn is sung; sometimes, though not

In 1908 a movement was launched to awaken the Methodist often, they are remembered in the pastoral prayer; sometimes

Church to its Sunday-school opportunity. “For eight years a the minister uses some illustration or tells some anecdote which campaign of agitation, education, and inspiration has been might interest them if they were present. But generally the waged to arouse the Church to vision and to action.” Institutes service is, from beginning to end, for grown-ups. The only and schools of method were organized in various parts of the lesson the children could learn from attending it would be a country. By a gradual process of awakening and organization lesson of patient endurance of an hour and a half of a service fifty thousand teachers were enrolled in training classes. In which they cannot be interested in or even understand.

1910 the total teachers' training enrollment was a little over one There are notable exceptions. I have known of one Episcopal thousand ; in 1915 it had grown to nearly fifty thousand. The church where the rector held a children's service of perhaps report significantly and truly says : “The nations at war will not twenty minutes following the afternoon Sunday-school. This send a soldier to the front until he has had at least nine months service was a modified abbreviated evening prayer. There were,

of drill and practice. The Church sends raw recruits into the one short Psalm read responsively, one brief Scripture lesson

service without the slightest training for their Master's work." of not more than ten or twelve verses, a chant or two, a hymn, This is true. A remarkably successful organizer of Sunday

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schools once said to me: “I have discovered that I must be a natural growth, and we should expect it in our children, as we willing to take anything I can get in trousers or petticoats for expect roses on our bushes. a teacher in Sunday-school."

2. The Church should provide worship fitted to the nature The change in the purpose and character of the Sunday- and needs of the children. Christ's direction to Peter, “ Feed school from a children's hour to a real educational institution, my lambs,” has been ignored by the Church. Of course this accompanied as it was with a change in the equipment of spiritual atmosphere should be first in the home. Religion, like the teachers for service, brought with it surprising results. The charity, begins at home. But, like charity, it ought not to be grown-ups, finding they could get something worth while, began contined to the home. Whenever the Church has studied the to attend. The Bible classes increased in numbers from less spiritual needs of the children and provided for those needs, so than fourteen hundred to more than fifteen thousand. More far as I can judge, the children have responded. What particuthan five hundred thousand men and probably more than double lar method the Church should adopt for this purpose must that number of women are regular attendants on these Bible depend upon a variety of circumstances, such as the condition classes. I am generally very skeptical about the value of statis of the community, the character of the Church, the temperament ties in dealing with spiritual values, but there is certainly some of the pastor. The problem will often be a difficult one, but significance in the statement of this Report that since the insti- difficulty is never a reasou for abandoning a task; it is only a tution of this campaign to mobilize the Sunday-schools there reason for greater courage and greater diligence in accomplishhas been an increase in the membership of those schools of the ing the task. Methodist Episcopal Church of over a million and a quarter 3. The Sunday-school should not be merely a children's hour. and an increase in church membership double that of the corre It should be a school. Its object should be a real study of the sponding period of seven years preceding the movement. Bible. This study should be as systematic and as thorough as

I do not attempt to give a definite reply to the question of the study of so-called secular studies in the secular school. The my correspondent, but the facts which I have here stated may graduate of the Sunday-school should know that the Bible is a indicate four principles by which we ought to be guided in library, not a book. He should know approximately what is seeking for an answer to that question :

known respecting the dates and authorship of these books. He 1. The Church should recognize the truth that children have should know what is known respecting their composition and a birthright citizenship in the kingdom of God. This is their varied character and fundamental spirit, and so much of ancient right, not because they have been baptized, nor because their history and geography as is necessary to make their meaning parents are charch members, but because they are the children clear. The school should have no fears. It should dare to meet of their Father who is in heaven. They belong to the kingdom every question ;, it should not be alarmed by the fact that differof God as they belong to the State. The State does not assume ent scholars reach different conclusions respecting these questions that they will be disloyal ; it does not wait until they have pro of character, composition, and authorship. It should be willing fessed their loyalty before it recognizes their citizenship. Nor that the teacher, and the students under the guidance of the should the Church wait till they have professed their loyalty to teacher, should bring their moral judgment to bear on the ethical God. We may be worse than our neighbors think us to be, and spiritual principles enunciated by Biblical characters and worse than we think ourselves to be, but we are rarely better. Biblical writers. Its object should be, not to supply the students Let a child grow up in the belief that he is by nature a child with ready-made knowledge which will save them the trouble of the devil, and it will not be strange if he acts the part which of thinking, but to inspire the students to think. The experience has been assigned to him. Let him grow up in the belief that of the Methodist Church, which found, as we have seen, that the he is a child of God, and it will be strange if he does not make study of the Bible was followed by a large increase, not only in some endeavor to be worthy of his birthright. Mr. Chandler, the membership of the schools, but also in the membership of in his article in The Outlook of December 19 on“ Boy Culture the church, should inspire timid souls with a greater spirit of and Agriculture," showed how much faith in boys will do for intellectual courage and with absolute intellectual candor. them. The first condition of child culture is the faith of the 4. If these results are to be accomplished, if anything effective parents and the faith of the Church that the child has in him the is to be done for the children of the Church, the problem must undeveloped possibility of divine manhood. We should expect not be left to the isolated action of the local churches. It must our children to grow into Christlikeness of character. The king. be the result of the united action of the whole Church, aroused dom of God, said Jesus, is as a man who casts seed into the ground, to a sense of its neglected duty, and resolved to spare no effort and the seed should spring up, he knows not how, for the earth to fulfill that duty to the uttermost. bringeth forth fruit of herself. Christian character should be The Knoll, Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York.

BILL

BY DONAL HAMILTON HAINES

B:

ALLARD sat down on a pile of boards in a corner of the sense of responsibility, had made things uncomfortable for him, vast cantonment, bit the end from a cigar, and frowned Ballard would simply have smiled and waited until the stripling

thoughtfully at the hard-packed earth. Any one of his came to his senses. But nothing of that sort hall occurred. It acquaintances seeing the great war correspondent with a cigar was simply that he could make no headway with the men in the between his teeth would have drawn immediate conclusions, for particular corner of the great woodlen city where he had comBallard was a queer smoker. He used tobacco solely for the menced his prowlings that were destined to result in a series of sake of aiding mental concentration, and appeared to take no · magazine articles. pleasure in the performance.

This was what nettled Ballard and set him to puffing jerkily And at the moment Ballard was distinctly perplexed. He at one of the very poor cigars he carried. He flattered himself had run against an obstacle, and on his chosen ground he was that he knew men-soldiers in particular and that he could not used to that experience. He had been with Buller in South make them talk. One of the best stories he had ever written Africa, Kuroki in Manchuria, and the Bulgars at Adrianople. hall been won after six hours of smoky silence from a Boer He was

on familiar terms with divisional officers in many prisoner who had that day seen three sons killed by British armies, and usually when his way had been barred it had been shrapnel and his farm buildings reduced to a heap of glowing done by nothing less than orders from headquarters. Yet now embers. And yet these boys, still new to their khaki, still full he was in difficulties, and the absurd part of it was that the of those mixed feelings which should have made speech a relief, thing had happened here in this huge moiling horde of young answered him in grudging monosyllables. recruits who had gained the merest inkling of the art of war “ There's nothing wrong with me this morning," mused Baland should have held sucli creatures as famous correspondents lard, as he cheweil the end of the cigar. " And I know when in profound awe.

I'm fit. So it's with them. How can I find it?" If some young officer, his judgment warped by his new-won He looked up, and saw approaching him, with a purposeful

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air, a tall young chap with very fresh-looking sergeant's chevrons

“That's comforting, anyhow. Well, all this huge business at his sleeve. Ballard had time to note only that the young of war is an awful facer for most of the men here in camp.

You sollier looked as though he would be more at home in tennis see, we aren't like the men in the officers' training camps.

For Hannels or the moleskins of the gridiron than in his uniform.

the most part, they're older. And there's a sort of noblesse lle was also aware that he had marked the tall, trim figure dur oblige spirit about those places. I'm afraid we haven't got that. ing his abbreviated tour of investigation.

We're here because we have to be here, and there's no real rea- I liate to seein officious, and it's none of my business,” the son why we should have it. There are a lot of us who 're here young man began abruptly, “ but if I were you, sir, I wouldn't against our wills. You can't get away from that sort of thing, risk any more questions in D Company lines this morning.' you know, because we aren't all built alike, by any means.

- You woulin't, eh?" answered Ballard, pleasantly. “Do you " I'm afraid I'm going to make a rotten soldier, to be honest mind telling me why?"

with
you.

I've never wanted to kill things, and I don't like fireThe sergeant, who had evidently been prepared for awkward arms, and I've no instincts for the tricks of the ugly trade. But ness, thawed at once under Ballard's geniality.

I've learned some of the essential truths of the business just the - Not in the least,” he replied. “You see, we buried Bill this

same. You see, last fall I was playing football, and the two morning, and the fellows are pretty well cut up. It's the only thing games aren't so different. It's a question of team play; even more they want to talk about, and when you tried to make 'em talk so in modern war, I take it, than in football. And team play about something else it put their backs up, and they turned sulky.” doesn't consist merely in the ability to reel off your whole reper

Ballard threw away his cigar, whose use was at an end. tory of plays with machine-like smoothness. The thing goes a

"I see," he said. “And I'm grateful to you for telling me. whole lot deeper than that. Otherwise I might have prowled about, making D Company “Two years ago we had a little quarter-back who weighed a extremely imcomfortable, and with small profit to myself. But hundred and eighteen pounds stripped. And at least eighteen I wonder if you'd care to tell me about Bill ?"

pounds of that total wasn't physical weight at all. He had in “Yes, I surely would.”

him some sort of a thing that communicated itself to the other " I take it, from what you say, that he must have been a good ten men on the team. Not this flashy thing we call . pep;' somedeal of a man,” Ballard suggested.

thing more vital than that, more compelling. Mechanically he The young infantryman sat down on the pile of lumber, took wasn't as good a quarter-back as two other men. But he was off his hat and shook his head.

worth more to the team than a dozen like them. "No," he said, “ I can't say that he was. He was an under “Well, Bill's been to D Company what that little chap was sized gas-fitter's helper from South Chicago, and, by all odds, the to our team. I can't put my finger on the thing he's given ns. worst soldier in the regiment. But if D Company does anything I don't believe anybody can. I don't believe that up to the time particularly worth doing after we get over the other side, it’li we knew Bill was going to die any of us quite realized that as be in a great measure thanks to Bill, and we all know it.”'

a group we owed him anything.” Ballard, who was one of those rare men who know when not " And now you can't pay suggested the older man. to ask questions although being answered is their business in His companion had recourse again to tracing patterns with life, merely sat still and waited, and presently his companion the edge of his boot. went on :

"We'll pay, all right," he said; “but I think we'd all like to ** Bill was just tall enough to get in. Maybe he was thick have said so to Bill. I guess you've seen troops before, haven't enough when he joined, but the work wore him down to about a hundred and nothing. And he was so little of a soldier in “A good many," admitted Ballard. every way! A perfect square peg. Nobody had as much trouble Well, then, you must know that a company of freshly with sore feet, nobody's rifle sling and pack straps galled him drafted men is a good deal of a mess. About all they've got in so, nobody's hip got such bumping from the bayonet. And he common is their dislikes and their grievances. D Company couldn't get drill through his head. All right alone in the awk was no better than the general run. Most of us were unwilling ward squad at first, but numbers seemed to confuse him. and anxious to hide the fact, infernally homesick and ashamed

And Bill's rifle was to him just nine pounds of incarnate of it, bitterly conscious of the jolts and wrenches with which devil. It wasn't a weapon in his hands ; it was just an awkward we'd had to break off relations that meant so much-just about club covered with ugly sharp iron bumps on which he was wreck our lives, some of us. We represented the Lord only always skinning his knuckles, and full of a murdering evil spirit knows how many widely separated tastes and instincts, and when he tried to fire it. His score-sheets drove range officers there was nothing to pull us together except a great deal of insane and kept D Company at the foot of the regiment. dismally hard work. Abstract patriotism doesn't quite answer the He was like that all through too, mind and body alike. As purpose,

does it? If there'd been a German army in the next a gas-fitter's helper he'd been drawing down nine dollars a county we wouldn't have been able to exercise all our little week, and the goal of his earthly ambitions was getting fifteen pettinesses. But there wasn't; the grim thing was most awfully a week, so he could marry some girl or other.”

remote, too far off to pull us together. sergeant paused, and Ballard looked at him curiously. That's where Bill came in. He ought to have been the worst "You've drawn nothing less than a caricature of a man, of the lot of us. Certainly the training was harder on him than he remarked. "You've sketched precisely the type that an army's it was on anybody else in the company. Right from the start it better off without."

began to raise hob with him physically. And he was such a "I haven't exaggerated a particle," answered the soldier. hopeless duffer at every angle of it that it must have been just In fact, I could have used deeper lines and still given you a as much of a torture mentally.” faithful picture. Superficially Bill was-well, sir, he was the “Couldn't have been very sensitive on that side,” Ballard limit

. As you say, he was exactly the sort of lumber out of which you can't possibly make a good soldier. And yet he made “ I'm not so sure of that. You find thin skins on queer people. D Company."

Well, wait and see. At first Bill was conspicuous largely be“I wonder !” mused Ballard. “ Death's a bit of a shock to cause of his desire to make a confidant of anybody that would you chaps, you know, and this poor fellow was a pathetic figure. listen to him. And his confidences weren't particularly worth De mortuis nil nisi bonum is a mighty powerful shibboleth !" hearing. Life for him was spelled with mighty few letters. His “ No," insisted the other, “it isn't that at all.”

job and his girl, that was about the sum total of it. It was a Then he hesitated for a moment and scratched a pattern in nine-dollar job, and he showed us the picture of the girl. She the dirt with the edge of his boot-sole.

looked like the sort who'd do just exactly the thing she did. We “This sort of talk," he resumed, with some show of diffidence, got pretty well fed up with Bill and his conversation. It was just * isn't my line of country at all. What I'm going to say is the sort of thing you ran into just now; every one of us wanted going to be sheer nonsense, perhaps, but I'm going to say it just to talk about his own troubles. Nobody else's mattered. So Bill

got on our nerves until we were ready to choke him. "Nothing that is that insistent on getting out of you can

“ After a bit, though, I think a few of us began to notice one jussiliły be nonsense,” Ballard assured him.

difference between Bill and the rest of us. I know I did. That

you?"

The

put in.

the same.”

wis that Bill just talked; he didn't complain. He never once He came to me with it because I suppose I had talked to him sail that it was a shame he'd had to give up his job, or that it a little more than any of the other men in the squad. I knew was hell for a man to have to go away and leave his girl. He when I saw him that he was no better than a dead man. As I talked about them as though they were the biggest things in the say, the work had been pulling him down frightfully, but what world, but he went no further.

it had done was nothing compared to the work of that letter. * Right on the heels of that I made another discovery. Bill He looked smaller, shriveled, and yet his face was splendid was just as willing to listen as he was to talk. I was just as full Bill's peaked, pale, weak-chinned face. Because in it, you of the importance of my own troubles as anybody else, and one know, was death, and at the same time something that was day I talked them out to Bill. I did it more in self-defense than bigger and stronger than death. anything else, to head off his endless chatter. Then I found "She's gone and married Steve! he told me. that he wasn't merely willing to hear it, he wanted to hear it. “For an instant I didn't understand. I'd forgotten who And it doesn't take long for a bunch of homesick men, full of Steve was. their own natural selfishness, to discover a sympathetic ear ** What?' I asked, foolishly. even though it's one like Bill's.

“ Gertie,' he explained. She's wrote me that she guessel “ It wasn't that he had any sound advice to give you, or any she wouldn't wait, and so she’s married Steve. He was gettin thing like that. Bill's mental capacities weren't great. But he eighteen per and a good chance of a raise.' had a way of listening to you that made you know he was sorry " What in blazes could I say? If a blow like that had and wished no end that he could help. And that's really all a crashed into me, I should have gone all to bits or else covered man wants, because nobody can actually help him.

the thing with a Byronic sham heroism. And yet there was “ At the end of a week we'd got all through laughing at his Bill, with the iron in his soul, never thinking of the girl's awkwardness and swearing at his talkativeness. Nobody really shallow heartlessness, never complaining of his own loss, just liked him. It was more like having a poor no-account yellow measuring Steve's sure eighteen per’ against his hypothetical dog around to wag his tail at you when you were lonely. fifteen! God! you don't run into magnificent things like

“Of course it isn't possible for me to say whether any of the that very often! rest of the men in the company thought about Bill in the same “Fortunately, I had the sense not to insult him with sympaway I did, but I imagine they did. At first I sort of envied thy he was too big to need. I just let him talk. He didn't even him. He'd given up so much less than I had. The cantonment say much. Just told me a little about Steve and what a straight seemed an infinitely better place than what he'd left. No wonder sort of a chap he was, and how Gertie would probably be much he was cheerful and uncomplaining. Then I saw that was just better off than if she'd waited for him. And I sat there trying to being sorry for myself, which is poor business. The minute I swallow and watching that face. began to think about it fairly it was clear enough. Bill's sacri " At the end of it, though, he almost did for me. He folded fice was bigger than mine. That picture of the poor girl in her the letter and put it away in the pocket where he always carried cheap finery meant infinitely more to him than all my sacrifices her picture, and then stood there for a second looking horribly did to me.

old and frail in his bagging clothes. - When a thought like that hits you all at once with the “. Well,' he said, smiling, ‘I won't have very much to think force of a club, it makes you go right on thinking. The minute about now. Maybe I'll get on better with the drill and the I was conscious of the difference between Bill and me I wanted shooting.' to know the reason for it. Was Bill Hicks so much the better “Next day—that was a week ago—he went to the hospital, man of the two? Were all my obvious points of superiority and, you bet, before night most of the regiment knew about worth nothing when it came right down to weighing the real Bill's letter and what he had said to me. The colonel went to worth of the two of us ?

see him every day, and one of D Company's officers was there “ There was just one way I could get at the answer. I asked most of the time. And this morning we buried him.” Bill the straight question. Why hadn't he married the girl and He stopped abruptly, stood up, and hitched up his belt with got out of coming? He just looked at me and blinked.

an air of finality. Why, how could I ? he demanded.

“ I hope you see,” he said, “ why I thought you'd better not “That's all. There was no other word spoken between us on ask questions in the company lines today. the subject. And if you can't hear him asking that question “I do," replied Ballard, and held out his hand, his eyes very and see the expression of blank amazement on his face I can't eloquent as they traveled over the other's straight, trim figure make it any clearer. But I had my answer."

and earnest face.“ And, anyhow,” he added, "there won't be · Yes,” observed Ballard, “I can see that you

had.

any need of asking questions. You've given me all I came to “ It was two or three days after this that Bill got his letter. learn-and more.

66

GOVERNMENT OPERATION OF THE RAILWAYS

HAS IT COME TO STAY? THE LARGER VIEW THE PROBABLE EFFECT UPON THE VALUE OF RAILWAY SECURITIES

BY THEODORE H. PRICE

EDITOR OF COMMERCE AND FINANCE"

O

N his sixty-first birthday, December 28, 1917, the President, through Mr. McAdoo, took over the operation of

the American railways. He did not say that he intended to signalize the occasion by making a present to the Nation ; but it is not unlikely that his action will come to be so regarded.

To appreciate its importance and grasp its larger meaning an exceedingly comprehensive vision is necessary. This can only he had from an attitude that will enable us to study the transportation system of the world as a whole.

There is a close analogy between the circulatory system of the human body and the transportation machinery with which civilization has provided itself, and upon which its existence depends. Through the arteries and veins of the body the blood

circulates to nourish the tissues and carry off the waste products of our physical and mental activities. The heart provides the motive power and is actuated by the energy that is released by the combustion which takes place in the furnace of the lungs. The brain is the office of the unseen train despatcher ; the nerves are his wires, and pain is the danger signal that he sets to warn us that caution or repair is necessary. Over the entire system one head, an intangible incomprehensible ego, presides and directs its operation with an equally incomprehensible efficiency.

This efficiency is the result of unification, and it is in this respect that the analogy fails in so far as it applies to our railway system as it has been.

We have only to think of the body with a separate circulatory

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