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PAUL KAPLAN: AN

AN EAST

EAST SIDE PORTRAIT
BY HENRY MOSKOWITZ

EX

.

VERY New Yorker is familiar with the “ East Side." and was an interpreter of American idealism to the Russian
It is a term which suggests to many unthinking, people dreamers, some of whom were intolerant

of what they regarded a colony of Russian Jews whose chief characteristics are as American plutocracy. He enjoyed the friendship of such poverty and agitations in favor of strikes among garment

work- personalities as Felix Adler, Lillian Wald, and that group of ers. The East Side is as truly a quarter of New York as the pioneer American social workers who sowed the seeds of the Quartier-Latin is a distinct quarter of Paris. It has a life and progressive movement of the last decade. quality of its own. But while the spirit of the Latin Quarter in In the seething life of the East Side Dr. Kaplan was a subtle, Paris is that of a gay, effervescent, and irresponsible æstheti- permeating influence. He was the counselor in many a factional cism at least as portrayed in such charming literary pictures dispute. Labor leaders, litterateurs, and intellectual leaders as those of Henri Murger--the spirit of the New York East Side turned to him for advice and help. is one of serious idealism. This was never more truly illustrated I remember how every Russian revolutionist came to him. than in the life and recent death of Dr. Paul Kaplan.

He was loved and honored by the revolutionary leaders of all Dr. Kaplan was born about seventy years ago in Shavel,

factions. He was Babushka's and Tschaikowsky's comrade and Province of Kovana, Russia. He was driven out of Russia and counselor. When the East Side was aroused by the fiery mes. came to the United States when he was about thirty-five years sages of these fighting leaders of the people, Kaplan was behind of age.

He was one of that band of Jewish dreamers who were the scenes guiding and aiding them. in the vanguard of the first Russian Jewish immigration. In Unforgetable are the scenes created by Gershuni, the daring 1883 he went to Oregon to establish a new Odessa, a commu revolutionary leader who escaped from Siberian prisons and nistic settlement where he and his comrades could live out came to America with his stirring appeal to his people for finantheir dreams of a commonwealth based on the principles of cial assistance to the revolutionary cause. The response was communism. It failed after two years, like the earlier experi- electrical. Poor women threw their heirlooms on the platform ment of George William Curtis and Charles A. Dana and their and gave their all for the cause. Kaplan and Gershuni were New England colleagues at Brook Farm, or the similar venture inseparable. When Paul Milyukov came to America, one of his of the English social reformer and cotton-spinner Robert Owen first inquiries was, “Where can I find Paul Kaplan?" in Indiana

Not a few National movements have had their birth on the After the failure of his colony Paul Kaplan came back to East Side. One of them was the movement to conserve the New York, studied medicine, went to Berlin to complete his American right of political asylum. This was occasioned by studies, returned to New York, and practiced his profession in the demand of the Russian Government to the Government of the heart of the East Side. He was primarily a servant of the the United States to return Jan Pouren, a revolutionary Lett, cause of humanity and incidentally a physician. Many a poor accused by the Romanoff Government of being a common crimipatient can tell of his ministrations. He came to minister to nal. He was not returned, after two years of stormy agitation their bodily needs, and often left with them his last dollar. He and litigation. The American right of political asylum was was Balzac's Country Doctor transported to the East Side. He not violated. The movement which led to this real National was a well-trained and capable physician, and had he devoted achievement began in the home of Paul Kaplan. A few Russian himself solely to his profession and taken the emoluments which Jews stirred the country and reminded Americans of their he could quite properly have taken, he might easily have become precious heritage of political freedom. The quiet, permeating a prosperous if not a rich man. Large sums of money passed force behind the band was Paul Kaplan. through his hands for the aid of Jewish immigrants, for he was In the gatherings of earnest, idealistic, and gesticulating active as an adviser in the Baron de Hirsch Jewish Coloniza Russians one could pick out the little, quiet man, with his penetion work in America. But he died destitute.

trating black eyes, his sensitive mouth, his generous and enig. Dr. Kaplan was one of the most influential but to the matic smile, listening and calming the agitated group by the American people one of the least known of the Russian right word at the right time, and tying up the discussion with revolutionists in this country-least known because of his a practical programme of decision and action. modesty. He was the intimate friend of Gershuni, of Madame With the fall of the Romanoffs the great soul of Russia has Breshkovsky, of Nicholas• Tschaikowsky, of every Russian been struggling in an international limelight which has awakened revolutionist who entered our gates.

our gates. "He was appointed mixed emotions. The overturn of the old régime came like a Secretary of the Russian Revolutionist party by Madame miracle to a world ignorant of the titanic forces which were Breshkovsky. The rôle he played in the revolutionary move swaying the giant of the North Americans who caught occament was so important that all letters of a conspirative char- sional glimpses of the moral grandeur of Russian revolutionists acter passed through his hands. They were sent to him by the were thrilled with joy because the new day had dawned for the Central Committee of the party, which had its offices in Paris. Russian people. This was during the years when the Russian revolutionists were Almost with bated breath we watched the first coalition Gov. political and social outcasts, and when the seeds of Russian ernment under Milyukov. When it went down, we pinned our freedom were sown through stony underground passages. This faith to Kerensky and hailed him as a new savior of the Ruscorrespondence may be published some day--at present it will sian democracy. Then Kerensky descended, and out of the all be returned to Petrograd. Should it ever be published, it seething caldron of Russian aspiration appeared Trotsky and will give to the world historical sources of the greatest value. Lenine -an international vagabond, driven from pillar to post

When the high soul of Russia was struggling underground, for his revolutionary views, and a Russian social philosopher when the flower of Russian manhood was persecuted by the an uncouth combination playing not only with tħe destiny of most persistent and ruthless agencies of Russian autocracy, Paul the new-born Russian democracy, but rocking the other democKaplan was working in America to give his comrades the help racies that are struggling to be made safe for the world. they needed. Hundreds of revolutionists owe their first aid in So the newspaper-reading American is puzzled. He has an America to this saintly soul. Though he was the son of orthodox undemocratie habit of thinking in terms of personalities. After and devout Jewish parents, he was a modern of moderns, and he got used to Milyukov, Kerensky appeared; his short would have resented, probably, the designation of saint as a acquaintance was soon followed by new return to mediævalism. But the self-effacement with which he Lenine; and others will soon follow. did deeds great and small gave to his life a very real quality of But of the forces of which these names are fleeting expressaintliness. He remained to the end a Socialist, though he fre sions, of the movement which is bigger than any man, he has quently differed with those rigid spirits in the Socialist move much to learn. ment that saw no good in American social reform. For he An American journalist who was a pioneer in playing up recognized the idealistic undercurrents in American movements personalities in American magazines told me, with almost mystie

names— Trotsky,

108

enthusiasm, “I am through with personalities, heroes. My dreams, they prized institutions under freedom with fine sensihero hereafter is the crowd--the urge which moves masses to bility, and their quick intelligence easily detected any deviation revolt. Men come and go. It is the movement that counts.

from democratic progress. For they were and are devoted, not only -- Friend," I gently responded, “must we not have leadership to the democracy that is, but to the democracy that ought to be. which directs this urge, and, translating man's aspiration into policies of statecraft, builds new institutions rooted in the NOTE. - Dr. Moskowitz, President of the New York Municidemocratic spirit we prize ? So that, after all, our interest in pal Civil Service Commission and Commissioner of Public personalities is not unsound, if we regard them as the rudders Markets under Mayor Mitchel, is himself almost a native of of the urge.

the East Side. Born in Rumania, he came to the East Side at Perhaps Trotsky and Lenine may prove steersmen, perhaps the age of three, and was educated in the public schools there not. But the movement will go on, and men and women will and in a European university. He therefore knows the currents live and die for it.

of life and thought of the East Side thoroughly. This interOn the plain casket containing the body of Paul Kaplan was esting portrait of a Russian revolutionist will be followed by a a simple wreath tied with a red ribbon upon which was inscribed, portrait, drawn by Dr. Moskowitz's pen, of Trotsky, the Rus- From his comrades.” Paul Kaplan and his comrades gave to sian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and of Jacob Epstein, an East America the best that was in them- lives of sustained dedica Side Jewish sculptor now fighting with the British army in tion to high causes. Because they suffered for their democratic defense of Jerusalem.--THE EDITORS.

A MUNITION PLANT IN EVERY BACK YARD

BY CHARLES LATHROP PACK ..

PBESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY FOOD GARDEN COMMISSION

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OVERNMENT figures indicate that not less than six in the afternoon, which will furnish the opportunity of devoting hundred thousand men trained and experienced in farm that much more time to the cultivation of the soil. The results

work have been taken from the farms of America since which can be accomplished by the addition of an hour every day the beginning of this country's participation in the war. These for garden work will largely increase the product raised. We figures are ominous. With six hundred thousand farm workers are urging the prompt passage at this session of Congress of the suddenly shifted into the class of non-producers it requires no pending bill. imagination to foresee that 1918 will show a more grievous By their energy, industry, and application in 1917 the home shortage of farm labor than did 1917. Every one knows how gardieners of the United States showed that they were alive to serere was that shortage last season. No one can fail to realize the call of patriotism. The garden slacker received no more what all this will inevitably mean in the matter of farm pro cordial consideration than did the military slacker. Home garAnction.

dening has come to be regarded as the gift of a patriotic people With this definite handicap in sight for the farm crops, the to a nation in need. It is also an enterprise of individual beneback-yard and vacant-lot garden becomes more than ever a war fit. Through garden activities Americans in hundreds of thougarden and a National necessity. The single factor most vital sands of households have learned new lessons in the joy of living. to military success is food. Food is the one thing for which Last year's excursion into home gardening was to marv a voythere is no substitute. When Germany was cut off from the age of discovery as to the delights of the table when supplied nitrate fields of Chile, German chemists and engineers com with vegetables freshly gathered from the home garden. It was mandeered the nitrogen of the air for creation of the nitric acid also a journey of exploration through a land of new healthfulessential in the manufacture of explosives. Wood pulp has been ness and strength revealed through the medium of outdoor exersubstituted for cotton fiber in the making of gun-cotton, and in cise and wholesome vegetable diet. divers other ways science, by devising substitutes, has over The coming season should see the recultivation of every come shortage. No scientist has yet discovered a substitute for garden cultivated in 1917, and the addition of all the other foxwl

. The only solution of the food problem is an increased garden-planting area available. During three and a half years prodluction, and to make this possible the home gardeners of of warfare the Allied nations have drained their agricultural America face 1918 with a responsibility far greater than that resources to a point where productive possibilities are now at a with which they set about their work last season.

minimum. The world's shipping facilities are so inadequate that Volume is not the sole requirement of food production in this the European food supply must necessarily come from America time of emergency: Conservation of transportation is equally as the land from which shipments can be made with the least important. So far as possible, all food should be grown in the tax on the ships left available by submarine warfare. The time immediate neighborhood of its place of ultimate use. It is requirements for shipments from Australia and other remote imperative to the National welfare that no avoidable strain be countries are such as to be prohibitive. America is the one place placed on the transportation facilities of the country. Shipments upon which the Allies may depend for the feeding of their armies of foolstuffs require freight cars that are urgently needed for and populations. To enable America to do its share our home shipments of munitions, fuel, and other supplies vital to the gardeners must recognize that they are war gardeners, and needs of a nation at war. Unnecessary shipments must be therefore vital to the success of the armies. They must produce eliminated. This means production of food where it is to be foodstuffs on a tremendous scale, with the central thought that mused. This involves the cultivation of food gardens at every unending industry on the part of their gardens is the price of home and on every inch of vacant land in the neighborhood of world-wide freedom. cities, towns, and villages. Last year the National Emergency As in 1917, the need is for Food Production F. O. B. the Food Garden Commission reported the existence of nearly three Kitchen Door. This means that it will be none too much if two million gardens in yards and vacant lots. This year there or more war gardens are made to grow where one grew before, should be five million. This added increase vill

creating a vast aggregate yield at the points of consumption. great to meet the increased needs of a situation immeasurably By the same logic, there must be universal application of the more serious than was that of 1917.

simple principles of home canning and drying of vegetables and One of the means which will prove most helpful to the home fruits. Last year the households of America created a winter gardener in adding to the food supply is the National daylight- supply of canned goods amounting to more than half a billion saving scheme, which Germany adopted early in the war, and jars. This year they should make it more than a billion. To which a number of other nations have since put into operation

Food Production F. 0. B. the Kitchen Door they will thus add with

great profit as a war measure. This simple plan of turning a Food Supply F. O. B. the Pantry Shelf. By making themthe clovk forward and starting the day's work an hour earlier

selves both soldiers of the soil and cohorts of conservation «luring the summer months will give an extra hour of daylight they will form a vast army of aggression-fearless, defiant,

none too

and invincible. With forces thus organized to support the mili ble as neutrality in the war itself. In the great conflict we shall
tary establishment America can conquer the alien foe and do her win or lose according to our solution of the food problem.
part to rescue and redeem civilization. Without these forces Let us plant gardens as never before, and grow munitions at
she is helpless. Neutrality on the food question is as impossi- home to help win the war.

AN ACCREDITED GERMAN AGENT IN WASHINGTON

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14

BY DEMETRA VAKA
Many readers, familiar with her delightful books, and remembering her article on “ England in Khaki,” printed in The Outlook for April
18, 1917, will recognize Demetra Vaka as Mrs. Kenneth Brown. Born on an island in the Sea of Marmora, she knows Greece and the Bal-
kans—and Turkey-as only a native of southeastern Europe can know them. With her husband, who is not only an author, but an expe-
rienced newspaper man, she has just returned from a journey of several months in Europe. Much of this time Mr. and Mrs. Brown spent in
Greece and had occasion to become acquainted with the conditions there and to ascertain facts from the highest sources.—THE EDITORS.

N December 5 we landed in America after a year's travel own territory. In May of that year—that is 1915—we submitted
through England, France, Italy, and Greece. Everywhere

terms to Great Britain. They were, first, the restitution to us by
we encountered the diabolically clever propaganda work

Serbia of both the contested and the uncontested portions of

Macedonia ; second, the cession of Kavala, Drama, and Seres; of Germany, and often wondered how it was that the Govern

third, restoration by Rumania of New Dobrudja, with the excepments of those countries were not able to fight this terrible

tion of Silistria ; and, fourth, the restoration of the Enos-Midia
menace more effectively. In France this propaganda every frontier according to the London Treaty of May 30, 1913. In
where sowed distrust of the English and caused an unbelievable

other words, we asked only for what had been taken from
number of intelligent Frenchmen to think that England was us wrongfully, and for the restoration of lands occupied by our
really planning to keep French seaports after the war. In own people who wanted to be restored to us.
Greece it convinced numerous Greeks that France was planning As our Prime Minister put it at the time, we were ready to
a “French protectorate” over Greece, and it insinuated to the fight for either side that would enable us to restore our national
French that by supporting Venizelos they were “ playing into

unity by recovering Serbian Macedonia. The Entente Allies the hands of England.” In England it preached pacifism, con

urged Serbia to agree to what we asked, and the very thing that scientious objections, and war weariness. Its effects in Italy

Serbia had admitted to be right before the second Balkan War.

But Serbia refused and blocked the plan, although we had the have too recently been shown to need recapitulation.

hearty support of Paul Milukoff, the greatest of the Russian We were in Salonika when America came into the war. We

statesmen, who denounced the obstinacy of Serbia. witnessed the intense joy of Mr. Venizelos and his followers at

Is it conceivable that a Bulgarian should be ignorant of the our entrance and the hopes with which it strengthened all the

true state of affairs in the Balkans? It is not, and hence French and English soldiery. In the months that followed we

every

word Mr. Panaretoff uttered in this interview is a misstate heard on all sides that America was handling the war situation

ment of the truth as black, as treacherous, as pregnant with “ with her customory thoroughness.” In England the papers

German propaganda, as if Bernstorff himself had uttered it. were continually holding up the United States as an example

As I said before, my husband and I have been abroad a year to their own Government, saying that America was no senti

studying the Grecian situation under circumstances which gave mentalist, that she understood every phase of the German propaganda, and was effectively nipping it in the bud.

us every opportunity of getting at the truth. We have seen One may imagine my dumfounded disappointment when, from ambassadors who were actors in the drama down there

many official documents, and have verified all important points on our first Sunday in America, my eyes fell on page 11 of the

and from the Foreign Office in London. And unequivocally I New York “ Times” and I read the following headlines :

can state that Serbia did not block the way to negotiations with BULGARIAN MINISTER SAYS HIS LAND IS NOT OUR FOE. Bulgaria, but consented to give up the territory demanded by IN A REMARKABLE INTERVIEW STEPHEN PANARETOFF TELLS rapacious Bulgaria, in an effort to keep the latter country from WHY HE THINKS WE SHOULD NOT DECLARE WARM ADMITS siding against

the Entente. HIS COUNTRY WILL CONTINUE FIGHTING.

As for the Greek provinces of Drama-Kavala-Seres, I have I read the accompanying article and re-read it. Every line in my hands indisputable proof that they were offered to Bulof the interview is the subtlest form of German propaganda I garia on August 3, 1915, to gain her neutrality. have yet seen in print. Perhaps it was particularly apparent

And this Bulgarian Panaretoff questions the honesty of Mr. to me because certain partisans of King Constantine and the

Roosevelt because he asserts that the Bulgarian Legation is Kaiser at Athens had informed me that “ M. Panaretoff was a furthering the interest of Germany. I do not know what proofs very valuable man for Germany." But even had I not known Mr. Roosevelt has against the Bulgarian Legation, but I do this fact his own words would have been proof enough.

know that every statement of Mr. Panaretoff's in his interview First of all, this Bulgarian tells us that our Congressman, Mr. is proof enough that this Bulgarian Minister is engaged in the Miller, seems to be uninformed on the great subjects that he

most pernicious form of plotting, of which Germany is a pastwould discuss in the American Congress.

master. Every word of his has an object in view. He seeks to Shaking the faith of our people in their own representatives diminish our admiration for our courageous and gallant ally is one way in which this Bulgarian serves William of Germany, Serbia. He makes insinuations against Italy and Rumania with for Germany plans to weaken our strength as an ally of Eng. the object of making the American people—who are not yet

well versed in international affairs- believe that some of our land and France by bringing about mistrust of our Government in the minds of our people-as she so successfully has done in

allies are as contemptible as Bulgaria herself. Russia and in Italy. She means to create Bolsheviki among us,

In this way, naturally, the number of malcontents who do and to finance them, and Mr. Panaretoff is her agent.

not clearly understand why we are in this war will be increased. Then this representative of a nation whose army in its atro

It will also help to dampen the enthusiasm of our soldiers for cious conduct is only second to that of Germany proceeds to some of the nations on whose side we are fighting. And this is utter lie upon lie in an effort to create public opinion against only a beginning, a beginning which, as I said before, it is hoped heroic Serbia. He says:

will lead to the creation of a Bolshevik movement in the United

States. Are we going to permit this? Are we going to see our So our only enemy in this war, recognized by us in an official declaration of hostilities, is Serbia. If it had not been for Serbia newspapers unconsciously lending their columns to this inspired we would have been in the war to-day, not as an ally of Germany propaganda ? Are we going to see such men as Panaretoff acting and Austria and Turkey, but as an ally of England and France as accredited agents of Germany to our Government? Or are and Italy and America. We stayed out of the war until Octo we going to wake up and justify the great faith in our sagacity. ber of 1915, hoping that the Entente Allies would guarantee us in our forethought, in our astuteness, which

the

allies across what we asked, which was no more than the restoration of our seas have in us?

our

W

An hour after the gate is open to civilians the process of in grip tightly the hands held out to them, a man-to-man farewell.

BY JEAN BROOKE BURT
Day long the valley pants beneath the glare

There is a hush; as from a long, dread dream
Of shimmering sun ; a smothering wind blows by

The valley wakes, and dusk, soft-fingered, cool,
Hot from the desert, parching the brown bare

Steals down the hills ; there comes a gleam
Earth beneath the pitiless summer sky.

Of water, phantom shapes of stream and pool.
High in the canyons of the dust-blown hills

Mysterious night, tender and wondrous calm,
Fires flame and spread, the thick smoke blurs

Lulls the hot land to sleep; the red fires die;
The air, the streams run dry, no water fills

Stilled are the horrors of the day's alarm;
The creeks below, no live thing stirs.

Night sentinels, the stars, keep watch on high.
VISITORS ALLOWED-1 P.M. TO 5 P.M.

BY GEORGE M. MURRAY
THEN I was a very small boy, my father used to take Hereafter the poor things, so far as he is concerned, may at
me to the zoo. There, with bulging eyes, I stood mo-

least eat in peace. You look up from the Sunday letter home tionless before the cages of what to me were absolutely and see women's faces at the door. From this smiling cloud unique animals

. And always, when I was safely home, exag, comes the deluge. gerating and enriching natural history for my companions, I "You all sleep in here? Mercy, there must be a lot of snorwas inwardly elated to think that no iron bars shut me in from ing! Those funny things are hammocks ? They look like a piece the glorious world of marbles, haymows, bonfires and the result of salt-water taffy. You keep all your clothes in that one bag ? ing singed eyebrows.

My, I never could find anything. What's this—” To-day, for the first time, I am learning how those dumb The Sunday letter ceases automatically. Here is a golden creatures felt if, perchance, any of them were of sensitive dis- cpportunity to become an adept in the universal art of questionpositions. I have been through the ordeal of Visitors' Day at asking. one of our best training camps. Cut from the outside world by The cloudburst develops drum-fire intensity. It requires infia circular knife of barbed wire, I have watched the uncaged, nite concentration to pick out the individual inquiry. and have been amused and saddened. Friends and relatives “Those are ‘half-hitches'? A ditty box! Isn't that the funtime-honored attendants at every function—swarm down upon niest name? Oh, I love your soap and scrubbing-brush! Did us like flies on the butter. That Boy in Uniform is, every one, you wash that suit? I think I'll send my laundry to you. Do his own Pied Piper,

you think I could climb into a hammock? Fall out in the It is a variegated crowd that he draws. Mothers are, of middle of the night? Goodness, it's miles to the floor!” course, most prominent and most welcome. With eager and Then come the mothers' questions—a gentle, soothing shower worried faces they wait at the gate, adjusting their hats and of them : "Can you keep your feet warm in a hammock? Is it furs as if they were to be photographed. At the first sight of as comfortable as a bed? Do you get to bed early? Nine the boy the impatience becomes unconfined, while anxiety o'clock! That's right, you must be all tired out. Couldn't you melts into a smile of sympathy, pride, and love.

use feet-warmers? Do you get enough to eat? Remember, let "Why haven't you written ?” begins the mother, after a glad

you embrace.

doctor. What do you want me to send your so straight to the “I've had the grip,” the son mutters, averting his look You are seized with a violent fit of scribbling, wherein you from his mother's eyes.

inform your mother that you sleep like a log and never felt “ There, father, didn't I tell you ? They haven't given him better in

your

life. any warm underclothes.”

So the long afternoon passes. The un visited animals become Father says something about the boy's getting hardened and restless. They perform for the spectators. They tie the fanciest beams approval on the six feet of young manhood that has of knots, confident the average civilian knows nothing about already relieved his mother of bundles, the solid appearance of that science. They unroll and roll clothes, demonstrating what which screams, “ Food !” The grand tour of the camp is now a neat bundle is made by the rotary method of folding. They under way. The first thing mother will do when she gets home, accept cigars, cigarettes, and confectionery just as the elephant regulation or no regulation, will be to parcel-post warm socks takes his peanuts. Kind-faced elderly ladies, their knitting bags and underclothes to the boy.

dangling before them, promise sweaters and wristlets with an Parents are the first to arrive. Half an hour or so later less abandon that makes one fear for fulfillment. Small sisters and intimate relatives and more intimate friends approach the gate. brothers don real sailor hats, while shouts of excitement emerge The American girl now draws near. As He--pardon the obso

from heads of low visibility. The older youths air their Boy Scout lete capital-comes up the walk to meet her, she stands on the knowledge, semaphoring with the speed of a first-class signal man. tiptoes of her high-laced shoes and claps her hands in unfeigned Why, it's as good as a picnic or clambake! Yes, it's fine, so joy. Color suffuses her face and mingles naturally with the gay long as the sun is high in the heaven, but now the shadows have bits of finery of her apparel. Surely, now if ever, she can kiss suddenly deepened and grown long. The blue, high over the him, no matter who watches. No one, however, seems to notice riotous trees on the western hill, has become a dull red. The save the sentry, who smiles and sighs simultaneously in a de visitors are now in small groups, talking earnestly and softly cidedly unmilitary manner. I have often been that sentry, but to those they have come to see. The visited are thinking of I have never had the heart to eavesdrop. What the girl says is lamp-light and soft chairs, and the visitors of noisy mess-halls for him. Perhaps some day some one will whisper something to and pine benches. There isn't much to be said under such cirme and me alone.

cumstances. But then words, as some one long ago intimated, Still later in the afternoon come the gentlemen friends of the do not always speak loudly. contents of the uniform. They, at first blush, are sheer curi

One by one, the civilian groups depart. The girls no longer esity

, They gape at the sentry's gun, at his leggings, and even ask questions or radiate enthusiasm. Mothers, looking deep into his shoes

. Their opening remarks bear a striking similarity. their boys' eyes, communicate a silent message of confidence in There is an emphatic " Well!" and a sincere “ How are you? the present and hope for the future. Fathers stand erect and How do you like it ?”

The quick, metallic notes of a bugle sounding “mess gear specting the details of camp life is in full sway. Right here one send the stragglers scurrying to the gate. Motors rattle, horns begins to think of the lions and monkeys in the circus parade.

wheeze, and all is silent, save for the sound of feet scuffling He also resolves never again to watch them feed the animals. into the mess hall.

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WEEKLY OUTLINE STUDY OF

CURRENT HISTORY
BY J. MADISON GATHANY, A.M.

HOPE STREET HIGH SCHOOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I.

Based on The Outlook of January 9, 1918 Each week an Qutline Study of Current History based on the preceding number of The Outlook will be printed for the benefit of current events classes, debating clubs, teachers of history and of English, and the like, and for use in the home and by such individual readers as may desire suggestions in the serious study of current history -THE EDITORS.

(Those who are using the weekly outline should consider his reasons sufficient and convincnot attempt to cover the whole of an outline in any

ing? Tell why or why not. 3. How has one lesson or study. Assign for one lesson selected questions, one or two propositions for discussion,

Baron Ito shown that the interests of Japan and only such words as are found in the material and America in China are not incompatiassigned. Or distribute selected questions among ble, are not antagonistic, and are not different members of the class or group and have them report their findings to all when assembled.

destined to collide? 4. State and discuss Then have all discuss the questions together.]

reasons why the friendly relations of Japan

and America should be even more firmly 1- INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

cemented than they are now. 5. What do A Topic: Russia in a Trap ; An Answer to a Proposal of Peace.

you know about Japanese national characReference. Page 41 ; editorial, page 45.

teristics, religious beliefs, moral ideals,

economic conditions, education, manners, Questions 1. What has The Outlook said that shows

customs, immigration to America, Socialthat the Russian Bear is in a trap? 2. Do

ism, and diplomatic relations between Japan you think England and France wise or un

and America ? 6. The following books wise in refusing to join Russia and Ger

should be read: “The Japanese Nation," by

Nitobé (Putnams); “Over Japan Way," by OVERNMENT contracts many in peace parleying? Reasons. 3. What

Hitchcock (Holt); “Bushido," by Nitobé seems to you to be the German idea of · peace? 4. Give your opinion of a peace

(Putnams); “Japan in World Politics,” by on cost-plus basis require effected by the Bolsheviki. 5. Are the

Kawakami (Macmillan); “ Japan to Amer-
ica," by Mosaoka (Putnams).

exact cost accounting.
Bolsheviki Russia ? If not, who is? 6. What
kind of leaders does Russia need just now?

D. Topic: Free Poland.
State and discuss qualifications of such.

Reference : Editorial, pages 45-47.
Questions :

An installation of Durand Steel
7. Discuss the aptness of the story told by
The Outlook in its editorial on peace on

1. Present facts supporting the first sen Racks, adapted to your particular

tence of this editorial. 2. What does The page 45. Is the parallel plain and the meanOutlook say about the spirit of Poland requirements will soon pay

for itself ing of the parable clear? 8. Is The Outlook

since the Middle Ages”! Add several by reducing handling costs, eliminattoo severe upon Germany in its statement

other evidences. 3. What is the Polish of the conditions of peace ? 9. Discuss the saneness and the justice of The Outlook's question? How does The

Outlook believe ing wastes and losses and facilitating

it should be answered? Why does it hold speedy and accurate inventory. explanation of “what we want and what we

to its belief? 4. State the purpose and do not want.” 10. Have you yet read Henry

describe the work of the Polish National van Dyke's book, “ Fighting for Peace”? Committee. Do you approve of it? 5. What

Write today for our If not, do so at once. It is published by

new catalogue. Scribners. Read also a new and very val.

reasons are there for believing the fact of
the last sentence of this editorial ? 6. If you

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are interested in a further study of this im-

Durand Steel Lockers de. portant topic, read “The Second Partition

'signed to meet the most B. Topic: Mania Teutonica.

of Poland," by R. H. Lord (Harvard UniReference; Pages 58-60.

exacting locker requirements versity Press); “A Brief History of Questions :

Poland,” by Julia Orvis (Houghton Mifflin); 1. What are Professor Jastrow's convic * The Reconstruction of Poland and the DURAND STEEL LOCKER CO. tions that constitute his pacifism? Compare Near East," by Gibbons (Century). this sort of pacifism with the contemporary

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II-NATIONAL AFFAIRS idea of pacifism. 2. Professor Jastrow be

Chicago Topic: Making Bricks Without Straw ; lieves Germany has gone mad. In his

New York opinion, what kind of madness is it that

Democracy in War

Reference : Pages 47, 48, and 39. possesses Germany ? How does he account

Questions : for it, and what does he believe is its only

This FREE Shoe Book cure? 3. What contrasts does Professor

1. What are the conditions set forth by Jastrow bring out between Germany's Who is responsible for this ? Discuss. 3.

Major-Generals Greble and Wright? 2. mania under military form and the Allies'

Could such conditions have been avoided ? attitude toward and conduct of war? 4.

FE Simon Shoe Professor Jastrow says that the German

Explain. 4. What suggestions can you offer mania proceeds upon cultivated intellectual

ar soil. Who prepared this soil? How was it prepared ? '5. How many reasons can you

Give your own opinion of these. give as to why Germany secretly betrays

III-PROPOSITIONS FOR DISCUSSION the good faith of nations? Illustrate. *6. (These propositions are suggested directly or indi To make a perfectly developed

rectly by the subject matter of The Outlook, but physical body we must also de How much are you indebted to Professor not discussed in it.)

velop the mind as well as the Jastrow and The Outlook for the privilege 1. Nations cannot be handcuffed together,

muscles. Many systems of phys

ical exercise are excellent, but
of reading this article ? Give several spe- they must grow together. 2. Democracy they do not teach the proper
cific reasons. 7: Two valuable books to cannot conduct war effectively.
read in connection with this article are

By selecting from and adding
IV--VOCABULARY BUILDING

to the best systems for physi“What Germany Thinks," by T. F. A.

(All of the following words and expressions are

cal development I have worked Smith (Doran), and “Germanism From found in The Outlook for January 9, 1918. Both

a thoroughly practical

method of physical culture. Within,” by A. D. McLaren (Dutton). before and after looking them up in the dictionary or To this I have added a plan for

elsewhere, give their meaning in your own words. developing mental vigor by usC. Topic: Japan's War Problems. The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which

ing the control which mind can Reference : Pages 52-54. the words may be found.)

Thus both mind and body reQuestions :

Moral mentors, contemporaries (45); ceive exercise and upbuilding 1. What are the reasons given by Dr. mania, insanity, fanaticism, aberrations

at the same time. Iyenaga explaining why Japan is not fight (58); tonnage, taels (53); Poland, Middle I have described the system at some length in a booklet,

which I shall be glad to send you free. ing on the European battlefields? 2. Do you Ages, Napoleonie era (45).

MRS. ELIZABETH INA JOY, A booklet suggesting methods of using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on application 339 N. Taylor Avenue,

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