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to co-operate in eliminating the grosser temptations from the The first line consists of the positive recreational activities, communities adjacent to the camps. Haunts of vice which had designed to take the place of the influences we are trying to flourished under local political protection for decades were eliminate. effectually closed. Except through the efforts of some degener " I remember standing in the street of Columbus, New Mexico. ate bootleggers and the mistaken generosity of occasional foolish shortly after Villa devastated the village. Five thousand troops friends, liquor was made inaccessible to the soldiers. Clubs, were encamped near by. There was nothing whatever in town lodges, chapters of fraternal organizations, and a multitude of to interest the men in their hours of leisure—no moving-picture benevolent societies held open house for officers and enlisted shows, no reading-rooms, no places to read and smoke, no homes men. Churches suspended their stereotyped activities and con in which they would be welcome, not even a place to sit down. centrated upon providing entertainnient, comfort, and inspiration In fact, there was nothing at all in town except a few dirty for the army. Everywhere I have

found nothing but respect and saloons and a red light district. That these places were liberaffection;

the camps are family affairs upon a National scale. If ally patronized was due to the fact that there was nothing to the Red Cross asked for one hundred million dollars, the people compete with them. insisted upon making it about one hundred and twenty-five It is not going to do any good merely to set up verboten millions. If the Y. M. C. A. needed thirty-five million dollars, signs along the road. Military regulations against these evils can the people poured out more than fifty millions, and said, “Come be made ad infinitum, but nothing will be accomplished unless again.” Every fund projected for the benefit of the Army is over. we can positively create wholesome, red-blooded sources of subscribed. The reflex of this upon the men in the camps is in recreation and entertainment for our troops during their leisure calculable. It is not a cold-storage Congress disgorging money hours. Otherwise we are not even going to make a dent in the reluctantly under executive pressure, but a Nation-wide

offering twin problem of alcohol and prostitution. of affection-it is largesse de luxe. The spirit of it thrills back “ Obviously, therefore, the Commission on Training Camp through the cantonments, and the men say in their hearts,“ We Activities is more interested in its positive recreational pro will be worthy.”. That is what makes an army-an instanta gramme, both within and without the camps, than it is in any. neous and an invincible army-in a land where all the traditions thing else. This is our first line of defense. of thought and action have hitherto been set against militarism. Our second line of defense, in case our first fails, lies in the

While a vast amount of this National service for the National police measures which we are taking to surround the men with Army has been spontaneous and undirected, it is only natural a healthy environment. The powers conferred upon the War that the larger part of it should be organized in order to fune Department by Sections 12 and 13 of the Military Draft Law tion most effectively. Hence the War Department's Commission have been of great assistance in curbing the evils; and the ma on Training Camp Activities, Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick, chair- chinery of the Department of Justice, of the Intelligence Depart

. man. The work of the Commission is to co-ordinate every avail ment of the Army, and of many private organizations, such as able force in American life for the physical, mental, and moral the American Social Hygiene Association, the Committee of benefit of the soldier body. It aims to fill every spare minute of Fourteen of New York, and the Committee of Fifteen of Chi camp life with occupations which meet the appetites of men cago, have been enlisted in the fight. Through its own agento accustomed to free civil life; to eliminate or reduce to a mini in the field 'the Commission is keeping in constant touch with mum the evils which have always hovered like vampires around the situation surrounding every military camp in the United military establishments; and, finally, by a federated pressure of States. healthy influences, to strengthen and increase the moral health “ As concrete examples of what has been accomplished may of the hundreds of thousands of men whom the Nation has be mentioned the closing of red light districts in the following called to specialized citizen service.

cities : Deming, New Mexico; El Paso, Waco, San Antonio Undoubtedly many parents, wives, sisters, and friends of the Fort Worth, and Houston, Texas; Hattiesburg, Mississippi; men have been seriously disturbed by the wild statements con. Spartanburg, South Carolina ; Norfolk and Petersburg, Vir cerning immorality on the part of the soldiers. For six weeks I ginia; Jacksonville, Florida ; Alexandria, Louisiana ; Savannah have made close investigation of such charges, and without the Georgia ; Charleston, Columbia, and Greenville, South Caro slightest hesitation I brand them as infernal lies. Here and

Here and lina ; Douglas, Arizona; Louisville, Kentucky; and Montgomthere, now and then, a soldier transgresses ; any one would

ery, Alabama. New Orleans has passed an ordinance which will be a fool and an ignoramus to believe otherwise. But let the wipe out its red light district on or about November 15. reader think out the situation. A camp of forty thousand men Many cities in which no red light districts were formally between the ages of twenty-one and thirty-one implies the most tolerated have, at the instance of the Commission, abolished virile section of a city of more than three hundred thousand their open houses of prostitution, . inhabitants. But no camp produces in a month a fraction of the “ The third line of defense, in case the first two fail, as far immorality practiced in such a city in a week. Facilities, oppor as disease is concerned, lies in the very excellent plans for protunities, and temptations open to civilians all the while in a phylactic work laid out by the Surgeon-General's department large civil population are not presented to the soldiers. Only Not only have we an inescapable responsibility to the families the most hardened and desperately insistent can find the few in the communities from which our young men are selected in and well-hidden runways of vice. The bulk of the men's time is keeping their environment clean, but from the standpoint of pre-empted by rigid military duties; the larger part of the our duty and determination to create an efficient Army we are balance of their time is filled by occupations of the most whole bound as a military necess: iy to do everything in our power to some nature provided within the camp by the various organiza promote the health and conserve the vitality of the men in the tions working together under Mr. Fosclick's Commission. Occa- training camps. This war is going to be won on the basis of sionally the men go to the near-by communities, and there the man power, and we cannot afford to lose a single soldier through vigilance of the Government has practically driven away all any cause with which medical science can successfully grapple commercialized vice, and has made it next to impossible for a These, then, are the three lines of defense which the Govsoldier to obtain a drink of liquor. The communities near the

ernment is setting up to protect the character and efficiency of camps are the most vice-free and orderly places I know in its troops. In so far as it is humanly possible to accomplish it America or in any other land. To assert at our American

we are determined that our young men shall come back from moral sanctities are being violated wholesale by the soldiers is this war with no scars except those won in honorable conflict." a vile insult to American womanhood and a form of treason As a result of visits to many camps,

searching investigations toward the Government, and every such accuser should be tried in the near-by communities, conversations with scores of officers instantly as a public enemy.

and hundreds of enlisted men, and a careful questioning of vari

, I saw Mr. Fosdick on the subject in his Washington office. ous civilians who know the military situation intimately, ! He is one of the calmest and keenest men I have ever met, yet believe that Uncle Sam is going to send back to their families he is vibrating with a splendid moral enthusiasm. Here is what and communities hundreds of thousands and possibly millions he said:

of men infinitely better qualified physically, mentally

, and * The War Department has three lines of defense against the morally for the duties of citizenship in a democracy than they evils traditionally associated with armies and training camps. were when called to the colors.

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CLINEOINST

THE BRITISH HIGH COMMISSIONER AND SPECIAL AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES, EARL READING, AND LADY READING bo 1913 the Attorney-General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Rt. Hon. Rufus Daniel Isaacs, was made Lord Chief Justice, the first Jew to bold that exalted judicial office. In 1914 he was raised to the peerage as the first Baron Reading. Now, as Earl Reading, in his fifty-eighth year (he was born in London, October 20, 1860), he is sent to this country as British Ambassador. He married Alice Edith

Cohen, of London, in 1887. They have one son. The official announcement sent to the United States in watection with the active prosecution of the war, and the labors of such missions will be completely under his direction and control"

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UNDERWOOD UNDERWOOD

A BIG BRITISH GUN ON THE FLANDERS FRONT The size of the guns now employed in the war may be judged from this photograph, a British official one. This gun is being hauled along a road in Flanders to a more advanced position after a gain. Two trailer trucks carry this huge piece of artillery and a tractor furnishes the motive power. This gun is said to be even bigger

than the German “ Busy Bertha" type

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COURTESY OF GOLDWYN PICTURES CORPORATION

THE CHECKER-PLAYER'S TRIUMPH Moring-picture producers cannot always find actors who can

” so effectively as to rival real " types," they state. In the above picture, photographed for a scene in a new play, the producers, we are informed, found these old checker players in a little Maine fishing village and induced them to have their photograph

taken at a most interesting stage of their favorite game

- make up

BY LYMAN ABBOTT

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tells us,

1

THE MAKING OF A MINISTER R. EDWARD EVERETT HALE died in 1909. We course, which fills the student's life so full of prescribed readhave had to wait eight years for this story of his life.' ings that he has no time to follow his own literary inclinations. It was worth waiting

for. His son has written, or rather Perhaps the modern method is better for the average boy, the we should say edited, this life with reverencing candor-a com

older method better for the willing student. Those pessimists bination rare in biographers. Most portrait painters flatter. A who lament the tendencies of modern college life might do well few satirize their sitters. The biographer who can give to the to compare the college of 1917 with the following experience of public a dispassionate portrait of one whom he loved and hon young Hale in the college of 1837: ored is an artist of rare ability. The task laid upon Edward “On conversing this morning with those who had been present Everett Hale, Jr., was for other reasons one of extreme diffi. at prayers, I found that there had been considerable noise, and culty. Dr. Hale once said to me that he had never destroyed a that one or two of our class were drunk. On going to morning letter. He was a great correspondent. He had a tropically fer prayers (they] found a good many panes broken in University win. tile mind and a passion for self-expression. One can well believe

dow. There was a good deal of noise in Dr. Ware's recitation-room. that the amount of material in his biographer's hands was " very

There were one or two apples and a lemon whieh were being great." It included, he tells us, “ thousands of letters, many dia

thrown constantly from one side of the room to the other, to the ries and day-books, a great number of sermons as well as lec

imminent danger of the heads they happened to be aimed at. In
the evening after supper

I heard a tremendous explosion tures and addresses, besides note-books, scrap-books, common which I thought was a pump.

blown up.

I found that either : place books, sketch-books, and other such material. His printed

this, or a later explosion which I did not hear, was made by a tor writings also were voluminous, and had never been entirely col. pedo put on the sill of one of the windows of University.” Ex. lected, nor even completely catalogued.” Out of this super plosions followed every night for several nights, and these grew abundant material Mr. Hale has made a wise selection, though more serious as time went on. Three months later, “when we we could have spared some of Dr. Hale's letters of foreign went to prayers this morning we found the chapel in great contravel if their place could have been taken with more letters of

fusion, owing to the explosion of a bomb placed in front of the an autobiographical and self-revelatory character.

pulpit. The windows were all broken, almost every pane of glass Edward Everett Hale was born in Boston, May 14, 1822.

being destroyed, the front of the high platform on which the

pulpit stands was blown in, the plastering broken in several His father was the owner and editor of the Boston “ Daily Adver

places where pieces of the shell had entered, woodwork of pews, tiser” when that journal was the recognized organ of the intellect window-panes and seats hurt in some places, the clock injured, ual aristocracy of eastern Massachusetts. The daily paper was part of the curtain inside of the pulpit torn away, and a couple less a gatherer of news than it is to-day, but its editorial pages of inscriptions in immense letters on the wall to this effect : 'A exercised a greater influence on public opinion. His father was

bone for old Quin to pick.'” a cultivated scholar; he had a fine literary sense; kept up his Graduating at seventeen years of age, young Hale decided to Latin; read French and German easily. His mother, the son enter the ministry. His mother especially, but also his father, was the only woman in Boston who could read Ger bad always desired him to be a minister, and his friends in col

. man when I was a boy,” by which I nderstand that he simply lege had known of his general intentions long before his gradu! means that she was the only woman in Boston within his ac ation. “ He did not, however, desire to study in the Divinity

quaintance who read German. The boy was born into a literary School. Just why is not clear. Perhaps it was in part a piece atmosphere, and from early boyhood was used to books, news of his lifelong objection for doing anything in a mechanical papers, and magazines, and the machinery of producing them. way, a feeling that made him through life critical of all insti.

ÀU of us,” he says, were born into à home crammed with tutional processes of education.” So the son interprets his newspapers, books, perfectly familiar with types and ink and father's motive, I think correctly. Dr. Hale was by temperapaper and proof-sheets and manuscripts." The children wrote ment and training an independent. He had no inclination to and printed books and newspapers. At one time “ they wrote model himself after any prescribed pattern, and it would have a whole library. It still exists—the Franklin Circulating been really impossible for him to be run into a mold. He had Library-little booklets of perhaps three or four inches square to be himself. He was preordained to be the architect as well in which are printed by hand youthful tales in many volumes.” as the builder of his own mind. Thus the boy was born, not with a silver spoon in his mouth, but The motive which took him into the ministry was not a pro with a pen in his hand, and acquired the kind of culture which foundly spiritual one. “ He was not,” his son says, “ very deeply can be acquired only during childhood and in a cultivated home. impressed by the responsibilities and opportunities of a minis

He entered Harvard College at thirteen years of age, after ter's life.” And he says himself, “ One prime reason for the four years at the Latin School. There are no advantages with choice of my profession was my desire to be in a walk where I out some compensating disadvantages. To an eager mind might press my general literature.” His ambition, however, was accustomed to living among books and getting knowledge by a not merely a literary ambition. He chose the ministry partly process as natural as breathing the mechanical processes of the because it offered an opportunity for a literary pursuit, but also school were wearisome. “I may as well say,” he says,

partly because it offered an opportunity to be “at the same last, that school was always a bore to me. I did not so much time useful and helpful to all kinds of persons who were not so -bate it as dislike it as a necessary nuisance.” Nevertheless, he fortunately placed in the world as himself.” The first of these proved himself a good scholar, both in school and college. He motives may have been the earlier one, but the second soon had parts in the sophomore, júnior, and senior entertainments became and always remained the dominating motive of his life. and exhibitions; won college prizes for two dissertations; was The author of Genesis has described in a figare the secret of one of the first eight in the Phi Beta Kappa ; and graduated man's double nature. He was made of earth, but into him God second in his class.

breathed the breath of his own life. Jesus used this figure in a The college in his time was scarcely less mechanical than the play upon words which I venture to interpret to the English school. The students learned their lessons and recited them to reader by a paraphrase: “The breath of God bloweth where it the professors. He got his lessons as a matter of course, but will, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell found time in addition to read novels, study history, hunt for whence it cometh and whither it goeth; so’ is every one that is wild flowers, do philosophical experiments, and take an active born of the breath of God." Dr. Hale has left a record of his part in college student life. I am not sure but that a college experience of this breath of God upon his own soul. He was in course which allowed such students as Edward Everett Hale Albany, where he had gone to aid in an effort which a few were and Phillips Brooks time for their own independent intellectual making to establish a Unitarian church in that city. It was activities would not afford better training than the modern before his first pastorate. He was about twenty-two years of 1 The Life and Letters of Edward Ever Hale. By Edward E. Hale, Jr.

age; he was alone, a stranger in a strange city, and doubted "2 vols. - Illustrated. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. $5.

whether the people of the so-called parish even knew that he

first as

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