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Copyright, 1918, by The Outlook Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK COMPANY, 381 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. LAWRENCE . ABBOTT, PRESIDENT N. T. PULSIFER, VICE-PRESIDENT. PRANK C. HOYT, TREASURER.
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“So, if this story of Drowsy seems a fairy tale, let us remember that the Atlantic Cable would be a fairy tale to Columbus."
This, from the author's preface, indicates that the new novel by the editor of Life is more on the lines of "Amos Judd," The Pines of Lory" and " The Last American than like his more recent novel, “ Pandora's Box." It is the somewhat romantic narrative of a woman and a reckless lover, whose control of waves of thought brings aboutexciting and significant happenings.
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Political Aspects of Peace..
273 What the President Said..
273 A Paper Peace for the Ukraine.
273 The President's Bill.....
274 What People Say..
274 Defending the President
274 Secretary Baker's Plan.
275 Ship Control...
275 The Loss of the Tuscania.
275 Proof or Retraction ...
275 Mr. Roosevelt's Illness.
276 The Performance..
276 Cartoons of the Week..
277 Our Contributors this Week...
278 Not in Vain .....
279 The Builders of Our Ships..
279 The Powers of the President.
279 Criticism of the Administration.
280 That Other Disciple
280 For the Sailors at Sea (Poem).
281 By Charles Alexander Richmond Who Is the United States ?...
281 Special Correspondence by Joseph H. Odell Building the Bridge to France: Why the
Government is Calling for United States
284 By Frederick Lewis Allen London Etchings..
286 By Grace Boynton Monks Whose Prisoner ? The Further Adventures
of Arnold Adair-III. Arnold's Escape
288 By Laurence La Tourette Briggs Current Events Illustrated..
291 Sidney Colvin's New Life of Keats ..... 294
By Herbert Vaughan Abbott Entertaining the Camps
295 By an American Woman Weekly Outline Study of Current History 296
By J. Madison Gathany, A.M. The New Books .
297 Simplified Motoring..
299 Now ...
301 By George W. Cable, of the Vigilantes The Hero Shrew... The Prussian View-Point.
301 The Flag's Minute ...
301 By Lowell C. Frost, of the Vigilantes Criticism of The Outlook's Criticism... 271 Alsace-Lorraine ..
271 By the Way...
is the title (that was the nickname given the hero because of his unusual eyes).
The author is JOHN AMES MITCHELL
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CRITICISM OF THE OUTLOOK'S CRITICISM
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During the last Presidential campaign I carefully read your criticisms of the President. I was not always in sympathy with what you said, but I wanted the truth. And I still want it from folks who are in a position to give it to me.
Criticism is still right, provided there are good grounds for it. But what of the critic's grounds in the present case? Is The htlook to be classed as “incompetent " because it did not know that we have half a million men in France ? Chagrined as over your
“ Knocker's Issue," I would not want The Outlook to be suppressed as incompetent because it did not know some things, nor yet because it spoke without knowledge.
The German of the military class sincerely believes that democracy is impossible as a permanent form of government. He is doubtless pointing out to-day that the American people with their “impossible rights ” have forced the Administration to (livulge important military secrets.
Outlook, you have repeatedly said that we must meet Germany on
her own grounds. You are right. Not that we must suppress criticism by the use of a firing squad, but that we must voluntarily relinquish it for the duration of the war, at least in cases where there is a probability that we are not in possession of all the facts.
Outlook, I read you carefully every week,
(Rev.) CHARLES O. SHUGART.
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on AlsaceLorraine, in which you discuss the proposal of the German Government a to leave the disposition of Alsace-Lorraine to a plebiscite of inhabitants.” I
with your conclusion, but not with all your argument. At the time the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine were taken by Germany from France they were a part of the territory of the French Republic, and could not of their own motion, without the consent of the French Republic, transfer their allegiance to Germany. When Germany took possession of the provinces, she did not consult the inhabitants. There is no reason in conscience or law why France should consult the inhabitants of Alsace and Lorraine as to
and without consideration taken from her by Germany. The Southern States of the United States seceded from the Union and organized a Southern Confederacy. The United States Government denied the right of the Southern States to secede, and, after the defeat of the army of the Confederacy, resumed its sovereignty over the Southern States without consulting the inhabitants. Why should not the French Republic follow the example of the United States?
JOHN E. KUHN.
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FEBRUARY 20, 1918
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
nism that would be likely in time to break the peace of Europe, POLITICAL ASPECTS OF PEACE
and consequently of the world. The two important news events of last week regarding the
A general peace erected upon such foundations can be dispolitical side of the war were the announcement by despatches
cussed. Until such a peace can be secured we have no choice froin Russia that the Bolsheviki have declared that the state
but to go on. of war between Russia on the one side and the Central Powers
If this statement appears to indicate more than in his preon the other is at an end, and a restatement by President Wil
ceding address that the President foresees the possibility of a son in a personal address to the two houses of Congress of the
settlement of the war by negotiation, it must be kept in mind bases which may underlie negotiations for peace.
that he refers specifically to Austria, and that in conclusion he The news from the Bolsheviki adds little of importance to
reasserts the determination of America not to turn back from a what was already known in this country except that the Bolsh
course chosen upon principle. He still sees Germany in the con. eviki Government now officially announces that the Russian
trol of a party “ apparently willing and able to send millions of army on all fronts is to be demobilized. While the despatches
men to their death to prevent what all the world now sees to be say that a state of war no longer exists, they also announce
just.” He declares that we shall not pause till our resources are that no formal treaty of peace will be signed. The confusion of
* mobilized in their entirety;" and that “our whole strength such a situation as this must be apparent to the simplest minds.
will be put into this war of emancipation.” It is merely confirmatory of the fact long realized in this country that under present conditions Russia can no more be counted upon as a military factor in this war, The Bolsheviki Govern
A PAPER PEACE FOR THE UKRAINE ment is more and more exposing the Russian people to German
Readers of newspaper headlines who do not read the cable military and political domination if Germany wishes to exercise
despatches beneath the headlines may well be confused by readsuch domination.
ing one day that the Red Guard of the Bolsheviki have “capThis disintegration of Russia may be defined in two words
tured " Kiev in the Ukraine, and another day that the Ukraine unconditional surrender.
has, against the will of the Bolsheviki, concluded a separate peace with Germany. In both cases the achievement is what
may be called a paper achievement. It sounds much more imWHAT THE PRESIDENT SAID
portant than it is. Thus, as regards Kiev, a study of the facts The President's statement to Congress makes an emphatic shows that the so-called capture was not a military act, but distinction between the attitude of Germany and that of Austria. the gain by the Bolsheviki party of political supremacy. In the present attitude of the masters of Germany he sees no Whether the supremacy is permanent or not time will show. basis on which to reach a peace“ worth the infinite sacrifice of The great Province of the Ukraine, in southern Russia, has a these years of tragic suffering.” He particularly declares that the population of over 20,000,000 people. German insistence on settling Russian questions with Russia As regards the peace with Germany, what has happened is alone and French questions with France alone is impossible, and that the Rada, or Parliament, of the Ukraine has agreed upon that “ all parties in this war must join in the settlement of terms with Germany. Again it remains to be seen whether this every issue anywhere involved in it; because what we are seek is a permanent thing. Whether peace becomes effective or not ing is a peace that we can all unite to guarantee and maintain, depends on the result of what is practically civil war now going and every item of it must be submitted to the common judg on throughout the Ukraine between the forces of the Bolsheviki ment whether it be right and fair, an act of justice, rather than
and those Ukrainians who in large numbers wish total indea bargain between sovereignties.” In the attitude of Austria, pendence, relief from the rule of the Bolsheviki, and peace at as expressed by Count Czernin, he sees a spirit different from
once. that of Germany. In particular, Count Czernin's concession of
The Austrian Prime Minister, Count Czernin, has declared an independent Poland, of the evacuation and resto on of that
with the Ukraine is more valuable to the Central Belgium, and of the satisfaction of national aspirations even
Powers than peace with Petrograd. His reason is, as reported, within Austria, the President cites as evidence of this different that large quantities of food can be obtained by the Central spirit. With respect to Austria he says, therefore :
Powers from the Ukraine, while Petrograd “has nothing but
revolution and anarchy to export.” Even from an enemy's After all, the test of whether it is possible for either Government to go any further in this comparison of views is simple and
tongue this sentence should illuminate the minds of Lenine and obvious. The principles to be applied are these :
Trotsky 1. That each part of the final settlement must be based upon
The Rada now in session was elected long before the Lenine the essential justice of that particular case and upon such a ljust
Government came into power in Petrograd, and after that event ments as are most likely to bring a peace that will be per
it lost little time in declaring its independence of the new Petro
grad régime, which in turn has denounced the Rada as a 2. That peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about reprehensible bourgeois body--a body dominated by citizens from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels of middle rank. The majority of the Ukrainians are fundaand
pawns in a ganie, even the great game, now forever discredíted, of the balance of power; but that
mentally opposed to the immediate redistribution of land 3. Every territorial settlement involved in this war must be
among the peasants, which the Bolsheviki make the corner-stone made in the interest and for the benefit of the populations con
of their political religion. The vast size and large populacerned, and not as a part of any mere adjustment or compromise
tion of the Ukraine make its entire separation from Petrograd of claims amongst rival states; and
control and a separate peace important. Theoretically, the 4. That all well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded
Bolsheviki ought to rejoice at Ukraine independence in accordthe utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them without introducing new or perpetuating old elements of discord and antago
ance with their talk about the rights of smaller countries. Practically, this independence is a thorn in the side of the
Bolsheviki Government, which is really based, not on democ Munitions Directorship Bills; that it was really intended to
Other Senators and other newspapers, however, have sugIt was in Berlin and Vienna that, as the despatches say, gested that the President, finally realizing that complete Gov. joy bells were rung
over the conclusion of this separate peace. ernmental organization was essential, had determined on it, but, Apart from the food possibilities for the Central Powers, Ger in the language of the Omaha “ Bee," "does not want to share many and Austria recognize that such a peace would put with Congress any of the work of directing the war.” Rumania in a dangerous situation. It is not surprising that, In conclusion, both sides agree that closer co-operation and almost simultaneously with the announcement of peace between
better control must be secured.
DEFENDING THE PRESIDENT
evoked several addresses of vigorous defense.
The most comprehensive of these was delivered by Represent
ative Carter Glass in Congress on February 6. On the princiTHE PRESIDENT'S BILL
ple that the best defense is an offense, Mr. Glass devoted a part Senator Overman has introduced into the United States of his speech to a counter-criticism of the man who has come Senate a bill authorizing the President“to co-ordinate and consol to be regarded as the chief spokesman of the critics—the idate” the executive bureaus, agencies, and offices in the interest Chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, Mr. of
M economy and the more effective administration of the Gov- Chamberlain, of Oregon. He made it a point to refer to the ernment.” It would empower the President “to make such redis course of the Committee on Military Affairs before the war tribution of functions among executive agencies as he may deem in cutting down appropriations which had been recommended necessary, including any functions, duties, and powers bitherto by military authorities and in failing to secure in time of peace by law conferred upon any executive department, commission, the reorganization which now the Chairman of that Committee bureau, agency, office, or officer;" he may also “make such regards as essential. Mr. Glass attributed a large part of the regulations and issue such orders as he may deem necessary;" conditions of unpreparedness to Mr. Chamberlain's own failure transfer
any duties or powers from one existing depart- of foresight. The most effective part of his speech, however, was ment, commission, bureau,” etc., to another, and “ the personnel, not that in which he said virtually “You're another,” but that property and moneys appropriated as well ;“ finally, “all restric in which he gave detailed explanation of certain courses which tions in any existing law” shall be suspended. The bill would had been criticised, remain in force during the war and one year thereafter.
As to ordnance, Mr. Glass declared that it was the deliberate Under it the President might abolish all the Government's policy of the Government, with the approval of French authorwar-making machinery, with or without
creating any new ma ities, to arm our men sent to France from her over-supplied chinery in its place. It would enable the President to repeal the arsenals.” “Yes,” said Mr. Glass, “ both France and Great laws by which Governmental departments and agencies have Britain are supplying the American Army with guns ; we are been established, and would further emphasize the legislation buying them and paying for them, just as France and Great which has already given unprecedented power to the President Britain bought munitions from us when they could not get in his present control over food, fuel, transportation by land them quickly enough or in sufficient quantities from their own and by sea, commerce, censorship, alien property, espionage, factories. And the fact does not constitute an indictment of the embargo. We comment on this bill on page 279.
Government. Rather is it a clear index of the
purpose hopeful sign of the diligence which the War Department is
applying to the situation.” Mr. Glass defended the rejection of WHAT PEOPLE SAY
the Lewis gun on several grounds, among which was the A newspaper of great influence, and generally an Adminis statement attributed to General Pershing that it would not be tration supporter, the New York Times," reflects the well used on his front. Mr. Glass also explained certain other matnigh universal comment on the Overman Bill in protesting that ters which have been subject to criticism, including the use the President, instead of having his personal powers extended, of shoddy, or reworked wool
, in uniforms, and quoted authority should summon the ablest executives without respect to party, in support of a number of his statements. He went so far as to
The Springfield“ Republican," on the other hand, says that the offer some defense of unpreparedness by declaring that in the
The New York“ World," which takes this view of the pro Chamberlain, and while acknowledging the making of some posed War Cabinet, disapproves at the same time the proposal mistakes, he declared his belief that in this emergency
the that the President be given authority to reframe the executive Administration at Washington has done a great work in get. departments to suit himself.
ting ready for this war." The newspapers would indicate that there is difference of The most striking tribute, however, was rendered by Andre opinion in the South as elsewhere. The New Orleans “ Times Tardieu, French High Commissioner to the United States. He Picayune ” says: “In street cars, as in the Senate, are delivered specified certain particulars (such as the great increase in the judgments so pragmatic that they ought to come from the lips of Army, the results in aviation, and the policy regarding ord. nobody but a Cæsar, a Hannibal, a Napoleon, or a Joffre. If nance) which deserved praise. As to ordnance he said : these wiseacres know what they are talking about, Woodrow
But as we have agreed, it was understood that you
sup Wilson should be ejected from the White House, and a war ply and transport to France the necessary war material ; we will, council composed of their kind should be put in his place. under such conditions, be able in France to deliver to you before
The bill was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. On July 1 enough guns thoroughly to equip twenty of your divisions. that body will devolve the decision to report the bill out or The situation, therefore, is completely safe in that respect. allow it to sleep in committee. Mr. Overman is the Com
As a conclusion Mr. Tardieu paid this high tribute : “ Jude! mittee's ranking Democratic (majority) member.
ing things as a whole, I declare, without any restriction au Some papers and some Senators feel that the measure was
without any reserve,
the United States intended not so much of something to be passed as something Government has well earned the praise of its allies and of Irastic enough to head off the Chamberlain War Council and civilization, for which we are fighting together."