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AVIATION ACES AND THEIR VICTORIES

(See article on opposite page by Laurence La Tourette Driggs for fuller explanation)
43 FRENCH ACES (living)
Pilot.

Victories.
German Aces (Continued) Victories. Pilot.

Pilot British Aces (Continued) Victories. Lieutenant Berthold . . . . . .

8

. 28 Lieutenant Andrew E. McKeever ... Official to December 1, 1917– Victories 399

Lieutenant von Richthofen . . . . .

26 Lieutenant Richard Raymond-Barker ... 8
Escadrille.
Pilot.

Victories.
Lieutenant Dosler . . . . . . .

Lieutenant Richard Pearman (naval). ... 8
N. 65 Lieutenant Nungesser .... 30
Lieutenant Wuesthoff . . . . . .

Lieutenant Lionel B. Jones . . . . . . .
1.3 Captain Hearteaux (wounde 1 Sep-
Lieutenant Bongartz . . . . . ..

Lieutenant A, S, Shepherd (7 in one month). tember, 1917) . . . . . . . . 21 Lieutenant von Bulow . . . . .

Lieutenant Stanley Rosevear (Ontario) ...
N. 103 Lieutenant Fonck ... .

19
-Lieutenant Chevalier von Tutscheck ..

Captain Lancelot Lytton Richardson . . . .
N. 3 Lieutenant Deullin ....
Lientenant Schleich . . . . . ..

Lieutenant Cecil Roy Richards (4 in one day).
N. 124 Major Lufbery (American)
Lieutenant Boehm . . . . . . . . .

Howard Saint . . . . . . . . . . . .
N. 38 Lieutenant Georges Madon.
Lieutenant Arigi (Austrian) ......

Lieutenant Edward R. Grange . .....
N.3 Captain Pinsard .. .... .. Lieutenant Klein.....

Lieutenant W. G. Miggitt .....
V.3 Lieutenant Jean Caput..... Lieutenant Max Muller. . .

13 Lieutenant Laurence W. Allen . . . .
V.3 Lieutenant Navarre (retired) ... Lieutenant Goettsch . . . .

Lieutenant D. M. B. Galbraith. ...
V. 15 Adjutant Jailler . . . . . . . 12
Sergeant Frickart. .....

Lieutenant William D. Matheson . ...
V.3 Lieutenant Tarascon ... .. 11
Lientenant Banfield (Austrian).

Lieutenant Stanley J. Goble. .....
Lieutenant Ortoli . . . . . ... 11
Lieutenant von Althaus i.

Lieutenant W. C. Cambray . . . . . . .
Lieutenant Boyau
Lieutenant Goering. ...

Flight Commander F. C. Armstrony . . Several
N. 3 Adjutant Chainat .....
Lieutenant Bethge ....

Flight Lieutenant H, F. Beamish ... Several 1.3 Lieutenant Mathieu de la Tour ..

. 9
Lieutenant Walz . . . . . . . . .

Flight Lieutenant G. W. Hemming (3 in one
N. 23 Adjutant Casale . .... 9 Lieutenant Haehn ...,

flight) . . . . . . . . . . . . Several Adjutant Dauchy · · · · · · · Lieutenant Konig . . . .

Flight Lieutenant J. E, L, Hunter . . . Several
Lieutenant Viallet (Serbian army). . 7 Captain Zauder.

Flight Commander R. P. Minifie ..Several
C, +6 Adjutant Vitalis (gunner) . . . . . 7 Lieutenant Brauneck (Bulgarian army)... 5
Lieutenant Lachmann . . . . . . 7

AMERICAN LAFAYETTE ESCADRILLE
Lieutenant Ullmer
Sergeant Flachaire . . . . . .

Victories 45
7
N. 57 Adjutant Victor Sayaret ...
37 GERMAN ACES (dead or captured)

(The American list includes every victory to Decem

ber 1, 1917, Lufbery being the only ace, however.) Lieutenant Loste, .... Victories to December 1, 1917-589

Major Raoul Lufbery . . . . . . . . . 17 N. 81 Lieutenant Marcel Hughes · · · · 7 Lieutenant Werner-Voss-Crefeld (Sept. 24, 1917) 47

Sergeant Kiffin Rockwell (killed September Sergeant Montrion ... ... . 7 Captain Boelke (October 27, 1916). .... 45

23, 1916). . . . . . . . . . . . .
V. 65 Lieutenant Bonnefoy.. 6
Lieutenant Gontermann (November 3, 1917) 39

Corporal Walter Lovell . ... .. ..
Captain Derode ........ 6
Flight Lieutenant Cort Wolf (Sept. 15, 1917). 33

Lieutenant de Laage de Manx (killed May 8,
N. 26 Maréchal des logis Soulier (yonn rest
Lieutenant Schaefer (June 7, 1917) . . . . 30

1917) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ace, born September 6, 1897) . 6
Lieutenant Almenroeder (June 27, 1917) ..

Sergeant Walter Rheno .........
Adjutant Herbelin . . . . . . . 6 Lieutenant Bernet (October 13, 1917). ... Major William Thaw · · · · · ·

Sergeant Guerin. . . . . . . . 6 Captain Behr . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporal Andrew C. Campbell ......
N. 3 Lieutenant Gond. ....
Lieutenant Thulzer . . . . . . . . . .

Captain Thenault . .... .. . .
N.77 Maréchal des logis Boyan . .
Lieutenant Wintgens (September 25, 1917) . .

Adjutant Norman Prince (killed Oct. 15, 1916)
N. 12 Lieutenant de Sevin ........ Lientenant Baldamus (March 20, 1917) ....

Lieutenant Charles Cahteau Johnson ....
Adjutant Bloch . : . . . .
Lieutenant Frankel (April 8, 1917). ....

Phelps Collins .............
N. 49 Lieutenant Paul Gastin . .

Lieutenant Schneider .......... Lieutenant Willis Haviland .......
N. 3 Lieutenant Borzecky (observer)
Lieutenant Immelmann (June 18, 1916)..

Captain Robert Rockwell. ........
C. 46 Maréchal des logis Rousseau (observer) 5 Lieutenant Nathanall....

Charles J. Biddle ... .· · · · ·
Lieutenant Leps . . . . . . . . 5 · Lieutenant Dassembach . . . . . .

Didier Masson.............
Lieutenant Regnier . . . . . . . 5 Lieutenant Festner . . . . . . . . .
Commandant de Marancourt · · Lieutenant Pfeiffer . . . . . . . . . . 12

5 BELGIAN ACES-Victories 31
N. 48 Lieutenant de Turrenne . ... 5 Lieutenant Manschatt (March 21, 1917).12 Lieutenant Thieffry . . . . . . . . . . 9
N, 3 Adjutant Herisson...

5 Lieutenant Hohndorf (Sept. 13, 1917).. 12 Adjutant Beulemest ......... 6 V.77 Lieutenant Marty ....... 5 Lieutenant Buddecke · · · · · · ·

Lieutenant de Meulemeester. ....... 6
Lieutenant yon Kendall . . . . . . . . 11 Captain Jaquet . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 FRENCH ACES (dead or retired)
Lieutenant Kirmaier . . . . . . . .

Lieutenant Robin · · · · · · ·
Lieutenant Theiller. .......
Victories 168

10 ITALIAN ACES
Lieutenant Serfert ....
N.3 Captain Guynemer (Sept. 11, 1917) . 53
Lieutenant Mulzer . . . . . . . . .

Victories to November 1, 1917--121 1.3 Lieutenant Dorme (May 1, 1917) . . 23

Captain Bert ............ Major Baracca .
N.3 Adjutant Maxime Lenoire (captured). 11 Lieutenant Letfers (December 22, 1916)... Lieutenant-Colonel Piccio (40 years old). .. 17
Captain Matton (September 10, 1917). 9
Lieutenant Schulte . . . . . . . . .

Captain (Duke) Calabria ........ 16
N. 38 Sergeant Sauvage (disappeared) 8 Lieutenant Parschan (July 26, 1916), ... Lieutenant Barachini......
X. 23 Lieutenant de Rochefort ..... 7 Lieutenant Schilling . . . . . . ..

8 Lieutenant Olivari . . . . . . . . . . 12 C. 64 Captain René Doumer (April 26, 1917) 7 Lieutenant Immelmann . . . . ...

Lieutenant Ranza .
N.3 Captain Auger (July 28, 1917) ... 7 Lieutenant Fallbusch . . .

Lieutenant Parnis ....
N. 12 Lieutenant Languedoc (accident July Lieutenant von Siedlite ..

Sergeant Poli ........... 16, 1917) . . . . . . . . . . Lieutenant Rosenkrantz ..

Lieutenant Stophanni . . . . . . . . .
M. S. 49 Lieutenant Adolph Pégoud (killed Lieutenant Habor ........ 5 Lieutenant Arrigoni. · · · · · · · · · 5
August 31, 1915, by Corporal Kau-
Lieutenant Reimann. ......... 5

3 RUSSIAN ACES–Victories 30 dolski at Belfort) . . . . . . . 6

German total ......... 1,093
C. 46 Lieutenant Delorme . . . . . 5

Captain Kosakoff

Disputed by Frenci . . . . . . .
B. 101 Maréchal des logis Hanss . . . . .

338 Lieutenant Pachtchenko ........ 5 C. 46 Captain Lecour-Grandmaison

755
Admitted total .........
....

Ensign Smirnoff ........... 9 1. 23 Roland Garros (captured June 17,

33 BRITISH ACES

1 BULGARIAN ACE– Victories 20 1915). . . . . . . . . . . 5

At least 400 victories to December 1, 1917 Lieutenant von Eschwege (killed by shell on 1.3 Lieutenant Baillot (May 20, 1916)... 5 N. 57 Adjutant Pierre Violet (killed Decem

Captain William A. Bishop (retired). ... 47 November 22, 1917) ........ 20 ber 27, 1916, during combat in which Captain Albert Ball (killed). . . . . . . 13

1 TURKISH ACE–Victories 8 he brought down two enemy airLieutenant John J. Malone (5 in three days). 20

Captain Schetz ........... 8
planes) . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lieutenant Allan Wilkinson (6 in one day). . 19
. · Lieutenant Oliver Warman (Philadelphia, Pa.). 1.5

SUMMARY
French total . . . . . . . . . 567 Major Fred Libby i . . . . . . . . . 14

54 aces. Germany. . 1,093 victories, 1,1 Captain W. C. Campbell ........ 11

2 " Bulgaria-Turkey 28 " tories by 27 GERMAN ACES (living) Captain Noel William Ward Webb (killed

66 aces August 13, 1917) ......12 59 aces. France .. 567 victories Victories to December 1, 1917–504 . Lieutenant John 0. Andrews ..... .

England ... 400 " | 1,171 Captain Baron von Richthofen (retired as in Captain Gilbert Ware Green...... 9 10 " Italy... 121

victories

9 Lieutenant Joseph Stewart Fall (3 in one fight) 15" structor June, 1917) . . . . . . . .

United States. . 63

by Lieutenant Lloyd Samuel Breadner (3 in one 5 " Belgium ... Adjutant Hans Muller . . . . . . . . . 37

31

125 aces .30 flight). . . . . Sergeant Major Buckler . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 8 3 " Russia .. . 30

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engines in 1917 by standardizing the Mercedes and the Benz time are worthy of imitation. It is the opinion of Anglo-Saxons
motors, but he produced the deadliest type of fighting machine that German temperament and characteristics do not lend them-
the world has ever seen in the 1917 Albatros single-seater selves so nicely as do ours to the science of aviation. Yet,
Likewise in launching the thirty heavy bombing machines on despite this racial handicap, their airmen hold their own
London, July 7, 1917, he exhibited to the Allies the best defen- against overwhelming numerical odds. Verily, an ounce of
sive war plane- the Gotha—that had ever been devised. And brain is worth a pound of brawn. .
it is rumored that the coming spring will see “ flying tanks” German tactics are permeated with that detestable word
and a superior type of Fokker fighting airplane as further “efficiency.” The maximum of success with the minimum of
results of the constant experimentation so wisely encouraged by risk is determined upon by von Hoeppner and his staff of ex-
von Thoppner.

perienced aviators, regardless of the chivalrous sportsmanship Iu selecting personnel and advisers General von Hoeppner . of their opponents. Tactics that have proved successful to displays the same skill that he has shown in airplane construction. Boelke and Immelmann are adopted by the entire air service lle inflamed Germany with press propaganda and held war and are first rehearsed and then practiced by all German airexbibitions throughout the larger cities in which the latest typesmen in combat. Team work, formation fighting, shameless of war airplanes were demonstrated and sham battles in the air avoidance of an equal contest, venturing over enemy lines only were fought. The result was an enthusiastic rush to the flying with strong support, permit the few thus banded together to service by the young men most eager to learn this work-and hold their own against the preponderating but scattered free it is precisely this class of applicants that yields the natural. lances of the Allies. With one competent mind to direct it, born pilots.

with iron-clad rules to protect it, the German air service, like But, above all else, the prevailing air tactics of the astute von the German machines, to-day easily outranks the world opposed. Iloeppner must be examined and approved. Tactics which per. The sooner this unpalatable but relentless truth is realized, the mit sixty-seven German pilots to win almost as many victories sooner will we adopt methods to cope with these of Germany, as one hundred and twenty-four Allied pilots win in the same and then the sooner will our peace with honor come.

PELEG

BY JOHN FINLEY
PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK

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TN the tenth chapter of the book of Genesis -- a chapter filled

with the names of the generations of Noah, Shem, Ham, and I Japheth and their sons born after the flood-there is one verse which turns from bald genealogical fact to give a glimpse of the ancient world through which the patriarchs known to us chiefly by their names passed in rapid procession, despite the hundreds of years which each one seems to have lived. This verse reads as follows:

* And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided.”

This child, born back two thousand years or more in the B. C. centuries, is remembered because he lived at the time of the great Division, or of the Confusion of Tongues, as it is best known. It is as if one born in this country during the Civil War were named “ Secession” or in 1776 “Revolution,” for, as the marginal note tells us, Peleg meant “ Division.”

I have often imagined the son of ancient Eber asking his father why this generic abstract name, usually of unhappy con notation, should have been given him, this word which was, as I suppose, the same that was used beneficently in the first chapter of Genesis to tell of the separation of the light from darkness, or of the division of “ the waters under the firmament from the waters above the firmament.”

And Eber would tell how in a certain year (circa 2247) the earth was of “one language and one speech," how some of the imperious-minded men of that time said, “Let us make a name," how they journeyed toward the east and began to build a city and a tower that should reach unto heaven, how in the midst of their building, in which they were using “brick for stone and slime for mortar," as the record has it, a confusion of tongues came upon them so that they could not understand one another and how they were divided, dispersed from thence over the known world, mumbling, jabbering, gesticulating—“ Pelegians" all, people of a divided earth.

“So, child,” Eber would say at the end of his explanation, “ born as thou wert in the beginning of those days when men could no longer · build together because of their confused tongues, I named thee · Division '--that is, * Peleg.'”

To-day has another Confusion come upon the earth ; not a confusion of tongues, for the people have learned through centuries of living side by side upon the expanding flat earth that has now become after thousands of years a whirling spherical planet in a measureless universe-have learned, despite the fact that Esperanto and Volapük have not made great headway, to understand one another by teaching their children other tongues as well as their own and by employing interpreters (liaison

officers, as they are called who now go between the Allies of
differing speech).

A month ago I attended in Syracuse a supper at which there
were present representatives of more peoples than were gath-
ered at Pentecost, and we were able to understand one another
despite our diverse inherited tongues. That was because we
are all, in this great democracy, coming to learn one language;
learning it not in a moment, as did those who were all assem-
bled “ with one accord in that one place” long ago, but through
hours and days and nights of our Americanizing schools. What
I saw then is but a prophecy, I hope, of what is to come
throughout the State and Nation ; for if we are to go unitedly
toward those ideals to which America is committed in the his-
tory of the ages that have been and for which she is fighting in
the present, we must, for practical reasons as well as for
reasons of a sentiment that would preserve those ideals in the
language in which they were first conceived and expressed,
have a common language.

How practical is the need of a language in this country, common to all tongues, is illustrated by what I saw in one of the great cantonments a few nights ago. In the mess hall, where I had sat an hour before with a company of the men of the National Army, a few small groups were gathered along the tables learning English under the tuition of some of their comrades, one of whom had been a district supervisor in a neighboring State and another a theological student. In one of those groups one of the exercises for the evening consisted in practicing the challenge when on sentry duty. Each pupil of the group (there were four of Italian and two of Slavic birth) shouldered in turn the long-handled stove-shovel and aimed it at the teacher, who ran along the side of the room as if to evade the guard. The pupil called out in broken speech, "Halt! Who goes there ?” The answer came from the teacher, “Friend." And then, in as yet unintelligible English (the voices of inmumerable ancestors struggling in their throats to pronounce it), the words, “ Advance and give the countersign.” So are those of confused tongues learning to speak the language of the land they have been summoned to defend. What a commentary upon our educational shortcoming that in the days of peace we. had not taught these men, who have been here long enough to be citizens (and tens of thousands of their brothers with them), to know the language in which our history and laws are written and in which the commands of defense must now be given ! May the end of this decade, though so near, find every citizen of our State prepared to challenge, in one tongue and heart, the purposes of all who come, with the cry, “Who goes there!

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(c) INTERNATIONAL FILM SERVICE

CHICAGO'S HEAVY SNOWFALL
This view of ope of the streets along the Lake front shows the appearance of Chicago after what is said to be the heaviest snowfall in twenty years

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