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Copyright, 1918, by The Outlook Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK COMPANY, 381 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT, PRESIDENT. N. T. PULSIFER, VICE-PRESIDENT. PRANK C. HOYT, TREASURER. ERNEST R. ABBOTT, SECRETARY, TRAVERS D. CARMAN, ADVERTISING MANAGER, YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONSFIFTY-TWO ISSUES — FOUR DOLLARS IN ADVANCE. ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE NEW YORK POST-OFFICE
“So, if this story of Drowsy seems a fairy tale, let us remember that the Atlantic Cable would be a fairy tale to Columbus."
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This, from the author's preface, indicates that the new novel by the editor of Life is more on the lines of "Amos Judd," " The Pines of Lory" and " The Last American" than like his more recent novel, “Pandora's Box." It is the somewhat romantic narrative of a woman and a reckless lover, whose control of waves of thought brings about exciting and significant happenings.
Political Aspects of Peace....
276 The Performance. .
276 Cartoons of the Week.. Our Contributors this Week Not in Vain ........ The Builders of Our Ships.... The Powers of the President. Criticism of the Administration... That Other Disciple .............. For the Sailors at Sea (Poem)......... 281
By Charles Alexander Richmond Who Is the United States P............ 281
Special Correspondence by Joseph H. Odell
Government is Calling for United States
By Frederick Lewis Allen
By Grace Boynton Monks :
of Arnold Adair-III. Arnold's Escape
By Laurence La Tourette Driggs
By Herbert Vaughan Abbott Entertaining the Camps
By an American Woman
By J. Madison Gathany, A.M.
By George W. Cable, of the Vigilantes
301 The Prussian View-Point. .............. 301 The Flag's Minute .....................
By Lowell C. Frost, of the Vigilantes Criticism of The Outlook's Criticism... 271 Alsace-Lorraine .......
............... 271 By the Way............................ 304
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is the title (that was the nickname given the hero because of his unusual eyes).
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CRITICISM OF THE OUTLOOK'S CRITICISM This is to express my disappointment and regret at reading the current issue of your valued publication.
During the last Presidential campaign I carefully read your criticisms of the President. I was not always in sympathy with what you said, but I wanted the truth. And I still want it from folks who are in a position to give it to me. . Criticism is still right, provided there are good grounds for it. But what of the critic's grounds in the present case? Is The Chutlook to be classed as “incompetent” because it did not know that we have half a million men in France ? Chagrined as I am over your “Knocker's Issue,” I would not want The Outlook to be suppressed as incompetent because it did not know some things, nor yet because it spoke without knowledge.
The German of the military class sincerely believes that democracy is impossible as a permanent form of government. He is doubtless pointing out to-day that the American people with their “ impossible rights ” have forced the Administration to (livulge important military secrets.
Outlook, you have repeatedly said that we must meet Germany on her own grounds. You are right. Not that we must suppress criticism by the use of a firing squad, but that we must voluntarily relinquish it for the duration of the war, at least in cases where there is a probability that we are not in possession of all the
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Outlook, I read you carefully every week, and have done so for years. You have been very helpful to me. I value your weekly visits so highly that I am still hoping you may some day get rid of some vestigial prejudices such as I believe lie behind your recent pet with the Administration. · Prejudice is the enemy of democracy.
(Rev.) CHARLES O. SHUGART. Wesley Methodist Church, South, Greenville, Texas, February 2, 1918.
ALSACE-LORRAINE I have just read your article on AlsaceLorraine, in which you discuss the proposal of the German Government “ to leave the disposition of Alsace-Lorraine to a plebiscite of inhabitants.” I agree with your conclusion, but not with all your argument. At the time the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine were taken by Germany from France they were a part of the territory of the French Republic, and could not of their own motion, without the consent of the French Republic, transfer their allegiance to Germany. When Germany took possession of the provinces, she did not consult the inhabitants. There is no reason in conscience or law why France should consult the inhabitants of Alsace and Lorraine as to whether she shall resume sovereignty over territory wrongfully and without consideration taken from her by Germany. The Southern States of the United States seceded from the Union and organized a Southern Confederacy. The United States | Government denied the right of the Southern States to secede, and, after the defeat of the army of the Confederacy, resumed its sovereignty over the Southern States without consulting the inhabitants. Why should not the French Republic follow the example of the United States?
JOHN E. KUHN. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
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FEBRUARY 20, 1918
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of The (utlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries
POLITICAL ASPECTS OF PEACE
The two important news events of last week regarding the political side of the war were the announcement by despatches froin Russia that the Bolsheviki have declared that the state of war between Russia on the one side and the Central Powers on the other is at an end, and a restatement by President Wilson in a personal address to the two houses of Congress of the bases which may underlie negotiations for peace.
The news from the Bolsheviki adds little of importance to what was already known in this country except that the Bolsheviki Government now officially announces that the Russian army on all fronts is to be demobilized. While the despatches say that a state of war no longer exists, they also announce that no formal treaty of peace will be signed. The confusion of such a situation as this must be apparent to the simplest minds. It is merely confirmatory of the fact long realized in this country that under present conditions Russia can no more be counted upon as a military factor in this war. The Bolsheviki Government is more and more exposing the Russian people to German military and political domination if Germany wishes to exercise such domination.
This disintegration of Russia may be defined in two wordsunconditional surrender.
nisin that would be likely in time to break the peace of Europe, and consequently of the world.
A general peace erected upon such foundations can be discussed. Until such a peace can be secured we have no choice but to go on.
If this statement appears to indicate more than in his preceding address that the President foresees the possibility of a settlement of the war by negotiation, it must be kept in mind that he refers specifically to Austria, and that in conclusion he reasserts the determination of America not to turn back from a course chosen upon principle. He still sees Germany in the con. trol of a party“ apparently willing and able to send millions of men to their death to prevent what all the world now sees to be just.” He declares that we shall not pause till our resources are * mobilized in their entirety;" and that “our whole strength will be put into this war of emancipation.”
WHAT THE PRESIDENT SAID
The President's statement to Congress makes an emphatic distinction between the attitude of Germany and that of Austria. In the present attitude of the masters of Germany he sees no basis on which to reach a peace“ worth the infinite sacrifice of these years of tragic suffering.” He particularly declares that the German insistence on settling Russian questions with Russia alone and French questions with France alone is impossible, and that “all parties in this war must join in the settlement of
es in this war must join in the settlement of every issue anywhere involved in it; because what we are seek ing is a peace that we can all unite to guarantee and maintain,
Antee and maintain and every item of it must be submitted to the common judg. ment whether it be right and fair, an act of justice, rather than a bargain between sovereignties." In the attitude of Austria, as expressed by Count Czernin, he sees a spirit different from that of Germany. In particular, Count Czernin's concession of an independent Poland, of the evacuation and restoration of Belgium, and of the satisfaction of national aspirations even within Austria, the President cites as evidence of this different spirit. With respect to Austria he says, therefore :
After all, the test of whether it is possible for either Government to go any further in this comparison of views is simple and obvious. The principles to be applied are these :
1. That each part of the final settlement must be based upon the essential justice of that particular case and upon such adjustments as are most likely to bring a peace that will be permanent. . 2. That peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were inere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great game, now forever discredited, of the balance of power ; but that
3. Every territorial settlement involved in this war must be Inade in the interest and for the benefit of the populations concerned, and not as a part of any mere adjustment or compromise of claims amongst rival states; and
4. That all well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them without introlucing new or perpetuating old elements of discoril and antago
A PAPER PEACE FOR THE UKRAINE
Readers of newspaper headlines who do not read the cable despatches beneath the headlines may well be confused by reading one day that the Red Guard of the Bolsheviki have “cap tured ” Kiev in the Ukraine, and another day that the Ukraine has, against the will of the Bolsheviki, concluded a separate peace with Germany. In both cases the achievement is what may be called a paper achievement. It sounds much more important than it is. Thus, as regards Kiev, a study of the facts shows that the so-called capture was not a military act, but the gain by the Bolsheviki party of political supremacy. Whether the supremacy is permanent or not time will show. The great Province of the Ukraine, in southern Russia, has a population of over 20,000,000 people.
As regards the peace with Germany, what has happened is that the Rada, or Parliament, of the Ukraine has agreed upon terms with Germany. Again it remains to be seen whether this is a permanent thing. Whether peace becomes effective or not depends on the result of what is practically civil war now going on throughout the Ukraine between the forces of the Bolsheviki and those Ukrainians who in large numbers wish total independence, relief from the rule of the Bolsheviki, and peace at once.
The Austrian Prime Minister, Count Czernin, has declared that peace with the Ukraine is more valuable to the Central Powers than peace with Petrograd. His reason is, as reported. that large quantities of food can be obtained by the Central Powers from the Ukraine, while Petrograd “has nothing but revolution and anarchy to export.” Even from an enemy's tongue this sentence should illuminate the minds of Lenine and Trotsky.
The Rada now in session was elected long before the Lenine Government came into power in Petrograd, and after that event it lost little time in declaring its independence of the new Petrograd régime, which in turn has denounced the Rada as a reprehensible bourgeois body“ a body dominated by citizens of middle rank. The majority of the Ukrainians are fundamentally opposed to the immediate redistribution of land among the peasants, which the Bolsheviki make the corner-stone of their political religion. The vast size and large population of the Ukraine make its entire separation from Petrograd control and a separate peace important. Theoretically, the Bolsheviki ought to rejoice at Ukraine independence in accordance with their talk about the rights of smaller countries. Practically, this independence is a thom in the side of the
Bolsheviki Government, which is really based, not on demoe- Munitions Directorship Bills; that it was really intended to racy, but on absolutism-not of a Czar, but of the proletariat result in a compromise. and the proletariat exclusively.
Other Senators and other newspapers, however, have se It was in Berlin and Vienna that, as the despatches say, gested that the President, finally realizing that complete Gora “joy bells were rung” over the conclusion of this separate peace. ernmental organization was essential, had determined on it, but Apart from the food possibilities for the Central Powers, Gere in the language of the Omaha “ Bee," "does not want to share many and Austria recognize that such a peace would put with Congress any of the work of directing the war.” Rumania in a dangerous situation. It is not surprising that, In conclusion, both sides agree that closer co-operation and almost simultaneously with the announcement of peace between better control must be securei. the Central Powers and the Ukraine, Rumania received an ultimatum from General von Mackensen giving her only four days in which to begin negotiations fo. peace, with implied negotiations fo pace with implien DEFENDING THE PRESIDENT
D threats of German occupation of the portion of Rumania still Criticism of the Administration's conduct of the war has held by the Rumanians.
evoked several addresses of vigorous defense.
The most comprehensive of these was delivered by Represent
ative Carter Glass in Congress on February 6. On the princiTHE PRESIDENT'S BILL
ple that the best defense is an offense, Mr. Glass devoted a part Senator Overman has introduced into the United States of his speech to a counter-criticism of the man who has come Senate a bill authorizing the President" to coordinate and consol. to be regarded as the chief spokesman of the critics-the idate” the executive bureaus, agencies, and offices in the interest Chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, Mr. of economy and the more effective administration of the Gor. Chamberlain, of Oregon. He made it a point to refer to the ernment." It would empower the President "to make such redis course of the Committee on Military Affairs before the war tribution of functions among executive agencies as he may deem in cutting down appropriations which had been recommenderi necessary, including any functions, duties, and powers hitherto by military authorities and in failing to secure in time of peace by law conferred upon any executive department, commission, the reorganization which now the Chairman of that Committee bureau, agency, office, or officer;" he may also “ make such regards as essential. Mr. Glass attributed a large part of the regulations and issue such orders as he may deem necessary;" conditions of unpreparedness to Mr. Chamberlain's own failure he may “transfer any duties or powers from one existing departs of foresight. The most effective part of his speech, however, was ment, commission, bureau," etc., to another, and “the personnel, not that in which he said virtually “You're another," but that property and moneys appropriated as well ;" finalls, “ all restric- in which he gave detailed explanation of certain courses which tions in any existing law” shall be suspended. The bill would had been criticised. remain in force during the war and one year thereafter.
As to ordnance, Mr. Glass declared that it was the deliberate Under it the President might abolish all the Government's policy of the Government, with the approval of French author war-making machinery, with or without creating any new ma- ities, to arm our men sent to France from her over-supplied chinery in its place. It would enable the President to repeal the arsenals." “ Yes," said Mr. Glass, - both France and Great laws by which Governmental departments and agencies have Britain are supplying the American Army with guns; we are been established, and would further emphasize the legislation buying them and paying for them, just as France and Great which has already given unprecedented power to the President Britain bought munitions from us when they could not get in his present control over food, fuel, transportation by land them quickly enough or in sufficient quantities from their own and by sea, commerce, censorship, alien property, espionage, factories. And the fact does not constitute an indictment of the embargo. We comment on this bill on page 279.
Government. Rather is it a clear index of the purpose and a hopeful sign of the diligence which the War Department is
applying to the situation." Mr. Glass defended the rejection of WHAT PEOPLE SAY
the Lewis gun on several grounds, among which was the A newspaper of great influence, and generally an Adminis statement attributed to General Pershing that it would not be tration supporter, the New York “Times," reflects the well- used on his front. Mr. Glass also explained certain other matnigb universal comment on the Overman Bill in protesting that ters which have been subject to criticism, including the use the President, instead of having his personal powers extended, of shoidy, or reworked wool, in uniforms, and quoted authority should summon the ablest executives without respect to party, in support of a number of his statements. He went so far as to
The Springfield “ Republican," on the other hand, sars that the offer some defense of unpreparedness by declaring that in the Overman bill would " simplify, while unifying and coorlinating, close of 1916 the country had reelected Mr. Wilson" because, the executive machinery; it does not thrust into the Adminis among other considerations, he had been wise and brave enough tration system an entirely new and unprecedented boly, such as to keep us out of war." the War Cabinet." From the opposite coast comes the assertion Mr. Glass is a Democrat and was defending a Democratic of the San Francisco " Chronicle" that Congress has no power President; but as pronounced a defense has been uttered by a to “ create any war tribunal to which the President is bound to Republican, Mr. Borah, Senator from Idaho. In a speech in pay any attention even if Congress should pass it over his veto." New York, while defending the character and patriotism of Mr.
The New York - World," which takes this view of the pro Chamberlain, and while acknowledging the making of some posed War Cabinet, disapproves at the same time the proposal mistakes, he declared his belief that in this emergency the that the President be given authority to reframe the executive Administration at Washington has done a great work in getdepartments to suit himself.
ting ready for this war." The newspapers would indicate that there is difference of The most striking tribute, however, was rendered by Andre opinion in the South as elsewhere. The New Orleans - Times. Tarlien, French High Commissioner to the l'nited States. He Picavune " says: “In street cars, as in the Senate, are delivered specified certain particulars (such as the great increase in the judgments so pragmatic that they ought to come from the lips of Army, the results in aviation, and the policy regarding orunobody but a Cæsar, a Hannibal, a Napoleon, or a Jotire. If nance) which deserve praise. As to ordnance he said : these wiseacres know what they are talking about, Woodrow But as we have agreeil, it was understood that you should sup Wilson should be ejected from the White House, and a war ply and transport to France the necessary war material; we will, council composed of their kind should be put in his place."
under such conditions, be able in France to deliver to you before The bill was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. On Juls 1 enough guns thoroughly to equip twenty of your divisions. that body will devolve the decision to report the bill out or The situation, therefore, is completely safe in that respect. allow it to sleep in committee. Mr. Overman is the Com As a conclusion Mr. Tandien paid this high tribute: “Judy mittee's ranking Democratic (majority) member.
ing things as a whole. I declare, without any restriction and Some papers and some Senators feel that the measure was without any reserve that by its war policy the United States intended not so much of something to be passed as something Government has well earned the praise of its allies and or rastie enough to head off the Chamberlain War Conncil and civilization, for which we are fighting together."