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machinery of Government is made efficient for carrying out this fired its first shot and the submarine submerged. The battered programme and for " delivering the goods."
and helpless J. L. Luckenbach was saved, repaired, and escortel
For the destroyer it was all in the day's work. This is the TWO GAINS FOR WOMAN SUFFRAGE
kind of thing our destroyers abroad are doing all the while
For the merchant ship, its officers, its sailors, and its gun crew, By pure coincidence the House of Representatives at Wash
it was an exhibition of fortitude and manhood that deserves tó ington and the House of Lords at London on the same day
live in American annals.
THE FUTILE PEACE PARLEYS
The British Labor party is quite right when it says in its The vote in our Congress was on an amendment to the Con message of January 15 to the Russian people that negotiations stitution. It is short and clear:
at Brest-Litovsk have been interrupted because the Germans
have refused to admit the principle of self-determination of peoSection 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any
ples and the doctrine of no annexations. Nothing in the history State, on account of sex.
of diplomacy could be more callously satirical than Germany's Section 2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legisla
talk about "self-determination ” of the future of Lithuania and tion, to enforce the provision of this article.
other parts of Russia with German bayonets behind the
When the delegates reconvened at Brest-Litovsk, Germany The resolution submitting the proposed amendment to the first flatly refused to consider Russia's proposal to hold further States was passed by the House by a vote of 274 to 136. This
peace” negotiations in a neutral country, and then announced is precisely the two-thirds majority required by the Constitution. that all her previous offers were withdrawn because Russia's If the Senate passes the resolution, also by a two-thirds majority, former allies had refused those offers—terms which were too and if three-fourths of the States ratify the amendment through radically pro-German for even the Bolsheviki to consider ! The their legislatures, it becomes law.
probabilities of a separate peace treaty between Germany and The division of the vote as to parties and sections was inter Russia seem slighter every week. esting. On the face of the vote the result was a victory of Re The above quoted utterance by the British Labor party (a publicans against Democrats ; really it was a failure of the political element of real strength in Great Britain) accepts South to block the measure, for 83 of the negative votes came the principle of self-determination for British dependencies
, from the South. It is this opposition in the South which makes including even India, as to which it adds, however, that little the fate of the measure in the Senate not altogether bright; in reproach exists against the British record. It also advocates the
full Senate 33 votes would defeat the measure, and it is pretty principles of no annexations and no indemnities, but again urges sure that, in addition to the votes of the Senators from those international control for uncivilized peoples—as in Africa—a Southern States which voted in the negative in the House, a suggestion that should be carefully considered in the light of number of other negative votes will be cast in the Senate. what happened to international control of the Congo.
The action in the House of Lords ratified the passage at its In Petrograd the question of the moment last week was second reading by the House of Commons of a bill which is whether or not the National Constituent Assembly, summoned expected to give the vote to about six million women. One
for January 18, would be allowed to meet, or whether the formality only remains, namely, the third reading of the bill in Lenine faction would substitute for it a national council of Peasthe Lords, but no opposition is expected at that time. There is ants, Workmen, and Soldiers delegates. This would be quite in also a bill to be acted upon which would submit the whole ques accordance with Lenine's recent printed argument that neither tion to a popular referendum, but that also is not regarded as capitalists, bourgeoisie, nor “ wealthy peasants” should have a dangerous obstacle. The Lords vote was 134 to 69. We note anything to do with framing the Constitution. with special pleasure the comment by Miss Christabel Pank The armistice between Russia and Germany has been rehurst: “ The women of Great Britain now have only one idea, newed by mutual consent. Meanwhile there are some indicato assure victory for the Allies."
tions that the Bolsheviki are gaining ground in the more The bill enacts that: “ Any woman thirty years old, already remote parts of Russia, and that they are trying to gain the aid entitled to vote at the municipal elections, or who is the wife of of the Cossacks in renewing war with Germany, if necessary. a man entitled to vote at such elections, is to be entitled to vote in the national elections for members of Parliament."
THE MOST PIOUS GEORGE
In their journey northward through Palestine to Jerusalem A BATTLE AT SEA
the British troops have unearthed remains of early Christian A fight at sea which recalls the stirring days of Paul Jones art of very great interest, if we may believe the correspondent or of the War of 1812 has just been told officially. We give of the London - Telegraph” who is with the Anglo-Egyptian here only the bare facts and in our own words:
forces. One morning last October an American destroyer got a wire At Phelusiat (we do not find it on any maps in our less despatch. It was from the American merchant steamer J. L. possession), New Zealanders, the correspondent says, discovered Luckenbach. It said that a submarine was shelling the Lucken the marble remains of two splendid churches, and at Shellal, bach and asked for help. The destroyer said, in effect, “ We near Beersheba, another fine church. Shellal, the correspondent are coming." The merchantman asked, “ How long will it take affirms, means “ Bubbling Springs.” As the church was on the
"Åbout two hours," said the destroyer. “It will be too main road from Jerusalem to Egypt--the road taken by the late," said the other ship.“ Don't surrender,” said the de Ethiopian when he met Philip and was baptized-the correstroyer. “Never !" said the Luckenbach.
spondent queries as to whether the baptism may not have taken It was more than two hours before the destroyer came into place at Shellal. On the other hand, from the root meaning of action. The merchantman had fought superbly and was still the Arabic, we should expect Shellal to be a dry place rather than tighting. Its guns were commanded, if we understand the report
one of “ Bubbling Springs.” Again, unless the “Telegraph rightly, by a simple naval seaman, not even a warrant officer correspondent revises the text of the Book of the Acts, the place he has since been given a warrant by the Government. The could not be the point at which the Ethiopian was baptized; submarine fired 225 shots, the Luckenbach 202. The American
according to the Acts, it lies somewhere between Jerusalem and ship was hit over and over again ; it had fire between decks; Gaza. one shot had put the after gun out of commission ; men were The third discovery was outside of Gaza. The Anzacs went wounded and men were killed and still the ship fought on. up a high mound, on the summit of which a trench had been The battle had raged for four hours. At 11:30 the destrover dng for a machine-gun emplacement. It revealed the edge of a
nation of which history tells us. Let us quit this business of mosaic floor. Fortunately the army engineers were also equal criticising our allies. to archæological demands. With hot glue and linen canvas and
It was not given to Major Gardner to see service in France, plaster of Paristhey removed und preserved about eight thousand but he gave his life for his country as truly as though he small pieces of mosaic. The subject of the mosaic was found had fallen in the trenches of Flanders or on the hills before to be the words : “ I am the true Vine; ye are the branches." Verdun. The vine was growing from an amphora designed in many-colored marbles, circled by animals, who were making obeisance to a central chalice. There was also an inscription which has WE SHOULD NOT BIND OURSELVES been thus translated by Mr. A. H. Smith, of the British Museum :
T is reported that some of the railway managers are urging X (Sign of the Cross) this temple with spacious founda Congress to limit the period of Government operation of the tions (:) was built by our most holy (bishop or similar title) and railways. They are asking that there shall be put in the bill most pious George--in the yea: 622 according to— (the year which is to confirm the taking over of the railways by the Presiof Gaza ?)
dent a clause specifically stating that they are to be returned The era of Gaza, the correspondent comments, commenced to private management six months or a year after the war ends. B.c. 61, which would give the date of the church as A.D. 561. This seems to us unwise both for the railways and the country. The Rev. W. Maitland Woods, senior chaplain of the Anzac It is true that measures adopted solely for the prosecution of Mounted Division, says that the inscription elaborated would the war should apply only to the period of the war. But that is read something like this:
not to say that a measure adopted for the prosecution of the X. And so he contributed generously to the building of this war, if it proves of general benefit, should be prohibited from church here, he who was the most saintly of us all and the most outlasting the war. Government operation has been adopted beloved of God. George was his name and the building was under the Government war powers, and is consequently dis erected in the 622d year after the Roman foundation of the city tinctly a war measure. The Government should not bind itself of Gaza.
to continue it after the war; neither should the Government Under this inscription were discovered the bones of a man. bind itself to drop it. The right forearm had been broken but had been beautifully A statutory promise to abandon Government operation can set. There were skilled disciples of Æsculapius in those days, the do no good except to relieve the fears of those who do not ap“Telegraph” man remarks. These bones were those of the most prove of the change from private to Government management, pious George.” Query: Was he the patron saint of England ? and it
do a good deal of harm even to the railways' interAt all events, the British captors of the bones handled them as ests. Many of the wise railway men of the country have hailed reverently as if they had been those of their patron saint. The with approval the taking over of the roads by the Government. traditional point with which St. George of England is connected The change has increased the market value of railway securi. is Lydda, near Jaffa. But that St. George is always under the sus ties. Experts practically all agree that in this critical time the picion of being a reflex of the old heathen myth of the destruc railways must be weldd ito one united whole. This is possition by Perseus of the dragon at Jaffa to protect Andromeda. ble only under a system of Government direction and operation.
All these discoveries testify to the flourishing condition of No private banking system can be conceivably large enough to Palestine centuries ago, and to the interest taken in Christianity handle the finances of separate systems of railways, interthere. They will be welcome in the study of Christian art. changing their cars, locomotives, and other equipment at will.
The Government can do this by guaranteeing to each road, as
it does, a fair return on its investment, paying the bills of HE PRACTICED WHAT HE PREACHED
operation and taking the earnings. It is conceivable and perMajor Augustus P. Gardner, former Representative from haps not improbable that a year after the war we shall find that Massachusetts, died on January 14, from pneumonia, at Camp railway concentration and combination are as useful in times Wheeler, Macon, Georgia. As a member of Congress Major of peace for industry and economic development as in times Gardner rendered many conspicuous services. He was, for of war. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that the railexample, a leader in the Republican revolt which did much in
way investors of this country may prefer, a year after the war, 1910 to liberalize the machinery of the lower house. All his to have a Government guarantee of interest on their bonds or other services, however, were overshadowed by his bold and
dividends on their stock than a private promise to pay. anflagging advocacy of Preparedness. He was an advocate of It is true that Government operation of all our railways is Preparedness when Preparedness was looked upon as “hysteria, experimental, but that is the very reason why we should make and an unflagging critic of those whose false understanding of no promise about it to-day, either pro or con. The country our military needs did so much to send our country unarmed · should wait to decide what it will do about the railway question into the great contiict.
in time of peace until that time comes. If Government operaCongressman Gardner not only advocated Preparedness, but tion proves to have been a failure, it will be abandoned by the he did it in a dramatically successful manner. He helped pow- country. If it proves to be a success, no statutory promise erfully to make it a popular issue to the man on the street. It to-day will prevent the country from continuing a policy which will be remembered that on one occasion he exposed the condi has proved itself to be good. tion of our reserve forces by inviting the entire Reserve of the The analogy is not quite exact, but to embody in the new United States Army to sit with him at a dinner table. Only a
Railway Act a promise to go back to the old system one year small handful of men were entitled to accept this generous
after the war is a little like, it seems to us, an attempt on the sounding invitation!
part of the National Banking Association to enact a clause in When the war broke out, Mr. Gardner, already a member of the Federal Reserve Act promising to go back to the old Naour Officers' Reserve, resigned his seat in Congress to enter
tional banking methods after the first currency panic had been the service of his country as a colonel. He asked that he successfully managed by the Federal Reserve banks. might be demoted to the rank of major in order that he might be assigned as a line officer and sent to France. He was serving in the 121st Infantry at the time of his death.
OUR PART IN A NEW WORLD That his transfer from the halls of Congress to the military service did not damage his capacity for making succinct
- At the meeting of the New York State Bar Association, in and telling phrases is proved by an incident which we find the presence of a gathering of lawyers of distinction, two noterecorded in the New York Times.” In a speech in which he worthy addresses were delivered and a noteworthy report of answered an attack on France that appeared in a Georgia National significance was made by an important representative Dewspaper he said:
committee. The French have spilled as much blood as Americans have
Mr. Charles E. Hughes, the President of the Association, in spilled ink. The French have fought more and talked less than his opening address pointed out some of the social and political
.. But may
changes which this war would be sure to bring about in the Re country; of putting any limit upon the ingenuity and the initiapublic, involving a very large control by the Government over the tive and energy of different nations in improving their respective life of the individual. The United States Supreme Court has navies, a difficulty which would perhaps apply equally to pre established the Constitutional authority of our Federal Govern- scribing any limitations upon energy and initiative in improvment. The acts of the people have shown their readiness to ing munitions for land warfare; of guarding against the secret exercise that authority when necessary. The problem for solu construction of airplanes, which might very easily be constructed tion is how to transmute the Constitutional energy into actual in such numbers as to destroy an island community, or even a achievement. “The problems of the democracy of the future,” continental community ; of stereotyping the present tenure and he said, “ will not be problems of power, but problems of admin- ownership of the world's surface, or of dealing efficiently with istration the problem how to so use our power as to get waxing and waning empires; of the construction and memberthings done.” This power once realized and once utilized will ship of the international bodies, whether, for example, all nations not be readily relinquished. The war has created “a new shall have an equal vote in the tribunal or the council
, and melting-pot.” “Our young men of every race and condition are whether all nations, including Germany, shall even become being fused in the heat of a common preparation and a com members of it. mon strife into a citizenry of inspiration and ideals."
The British Attorney-General was careful to make it clear With this has come a new sense of individual obligation to the that he did not oppose an international league; that, on the Nation, and a new appreciation of the powers of a free government contrary, he thought “ it is worth while trying for an ideal ;" If individual liberties and rights are maintained, it will not be that what he wished was that “we shall, as far as assiduous because of a merely instinctive regard for them, but because of attention and practical industry can do it, consider before the the developed conviction that the common interest will be better occasion actually arises whether such a thing is or is not in the served by freedom of individual opportunity than by fettering range of human endeavor.” We do not think that he has it. We shall not treat as a crime in time of peace that co overestimated the difficulties in the way of realizing, or even operation which we have found necessary for our salvation under making any approach toward, a United States of the World ; the strain of war. “ We cannot tell what the present necessary but it appears to us that unless we can find some way to pra į action with regard to the railroads may portend.
vide an international protection for all peacably inclined nations we not expect that we shall at least have . ., a policy which every nation must arm to defend its own citizens from unrightwill recognize that there is no adequate protection to the pub eous attack, and this will mean, as soon as we recover from this lic interest which does not foster instrumentalities of commerce? war, entering upon another period of competitive armaments in
Our Nation ... is just at the beginning of its career. order to prepare for another world war. It is for this reason The dream of isolation is at an end. We are now to take our that for twenty years we have urged the hopeful study of the part in a new world, which we are assisting to create, a world problem of creating some league of nations designed to subwhere law is to be supreme, where force shall be only the stitute law for war as a means of establishing justice between ininister and agent of justice as expressed in law. . . . To the the nations. new order America could not escape relation if we would. Where there is a will there is a way. Jealousies, suspicions, We shall not relate ourselves to particular matters which do and conflicting interests have in the past prevented any will in not concern us, but a concert to keep the peace, to establish the various nations for permanent international union. This war the supremacy of international law—that is our common con has done much to create such a will. It has made a melting-pot
of nations who have been in the heat of a common strife and In harmony with the closing suggestion of Mr. Hughes's fused into something approaching a common citizenry. What speech was the report of a committee on the advantages of a twenty-five years ago was hardly an aspiration for international league to be formed at the close of the war for the purpose of brotherhood entertained by a few prophetic souls has grown into encouraging co-operation in the enforcement of international
a purpose animating the peoples of at least four great nationslaw. This committee has had the sympathetic counsel of lead the United States, Great Britain, France, and Italy. It is not ing officials in the Governments of Ångland and France, and its unreasonable to hope that this growing purpose will find a way report gives sanction and approval to a scheme for substituting to overcome the difficulty which Attorney-General Smith has the appeal to reason for the appeal to force as a means for so well presented. settling international disputes and proposes definite plans for
****(( :: the constitution both of an international tribunal somewhat
skoro corresponding to the Supreme Court of the United States and
NOT FOR EDITORS ONLY of an international council somewhat corresponding to a national parliament or congress. This plan has been worked out How can a journal or newspaper best serve the country? in some detail by the committee and is being seriously consid The question sounds as though it might be meant for editors ered by statesmen in Europe and America. Readers who wish only, but it is one which vitally concerns every citizen who can to learn more of the history of this movement will find it
read and write. briefly given in a little book by Theodore Marburg (Mac The country depends on its daily, weekly, and monthly press millan) entitled “ League of Nations,” and probably can for the facts on which public opinion is based. The country obtain, by addressing the author, the specific programme depends on its daily, weekly, and monthly press not only for recommended by the committee of jurists of which he was the the publication of the facts, but also for the presentation of chairman.
these facts in a fair and equitable manner. The function of Sir Frederick Edwin Smith, Attorney-General of Great editorship implies not only the publication and presentation of Britain, in a speech characterized by good sense and great cau facts in a fair and equitable manner, but it also implies the tion, the object of which was to guard the two countries against equally difficult task of refusing to publish such facts as are the peril of adopting rhetorical phrases as a substitute for a unimportant or unrepresentative of the true conditions. Beyond detailed working out of a perplexing problem, indicated some the selection, publication, and presentation of the facts there of the difficulties in the way of realizing what he called “ the lies perhaps the most important field of journalism—the field great and splendid dream of an international tribunal admin of interpretation. The importance of this field is immeasurably istering international law." He did not overstate the diffi increased by the state of war. culties which attend the proposal for a league to enforce peace, In peace times there are three separate types of journals and, in our judgment, he was wise in counseling the country to which fill three separate and legitimate wants : consider these difficulties now. “Get the best minds of your The partisan journal interprets events from the standpoint country," he said, “ working now to see whether this league of of party policy. The
function of a party journal is the function nations furnishes any practical prospect. Believe me, it will of the attorney for plaintiff or defendant in a law court. be far too late when the actual peace conference meets.”
The neutral journal, holding no brief for either black Among the difficulties which Sir Frederick mentioned were
white, is just as important as the court stenographer who imthose of stereotyping the armed force of each country and of partially records the pleas of both plaintiff and defendant
. allotting the appropriate contingent for defense purposes in each
The independent journal sits like a judge on the bench, who
and the law.
hears the arguments of both prosecution and defense, is moved
not been sought; they have been dreaded. The contrasted type by neither fear nor favor, and interprets to the jury the facts has been willed, trained, attained the domestic animal, the social
animal, the sick animal, in a word, the Christian. The Superman These are the functions of the three types of journals which or group of Supermen will have world control, the sooner the exist in time of peace; but in time of war all journals which better. We must cease endeavoring to preserve the sick and the are awake to their responsibility to the Nation must stand ready feeble. Our duty to them is to help them pass away.... They to sacrifice some of their peace-time functions, and assume, at may come to choose their own passing away, dying then in perhaps least in part, the judicial attitude of the independent journal, greater dignity than they have ever lived, and almost winning if they are to justify their existence.
the right to life again.' As with individuals, so with races. The United States at the present time has but one all-em “ Races that cannot be utilized in some way may be allowed to bracing object--we must win the war. To win the war we must die out.” Perils, disasters, wars, are all desirable, both because abandon all partisan prejudice, all peace-time irresponsibility, they develop the noble qualities in the strong, and because and center our attention upon the direct relation between the they destroy the weak. “It is no small advantage to have a selection, presentation, and publication of certain facts-and hundred Damocles-swords over one—thereby one learns to dance, victory over Germany. comes to freedom of motion.” There will come a great war,
the An editor may, in time of peace, be willing to stake every war for an idea, for the rule and organization of the earth; and thing upon the success of an individual candidate or of in this war Nietzsche's higher men will lead. Morality furindividual party. In time of war there is but one candidate, nishes no objection, for “there is nothing obligatory about Uncle Sam, and one party, the Allied Democracy.
morality. The only moral authority is general or social.” It In time of peace an editor can legitimately discuss (if he is is furnished by the custom of the social group and varies so constructed as to be interested in such a subject) the literary with the various groups. Real standard for all there is none, quality
of the Kaiser's speeches or of the perorations of Senator and Nietzsche does not hesitate to call his followers “immoralLa Follette. In time of war neither the utterances of La Follette ists.” “ Morality, being that which produces good for the group, nor the Kaiser are of interest save as they affect the issues of is not a good over it. The group owes no service to anything victory or defeat.
beyond itself; nor as creator of good and evil is it subject to its In time of peace historical criticisms of American, British, or own creation. ... The members of one group may deceive, rob, Belgian colonial policy can be published without grave danger kill, those of another group without the slightest self-reproach. to international amity, for in peace time there exist unlimited In a famous passage (infamous, some would say) Nietzsche de time and opportunity to refute falsehoods and establish facts. scribes a highly moralized race, its members self-restrained in In time of war, however, the editor who cannot condemn the their dealings with one another, and showing all manner of atrocities of Germany in Belgium without galloping back three mutual considerateness, delicacy of feeling, loyalty, and friendcenturies and dragging in by the ears Cromwell's behavior in ship, falling on a stranger race, murdering, burning, ravishing, Ireland is false not only to our allies but also to the island torturing, and with no graver feelings than those of students whose past blocks his vision of things as they are.
on a lark.” As to God, the Superman will replace God. “The To say that in time of war an editor must suppress his incli task of the race is to create these Lords or Gods—if you cannot nation to discuss certain subjects is not to say that he must sup create a God, Zarathustra says, stop talking of one. press essential facts or distort the truth. Loyalty to the Nation There are two conclusive objections to Nietzsche's religion : must not be blind, for blind loyalty is as sure to lead to disaster the scientific and the practical. as irresponsible and unthinking criticism. In editorial offices The Scientific. Development depends on struggle for others there must be no imitation of the Chinese medical practice of no less than on struggle for self. If the weak were left to die, covering up wounds on the outside. On the other hand, there the Supermen could never develop, for the struggle by the strong must be no hysterical yielding to the temptation to see in every for the weak is necessary to develop the strength of the strong. scratch on the Governmental body a mortal lesion.
The effort of Germany to destroy France is destroying GerGermany will not be defeated by editorials praising our Gov many—the Germany of Kant and Hegel, of Goethe and ernment to the skies or condemning it to the depths. Germany Schiller, of Luther and Froebel. The struggle of England to will be defeated by actual guns, rifles, and airships in the hands save Belgium is saving England—the England of Cromwell and of actual sailors and soldiers in actual contact with German Hampden, of Wordsworth and Browning, of Martineau and submarines and German troops. Constructive criticism, which
the Arnolds. If Nietzsche's parents had acted on the philosophy will help the country to place our troops and our sailors, armed of Nietzsche, their son would never have survived his infancy, for modern warfare, in direct contact with German military for infants survive only because they are cared for by their forces in the shortest possible time, is the only kind of criticism stronger parents. Even Romulus lived because he was suckled. which editors should permit in time of war. To refrain from not devoured, by the wolf. attempting such criticism is not patriotism, it is to shirk grave
The Practical. The test of philosophy is, does it work? responsibility.
How Nietzsche's philosophy of egotism works this war is exThe readers of America's press should judge criticism of our
hibiting to the world. Teach a naturally truthful, ingenuous, Government solely from the standard of the interests of the kindly people that man has not inherited a moral nature from Allied nations. Let them make themselves heard in unmistak the Father who begot them, that the law of life is the selfish able terms whenever they find criticism of the destructive will of the strong, and the inevitable result is Belgium, Serbia, variety. In criticism of constructive order lies the safety of our and Armenia. Compare the description which Nietzsche gave
to his own disciples of the possible effect of his philosophy on the group which should adopt it with the historical account by eye-witnesses of the effect which that philosophy has had on the
citizens of Berlin, as reported in the January “ Atlantic NIETZSCHE’S RELIGION
Monthly:" “ In the almost tigerish rage which followed the
Belgian opposition, the Germans became a people characterized In a book recently published William Mackintire Salter by cruelty almost maniacal in its ferocity. Centuries were gives a friendly interpretation of Nietzsche. From it we gather bridged, and the savageries of the early days of the Christian the material for the following paragraphic summary of Nietzsche's era came trooping over the span. Thumbs were turned down “ religion."
and kept down. A deaf ear was turned to the cries of distress The object of life is the creation of the “Superman which followed the accumulated wretchedness that the decision Nietzsche's ideal of what man is to become as the product of entailed. What psychology can analyze the mentality of evolution. Such individuals as Alcibiades, Cæsar, Frederick II, peaceful
, law-abiding people suddenly imbued with a lust for Leonardo da Vinci, Cæsar Borgia, Napoleon, Goethe, Bismarck, blood ?" are approximations to the type. Such types of humanity have The war of the Huns against civilization is correctly charac
terized by the words of an unnamed American professor quoted Nietzsche the Thinker: A Study. By William Mackintire Salter. Henry Holt & Co., New York.
and condemned by Mr. Salter: “Nietzsche in action."
Nation and our cause.