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negative. We may well join in this country in the injunction of the English Prime Minister to his people: “Do not suffer any delusion.”
THE STRENGTHEN AMERICA CAMPAIGN
The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America has launched a striking campaign to help in the education of the people in the facts concerning the liquor problems of America. It has prepared a series of advertisements for the use of local * temperance organizations or individuals desirous of helping iu the work. It is the purpose of the Council to prepare enough advertisements to provide for the insertion of two each week. :All these advertisements are to be run under the general title :3 of “Strengthen America.” Here is an example of the type of advertisement prepared for the Federal Council of Churches by Mr. Charles Stelzle :
American should regard it as a duty to criticise fearlessly what ever is done that is wrong in order that the remedies may be speedily applied.
Mr. Roosevelt showed by a quotation from his writings after the Spanish-American War that the principle which he advocates to-day with a Democratic Administration in power he also advocated in 1899 when a Republican Administration was in power. He said:
“Shortly after the Spanish-American War I became Governor of New York. I had been part of Mr. McKinley's Administration, and the next year I was to run as Vice-President on the ticket with him. But then, as now, I held it to be my prime duty to tell the truth when it was in the interest of the Nation that the truth should be told. In November, 1899, I wrote as follows about the Santiago campaign, in which I had taken part:
". The bureaus in Washington were absolutely enmeshed in red tape, and were held for the most part by elderly men no longer fit to break through routine and show the necessary initiative and willingness to accept responsibility.
“Don't you think that applies pretty well to-day ? Remember that I was speaking about my own party, the Administration of my own party, and of the war in which I had taken part. I continued :
"The Santiago campaign was a welter of confusion, with an utter lack of organization and that skilled leadership which can come only through practice. The Army was more than once uncomfortably near disaster, from which it was saved only by the incompetence of its foes.”
The American Defense Society has been a consistent advocate of universal training and of the suppression of seditionists and enemy agents within the United States. It was active in the curtailment of the powers of enemy insurance companies to transmit military information to Germany and in calling the attention of the country to the machinations of men of the stamp of Hearst and La Follette. It has perhaps been less constructive than the National Security League, but it has accomplished much of value. Its headquarters are at 44 East Twenty-third Street, New York City.
Liquor and the War
Food, Labor, Life
These are the chief factors in winning the war ;-and the liquor
men are wasting all three!
They are wasting food
last year the waste amounted to 7,000,000,000 pounds of foodstuffs ! And they have no right to starve some men
by making others drunk! They are wasting labor-
about 300,000 men are engaged in the manufacture, sale and distribution of booze--in breweries, saloons and restaurants, as brewers, bartenders and waiters--at a time when every man is needed in some useful occupation to help win the war.---The labor of these 300,000 men is worse than wasted
no possible good can come of it, but much harm is done. They are wasting life
bartenders, brewery workers and waiters in saloons lose an average of six years of life on account of their occupations. If the 300,000 men who make and sell booze lose an average of six years of life, it makes a total of 1,800,000 years of life. The average man works about 30 years--so that the liquor traffic is using up the equivalent of 60,000 men in each generation. And this is too great a price for the
nation to pay.
first, the waste of foods ;
third- the waste of life; --for these reasons we have a right to demand that the liquor business be abolished.
If you believe tbat the traffic in Alcohol
does more harm than good-help stop it ! Strengthen America Campaign
* GO ON OR GO UNDER”
The British Prime Minister rarely makes an address in which some one phrase does not stand out so sharply that it strikes the public imagination. Such a phrase was his “ The people either must go on or go under" in the address of January 13 before the British Labor Conference. The country had been waiting to hear from Mr. Lloyd George on the pressing question of man power in the war. The time has come when England must renew its strength in the field or, at the least, must provide for its renewal in the future. Great Britain to-day is holding back twice as many Germans as France is holding back, while the British line is much shorter than the French line. The reason is simple : The part of the line held for the Allies by France is rugged and abounds in natural defenses, so that both the German and the French in that part of the field can maintain a safe defensive with much fewer forces than the British and the Germans are obliged to use on the shorter line, which runs through almost level country.
What Lloyd George said as to England's need of man power is applicable to this country also :-“You might as well stop fighting unless you are going to do it well. If you are not going to do it with all your might, it is real murder of the gallant fellows who bave stood there for three years."
Mr. Lloyd George scoffed at the idea that Germany would accept even moderate terms. He added that he meant “the moderate demands of the most pacifist souls in this assembly," and declared, “ Try to cash that check at the Hindenburg bank. It will be returned dishonored.” What is more, the reception in Germany of the programmes of President Wilson and Lloyd George has been to regard the offers as proof of weakening by the Ållies. There has been no answer at all from the civilian side of the German Governmeut, and the answer from the military side has been such as to show that militarism in Germany is still dominant. Every suggestion that has been answered at all, Mr. Lloyd George pointed out, has been met with a fat
The campaign of the Council of Churches to get such mate rial as this before the public is one of the best possible methods of educating the Nation in the facts concerning the liquori trade. The campaign deserves the widest support and recog. nition. These advertisements can be secured without expense by writing to the Strengthen America Campaign, 105 East Twenty-second Street, New York City.
THE CAILLAUX CASE
The most recent developments with regard to Joseph Caillaux have been astounding. Few persons have supposeil that the American Government would have a direct connection with the case. But it bas had. According to Secretary Lansing's disclosures, it appears that in 1915 the American representative at Buenos Aires, the capital of the Argentine public, had been able to establish the fact that M. Caillaux, diring his visit that year to Argentina, had been in communication
with the Berlin Foreign Office through the famous-or rather the field of literature, and to the person or society that during infamous-Count von Luxburg, German Chargé d'Affaires, the year preceding the award had rendered greatest service I with the object of concluding peace with Germany at practically the furtherance of international brotherhood. any price. Mr. Lansing gave out the text of the intercepted des. These prizes, Nobel decreed, were to be awarded without dismatches containing the information which our State Department tinction of nationality. He put the various academies of his own had furnished to the French Government, and which was doubt- country, Sweden, in charge of the first four prizes, and the boss responsible, among other things, for the arrest of Caillaux. Norwegian Storthing, or parliament, in charge of the fifth
The first despatch was from Count von Bernstoff, German The recipient was to be pledged to give, unless absolutely preAmbassador at Washington, containing damaging statements vented, during the six months following the receipt of the prizes, as to Caillaux's references to the French Government and warn- a public lecture on the subject of the particular work thus ing German newspapers against praising him. This last was distinguished. It was provided that the lectures in physics, not without humor, for Caillaux, in order to make his country- chemistry, medicine, and literature were to take place at Stockmen feel that he had been patriotic despite his machinations holm, the capital of Sweden, and the lecture on peace was to with Germany, directed that the German newspapers should occur at Christiania, the capital of Norway. blame instead of praise him.
The candidates must be nominated before February 1 of Another despatch gave notice of the steamer on which Cail. each year. The nominations are then considered by the Swedish laux was sailing from Argentina, foreshadowing its capture by Academies and the Norwegian Storthing. Awards are ansubmarines because the captain of the steamer carried important nounced on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, papers, and asking that Caillaux be treated with every courtesy Distribution of the prizes began in 1901, five years after and consideration.
Nobel's death. It took this length of time because certain memSecretary Lansing also gave out the text of the instructions bers of the Nobel family protested the will. They went to law sent by the German censor on June 6, 1917, urgently request about it and might have won if Emanuel Nobel, the head of ing, for political reasons, that the newspapers publish nothing the family, had joined the protesting members. He would about Caillaux, indeed that “his name be not mentioned under thus have become rich, but he unselfishly refused, and his refusal any circumstances by the German press,"
insured the fulfillment of Alfred Nobel's wishes. According to the Paris “ Temps,” the Bernstorff cablegrams were sent to Germany from Washington through Sweden and by the intermediary of the Swedish Legation at Washington. THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS COMMITTEE At all events, it is assumed that Count von Bernstorff was able • While the awards of the other four prizes in December, to communicate with his Government through a secret channel, 1917, have not been announced, so far as we know, the Journal supposed to be Sweden, that messages were sent in the Swedish de Genève” confirms the rumored award of the Peace Prize code, and that this practice continued until the British Govern- to the International Red Cross Committee. What are that ment learned enough to enable it to prove that diplomatic im- Committee's functions? In 1912 the International Red Cross inunity was being violated. It is understood that later in 1915 Conference agreed that an International Committee should the Swedish Legation at Washington declined to sign any more undertake in any war the work of forwarding mail to prisoners. Bernstorff messages, and that the Luxburg messages of 1917 Accordingly, in this war the work was assumed by an Interwere sent through the Swedish Legation in Buenos Aires and national Committee of the Red Cross, name, the Agence the Swedish Foreign Office to Berlin.
Internationale des Prisonniers de Guerre. The latest report of Thus we see why the Premier, M. Clemenceau, was willing to the Swiss Post-Office reveals the immense amount of the reforstake the fate of his Ministry on the justice of the arrest of warding of mail thus accomplished. From the beginning of the ('aillaux, who is now in jail-the first time an ex-Premier of war until the end of October, 1917, nearly 335,000,000 letters France has ever been so treated.
and postal cards and over 62,000,000 small parcels have been taken over and reforwarded to the prisoners of war of both bel
ligerent groups held in the various countries. There were also THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE
reforwarded more than 8,200,000 money-orders. Finally, nearly For the second time the Nobel Peace Prize has been 5,300,000 bread parcels were sent out. awarded to an assemblage of persons rather than to some one Though the war has greatly reduced post-office revenues in person. In 1904 it was awarded to the Institute of International Switzerland, the Swiss Post-Office permits not only the sending Law. It has now been awarded to the International Red Cross of mail matter and consignments to prisoners of war, but also Committee at Geneva.
of all correspondence addressed by prisoners and interned civil· This is also the second time that the Nobel Peace Prize has ians to their relatives and friends without a centime of charge. recognized the Red Cross. Its very first award (1901) went-. In this and other respects Switzerland has indeed been a Good half to each-to Henri Dunant, of Geneva, the founder of the Samaritan in this war. Red Cross movement, and to Frédéric Passy, of Paris, the The organizer and President of the Agence Internationale is founder of the Universal Peace Congresses.
M. Gustave Ador. His portrait appears on another page. He All of the Nobel prizes were established by the late Alfred may be called the first citizen of Geneva, so long and honorable Bernhard Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. He was born in has been his record in the activities of that city. He is seventyStockholm. When he was a little boy, he went with his father three years old. His Genevan suburb, the town of Cologny, to St. Petersburg, where his father established a torpedo fac- elected him alderman when he was still in the twenties. He tory. After a while Alfred returned to Sweden. As might be became Mayor of Cologny, then Deputy to the “ Grand Conseil.” expected from his father's business, it was natural for the or Great Council, of the Canton of Geneva. Last June, with young man to begin to study explosives. He came to America, practical unanimity, the Federal Assembly elected him Federal and among other things pursued the study of mechanical engi. Councilor. As such he, with his six colleagues, will exercise tirering under John Ericsson. Returning to Sweden, he devoted supreme executive power. They also exercise not a little legishimself especially to the investigation of nitroglycerine. He lative influence, as they have access to the Federal Assembly's finally discovered that when incorporated with some absorbent sessions, introduce legislative proposals, give their opinion on substance it became not only safer but more convenient to use. various measures, and prepare the Budget. All Switzerland feels This invention he patented." He called it dynamite.
that M. Ador, succeeding to the position held by Herr Hoffmann. From its manufacture Nobel became very rich. He deter- the pro-German, will do much towards guiding Switzerland med to leave his fortune in trust for the establishment of five aright in this crisis. annual prizes. He calculated that the interest on the property It is, however, in his humanitarian rather than in his political would make each prize worth nearly $10,000, and so it proved capacity that Gustave Ador is known; so much so that letters to be. The first three prizes he founded for excellence in those from strangers come to the Agence addressed to " Monsieur
routed him: phvsics first Croix Rouge Ador” and beginning familiarly enough from fall, and then chemistry, and then medicine. The other prizes “Mon Cher Gustave” to “Gustave Adoré.” Were for the most remarkable work of an idealistic character in The other day M. Ador thus defined his belief: “ It is impossible, according to my conviction, that after such sacrifice, others gave evidence of personal jealousy, the southern rebels such tears, such mourning, such heroic acts, the humanity of saw their chance. They made a successful military demonto-morrow will not be a better humanity. ... Then we shall stration against the Premier's troops, the other northerners realize the truth of the beatitudes, Blessed are they who remaining neutral for the moment. Tuan, finding himself in hunger and thirst after justice, and Blessed are the merciful. an untenable position, resigned. A peace based upon justice and law, realized in fraternal love, The alleged financial transactions with Japan also did not that is my heart's desire.”
add to the Premier's popularity. He attempted to negotiate a contract for the purchase of arms from Japan, in which con
tract, it was rumored, certain conditions were accepted that PROGRESS OF PROHIBITION
affected China's control of her arsenals. So far as we know, The first three States to vote on the Prohibition Amend. however, that contract has not yet been signed. ment were Mississippi, Virginia, and Kentucky. In all three To crown all, Tuan had refused to recommend to the PresiStates the Amendment came through with flying colors. Ken- dent the reconvening of the old Parliament, though he was not tucky is now engaged in a fight to secure State-wide pro opposed to the election of a new Parliament. Thereupon about hibition.
one-quarter of the members of the old body met in Canton and In New York State also the prohibition forces have not been organized a sort of provisional government. Thus far, though idle. The New York Anti-Saloon League has had introduced in it gained one of its chief aims in Tuan's resignation, it has apthe Assembly an Emergency War Prohibition Bill, designed parently done nothing of great consequence. It is true, it elected to be effective during the war with Germany and for one year a temporary President, appointed a Cabinet, and organized an thereafter to cover the period of demobilization. This bill does army ; but it has not been able to raise much money, and with. not repeal the present Raines Law, but suspends its licensing out money armies cannot fight or governments operate. features, leaving all restrictive features in force. The bill pro Meanwhile the ordinary business of the country, we learn, hibits for the period specified the manufacture and sale of alco continues with little interruption. Politically the present out. hol and alcoholic liquor for beverage purposes, and the use of look is also hopeful, for there is a disposition on both sides to grain or other foodstuffs for such manufacture.
compromise. We hope that this will result in a reconciliation This bill is similar in form to the measure which The Outlook of north and south. hopes may soon pass the National Legislature. While the New York State bill is applicable in too limited a field to satisfy the legitimate desires of those who hope for National emergency pro · A FINE AME
Who hope for National emergencù pro · A FINE AMERICAN SEAMAN hibition at this time, its passage by the New York Legislature Not long ago The Outlook printed a portrait of Captain would give to the advocates of National emergency prohibition, William Hardy, a member of Commodore Perry's expedition in and out of Congress, valuable encouragement.
to Japan, who lately, at the age of eighty-five, visited that country for the first time since he left the island Empire with
the “ Black Ships” of Commodore Perry sixty-odd years ago. WOMEN AS CONDUCTORS
With the picture we printed an account of the reception given Last autumn, in New York City, the Brooklyn Rapid Captain Hardy as told by the cable despatches. Now an account Transit system began to train women for the position of car of the reception to Captain Hardy in Tokyo reaches us from conductors, and at the end of the year the Interborough Rapid Mr. Gregory Mason, The Outlook's Staff Correspondent in Transit Company was taking applications of women for all Japan. It is so interesting that we make no apology for the station positions, such as ticket choppers, station agents, and lateness of its appearance: even porters, and was actually installing women in its “gon “Captain Hardy was a common seaman with Perry. He won dola” street cars. Women were selected who combine physical the title which he goes by to-day later when he commanded his strength with presence of mind. In every case it was neces- own ship in the merchant service. Japanese school children sary that they should pass muscular tests in order to prove that were notably enthusiastic about Captain Hardy's visit. They they could manipulate obstinate windows, turn ventilation rods, had read in their histories of the visit of Perry's black ships and hold their own with teamsters who might possibly argue and the resultant change that came over their country, and concerning the question of right of way.
they welcomed the idea of gaining an opportunity to see the The new subway just opened in the metropolis is also em last survivor of Perry's expedition. ploying women conductors, who seem to have had so far con “With the many officials and prominent Japanese who siderable success not only as efficient transportation servants greeted the old American tar at Yokohama was Mr. Sanzabut in managing crowds of passengers with tact and good humor. yemon Okada, eighty-three years old, the only surviving mem• It now develops that the employment of women for heavier ber of the representatives of the Shogun Government who met sorts of transportation work than the above is being undertaken. Perry on his landing in 1853. He and Captain Hardy could It was announced the other day that the New York Central not speak each other's language, but they fell into each other's system was employing a hundred women as section workers, arms in an embrace more eloquent than any spoken greeting. and that hundreds of women are already in railway machine The health of many a younger man would have given way shops doing tasks which only men have been supposed to be before the unintermitting round of receptions, speeches, dinners, able to handle. In these shops women are employed as operators and patriotic rallies. The supreme honor was given when, on of lathes, drills, presses and other complicated machine tools. November 20, Captain Hardy went to the Imperial chrysantheIn some shops women paint all parts of locomotives. Women mum garden party arm in arm with the American Ambassador are also employed in journal-box work and in cleaning the and met the Emperor of Japan. As his Majesty passed through yards and shops.
the throng of onlookers, carefully kept off the Imperial path, Among the railways which have introduced women into their the Emperor stepped over to the American Embassy group and mechanical departments are the Baltimore and Ohio, Erie, New shook hands with the American mariner, saying in English, I York Central, the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie, am glad to meet you.' the Burlington, Northern Pacific, Oregon Short Line, and the “Captain Hardy planted an Oregon pine at the foot of the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul. On most of these roads the monument erected near the spot where Perry landed on the employment of women is no longer an experiment.
shore at Kurihama sixty-four years ago. Captain Hardy remembers his former trip to Japan more clearly than he remembers
much that happened to him at a later period in his active life. CHINESE CHANGES
He even remembers some of the words used to him by a JapanThe recent Cabinet change in China was the result of dis- ese woman who entertained him and eleven other sailors from sension among the northern military parties. Tuan Chi-jui, the Perry's ships at her house with tea, rice, and cakes. When the late powerful Prime Minister, is said to be a fairly conscientious young sailor started to leave the house Captain Hardy remem man, but obsessed by ambition and the love of military display. bers that she said, Sukoshi mate,' which means, ' Wait a little.' He headed one of the military parties. When the leaders of the “ The American seaman has had a busy life. A fter serving
with Perry he continued in the Navy for some time, and during suggestion of criticism or of question the answer has come from the Civil War saw active service. In the assault against the all quarters, “ Stand by the President." Confederate forts guarding the Mississippi he was wounded in Never in the history of this country has any President had the head by grape-shot. In the attack on Fort Fisher he was any such support as that given to Woodrow Wilson. wounded so severely in the right side that since then, as he says, And now has come the order of Fuel Administrator Garfield... he has been forced to wear five false ribs to starboard.'
and the whole aspect of the Nation is changed. “ In 1885 Hardy was retired from the Navy by the age limit. No sooner was that Fuel Order issued than there was an : He settled on a farm near Portland, Oregon, where he has lived outburst of protests. . most of his life since then. He left it for a short time to take Those protests did not threaten any resistance to the order. part in the rush of gold-seekers to Alaska. lle is remarkably On the contrary, the fine bearing of the American people in vigorous for his age. He reads and writes without glasses, and, this war has never been exemplified more splendidly than in as he says, he has even fought in the present war, for when a the prompt effort of all and sundry to comply with this unwel. member of the I. W. W. insulted his uniform a few months come order. They obeyed, but protested. ago in Portland Captain Hardy knocked him down, and thereby Those protests did not indicate mere desire to avoid hardbroke a bone in his left hand. He is very proud of this ships. On the contrary, the cheerfulness with which the people wound.
have accepted the discomforts and in many cases severe priva“ Captain Hardy has been wearing the uniform of a common tions consequent in that order has been amazing. The idleness sailor in the American Navy to all functions in Japan. Prior to it entailed brought no disorder. The people of America have going to meet the Emperor with the American Ambassador on good-naturedly endured this discomfort, but they have protested. the day of the Imperial garden party Captain Hardy appeared Why? at the Embassy in his uniform. Now there is a hard and fast A vessel at sea is in imminent danger of destruction. The rule that guests must wear frock coats and silk hats at the captain orders all hands to the lifeboats. Every one obeys. No Imperial garden party, except officers, who wear their uniforms. . one argues whether the danger is imminent or not. The captain But it was believed that the uniform of an ordinary sailor would is supposed to know. No one complains of the hardships of life hardly pass the captious sartorial censor, so a frock coat and a in an open boat at sea. That hardship is better than going silk hat were procured for the old salt to wear. He was a sight down with the wreck. There is nothing to do but to obey. But for the gods with his bell-mouthed seaman's trousers showing the captain of the vessel will be called to account. Has he been below the frock coat! After he had met the Emperor Captain steering a course that inevitably tends to wreck? Why did he Hardy received the congratulations of his fellow-Americans. let his vessel get into such danger? The people who own that In talking to one of these, an American clergyman of long resi- ship will not be particularly interested in the man who ordered dence in Japan, he was heard to say:
all hands to the lifeboats; they will be very much interested “Say, Bishop, it's the first time in my life I ever had on a in the man who allowed the ship to drift into such danger that. frock coat. But, I can tell you, I'm a damn sight prouder of this,' lifeboats offered the only way to escape from the wreck. and he threw back the coat and patted the blue jacket of the An army is threatened with destruction by the enemy. The American Navy underneath.”
general in command orders a strategic retreat. Artillery is Captain Hardy has been frequently spoken of as the only abandoned, bridges are destroyed. The fertile countryside that surviving member of the Perry expedition. In our By the Way might furnish support to the enemy is laid waste. Strongholds department this week, however, will be found notes mentioning that cost colossal labor and numerous lives are left to fall into three other survivors of the expedition.
the enemy's hands. The army withdraws; it is saved. The soldiers, of course, obey. They prefer the hardship of retreat to
defeat by the enemy. They do not know, as the general knows, A TURNING-POINT
the signs that showed the danger. But they and the people
at home will demand to be told who is responsible, not for the TV TITH the issuance of the Garfield Fuel Order that was order to retreat, but for the blundering that brought the
published on January 17 and went into effect the next army into such a dangerous position that only a costly strategic
day, the Nation entered a new stage in the waging of withdrawal could save it from total defeat. this war.
The Garfield Fuel Order was a call of all hands to the life That order was designed to conserve fuel and relieve the boats. All obeyed. But all have a right to be told who the congestion on the railways.
incompetent was that let the ship drift on the rocks. What that order has actually done is to bring about a great The Garfield Fuel Order was a command to retreat before change in the relation of the American people to their President. the face of the enemy. All obeyed. But all have a right to be
For the first nine months after the American declaration of told who the incompetent was that let the army become exposed war against Germany the American people gave unqualified to the danger of destruction. support to the Administration. There has been nothing like For nine months the American people have been told by the it in the history of this or, so far as we can remember, of any Administration that everything was going well. For nine other country. The Administration asked for a draft law, months they have believed it. And now, by order of that and the Nation at once not only conscripted its youth, but by Administration, industry was paralyzed for five consecutive volunteers aided the Government in enforcing conscription. days and will be for nine successive Mondays in order that the The Administration asked for loans, and the people out of Nation may escape a threatened worse catastrophe. patriotism did what they would never have dreamed of Suppose American aviators by a sudden assault on the Gerdoing for profit-lent their Government hundreds of millions man railways and factories had succeeded in stopping the main more than they had been asked to lend. The Administration industries of Germany for fourteen days, should we ever tire of told the people that they were to be heavily taxed, and, though telling one another of the exploit? It would have been a great there has been criticism that the burdens have been distrib- victory for us, a great defeat for Germany. Now that it is our uted inequitably, there has been no complaint that the burdens factories that are closed should we deny the defeat? Though are heavy. By the hundreds of thousands men have gone to the injury was not inflicted directly by Germany, is it the less camp, and there have developed an enthusiasm and spirit of an injury? loyalty that have justified the faith of the country in them. Com. It is asserted by the President that the order was necessary. ing into this war deliberately, purposely, knowingly unprepared. There is only one justification for the infliction of such an the Administration has done some things magnificently, some injury on one's own country, and that is the avoidance of a things blunderingly, and the people have approved. It was the severer, a more ruinous, defeat. people that drove the Administration into war; it is the people. No wonder there has been a protest. No wonder that the cry that have given the Administration this unwavering, uncritical has gone up from all over the afflicted parts of the Nation. support. The newspapers have restrained themselves from tell. Why have we been told that all was well when we were on the ing of faults they knew of. Men in Congress have refrained way to wreck? Why have we been told that our lines were from partisan debate and have worked together. To every strong when we were facing such calamity ? Who has been