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SECRETARY BAKER'S PLAN

tonnage turned over to the War and Navy Departments to Secretary Baker proposes, according to the War Depart carry American soldiers to Europe. An immediate question ment order published February 10, to reorganize the General before the Committee lies in the diversion of other than AmerStaff with a view to co-ordinating all military activities. Major- ican tonnage to this task. General Peyton C. March, now in France, will be the Chief of We shall be surprised if the work of the Ship Control ComStaff. Under him there will be five Assistant Chiefs of Staff mittee does not prove the equivalent of a considerable amount with clearly defined duties and powers, and each the responsible of new tonnage to the cause of America and the Allies. head of a division.

One-Executive Division : To supervise the organization, administration, and methods of all divisions of the General

THE LOSS OF THE TUSCANIA Staff and the several bureaus, corps, and other agencies of the The American losses by the submarine torpedoing of the War Department, to the end that all such matters may be British transport Tuscania were much less than at first reported; comprehensively treated and the activities of all such agencies indeed, the wonder is that so large a proportion was saved of co-ordinated.

the 2,235 persons on board, of whom 2,177 were Americans. Two-War Plans Division : This will deal with the organi As nearly as can be estimated up to February 11, the loss of zation of all branches of the Army, to determine questions of

American officers and men is 113. equipment for all branches of the Army, projects of National

The Tuscania was off the northeast coast of Ireland when defense, and other technical military matters.

she was struck at about six o'clock on the evening of February Three-Purchase and Supply Division : This will have 5. The many ships called by wireless to her aid landed the

Cognizance of and supervision over supplies required for the use of

rescued at points on the very northeast part of Ireland, and the Army, under an officer designated as the Director of Pur even in Scotland. How the submarine evaded the destroyers chases and Supplies, who shall be assistant to the Chief of Staff. convoying the Tuscania may never be known. It has been said “There shall be in the Purchase and Supply Division the office in some other cases that there is a tendency for a merchant of Surveyor-General of Supplies under an officer or a civilian.

vessel to draw too far ahead of her naval convoys, which must It shall be the duty of the Surveyor-General of Supplies to circle about and dash to and fro. There is no report of this, provide that all arrangements for the purchase, procurement, however, as regards the Tuscania. and production of all munitions and other supplies for the use Known facts show that the loss of Allied troops when in transof the Army shall be so correlated and otherwise scheduled as

ports has been small. Few British transports torpedoed have most effectually to forward the Army programme and most

been destroyed, and the majority of those have been in the advantageously utilize the industrial resources of the country.'

Mediterranean. The English Channel is so closely guarded that Four--Storage and Traffic Divisions : with control of all troops have passed from England to France almost or quite as transportation connected with the Army by land and sea, and safely as if there were an under-sea tunnel. Moreover, a British all storage facilities connected therewith; all movements of authority is quoted by the New York Times” as saying that troops, munitions, supplies; all arrangements with the Navy for only one out of two hundred of convoyed merchant ships in the convoy service; all storage of war supplies.

Atlantic has been sunk. Danger there is; but it is not one to Five-Army Operations Division : The recruitment, mobiliza be hysterical about, nor is it excessive as compared with other tion, movement, and distribution of troops ; the assignment of

war risks. equipment; supervision and co-ordination of camp sites.

Americans may well feel proud of the steady courage shown This plan would seem to make the General Staff a genuinely by our troops in presence of imminent death. They stood at executive body, possessed of every power necessary for the

attention while hospital patients and the two women on board equipment, training, and transportation of our land forces. Its

were cared for, obeyed orders, and sang the National anthem, obvious aim is to make the General Staff a responsible factor alternating with the “God Save the King” of their British felin the conduct of the war. The feature which seems to be of the low-soldiers. British officers and naval commanders praise our most value is the opportunity it presents of giving Mr. Edward

men cordially, and with real appreciation of their sturdiness and R. Stettinius an executive office of the utmost importance under

coolness and readiness. We comment editorially on this disprovision “ Three-Purchase and Supply Division,”

aster on page 279.

SHIP CONTROL

PROOF OR RETRACTION The control of transportation as regards shipping has A charge which, if untrue, is atrocious, and which, if true, lagged behind that as regards railways. But as a result of co ought to be fortified by incontrovertible evidence, bas been ordinated action between the Federal Shipping Board and the made by Mr. W. G. Lee, head of the Trainmen's Brotherhood. War Department, as well as between this country and the He accuses railway managers of trying to increase cost and Allies, an Inter-Allied Ship Control Committee has now been cause delay in the railways in order to discredit Government appointed. It is headed by Mr. P. A. S. Franklin, of New operation. The fact that he made this charge in part by innuYork City, the well-known ship agent. The other members of endo does not affect the seriousness of it except to make it more the Committee are Mr. H. H. Raymond, Port Controller at difficult to refute by evidence, no matter how overwhelming. New York, and Sir Connop Guthrie, Controller of British For it is impossible to pin down accusation made by innuendo. Shipping

At a recent hearing of the Railroad Wage Commission Mr. This Committee is to distribute all available tonnage on Lee said : this side of the Atlantic, whether belonging to the United Why do reports to the Inter-State Commerce Commission States or its allies. It will co-ordinate the needs of the various show that in Philadelphia recently more engines were allowed Government departments, effecting such interchange of ton to freeze up overnight than ever before ? One required two nage and traffic as may be practicable with the Allied Govern weeks for repairs. We have had winters before. Wliy all this ments.

congestion just now? The power of this Committee, we are glad to say, will be

The old managements do not want Government operation

made a success. absolute with regard to the placing and disposal of ships at any American port. In particular, it will take immediate steps He added that the real cause of this alleged deliberate breakto relieve congestion at the port of New York by diverting ing down of the railways could be traced back to about four traffic to other ports. Such a pooling of tonnage has long been banks in New York City." necessary, both to obtain the maximum efficiency from the ships

Mr. Lee ought to be forced by public opinion to prove his now in operation and to avoid the delays of loading and un charges. What he has in substance said is, in effect, that railloading, due often to difficulties of lighterage, that have had a way managers are heartless enough to cause incalculable sufferlarge share in crippling ocean transportation.

ing in order to gain a point. A man who makes such charges The Committee's control extends over passenger as well as

as that without proof justly lays himself open to the suspicion freight service ; in especial it will supervise the routing of all that he himself is capable of doing the very thing which he

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charges on another. Do the members of Mr. Lee's union realize Orestes appears

with his foster-father. He has grown to manthat his charges involve them in the charge of having been hood and is unrecognized. He has come home, in obedience to intimidated or bribed to carry out the orders of the “ four the oracle he has consulted, to kill his mother. According to a banks in New York City”?

prearranged plan, his foster-father tells the mother that Orestes We hope the Trainmen's Brotherhood will either repudiate is dead, and describes with dramatic vividness the chariot race officially what their representative has said or else undertake ending in the accident that caused his death. Clytemnestra, to produce evidence to prove it.

relieved of her fears, cannot, as she goes out, wholly conceal her joy at the news; but Electra, left alone, is overcome with

grief. When Orestes appears, Electra, thinking him to be MR. ROOSEVELT'S ILLNESS

stranger, receives from his hands the urn which he alleges Not merely Theodore Roosevelt's friends and neighbors, contains the ashes of her brother's body. Beside herself with but all his fellow-citizens throughout the country, are greatly despair, she fondles the urn as a mother would fondle her baby, relieved to learn that he is passing successfully through the and lavishes on it all the love that she has been cherishing critical illness which has made him for the first time in his life during the years for her brother. Orestes, greatly moved, reveals a patient at a great hospital. That is to say, the first time for himself, and in a delirium of joy Electra is transformed. She benatural causes, for he spent a few days at a hospital in Chicago comes once more theembodiment of vengeance. Orestes goes out. after he was shot during the excitement of the political campaign and soon are heard the shrieks of Clytemnestra as he kills her. in 1912. His present illness is directly traceable to the jungle As her body, covered with a cloth, is brought out on a couch, fever which he contracted during his famous exploring trip in Egisthos, who since Agamemnon's death has been her husband South America in 1913. This most serious form of tropical fever, returns from a hunt. He has heard the story of Orestes's death, together with an infected wound in the leg made by jagged and his joy at the news is unbounded. He sees the couch, and, rocks in his passage in canoe down the famous “River of Doubt," assuming the body on it to be that of Orestes, bids Electra go have given him more or less trouble periodically since his return call Clyteinnestra, that his wife may exult with him in the sight from South America. But his extraordinary vitality has enabled of her son's corpse. Electra, fairly terrified by the prospect him to treat these physical difficulties, which would be serious of her coming victory, goes to the couch and with gruesome irony for the average man,

as merely superficial. Possibly as a result of cries aloud the dead woman's name-"Clytemnestra!" Ægisthos, his unintermitting and patriotic work on war questions, a recur dumfounded by the incredible suspicion that this strikes into rence of the tropical fever conditions brought on some serious his brain, throws off the cover from the couch and sees the horror abscesses which made it necessary for him to go to Roosevelt of the truth. Like an animal entrapped, he turns to find himself Hospital in New York to undergo one or two difficult operations. confronted by Orestes with drawn sword still red with ClytemHis condition at first was serious if not critical, but at this nestra's blood. Trying to defend himself, he is forced out, and writing he is convalescing, and every hope is expressed by the from the very hall where Agamemnon had been killed comes experts in charge that he will be entirely himself again before the sound of clashing weapons. Electra, statuesque, awaits the very long

outcome. The clashing suddenly ceases; a sword comes hurtling His illness has served to bring out once more two notable out and falls at her feet. She stoops, recognizes it as the sword characteristics of his career-first, the very wide affection in of Ægisthos, and as the curtain is drawn dances upon it with which he is held by all sorts and conditions of men in every triumph, heedless of the fact that now the Furies, who have been part of the country without regard to political affiliations, and, pursuing Clytemnestra and Ægisthos, must in requital pursue second, his extraordinary physique, which, he says in his auto Orestes. biography, he built up from the slenderest foundations by sys This is the story--and the simple outlines of it are enough to tematic exercise and care. He went through physical hardships indicate the change that has come over the moral standards of enough in his African explorations, and again in his South all civilized men since the day it served as the plot of a popular American explorations, to kill a good many men, and he has

drama. worked incessantly and at high pressure in positions of responsible People call “ Electra” “highbrow.” It is highbrow only in leadership for thirty-five years. He has been through one war the sense that it requires some degree of information, intelliand through one attempted murder, yet somehow or other he gence, and imagination to put one's self into such a state of always recuperates. His physical resiliency after a knockdown is mind that a tragedy like “ Electra” would not seem preposterstriking testimony to the value of systematic bodily training. ously grotesque. To the people, however, for whom it was

written it was not highbrow at all. It was a play written to

be performed before enormous crowds--crowds many times ELECTRA

larger than those that witness the popular modern play. It was Revenge is nowadays generally regarded not as a holya play for the multitude; and it could not have gotten across” religious duty, but as a brutal instinct to be restrained and sup if the multitude had not understood it. pressed. That makes it hard for a modern audience to appreci What makes “ Electra” a profoundly great work of art is ate fully such a tragedy as “ Electra,” which was elaborately the structural beauty of the means by which Euripides set and effectively performed on the afternoon of February 6 in forth a moral doctrine of the universe that once was very much Carnegie Hall, New York City. When Euripides wrote that alive, though to-day it is even deader than the language in great play, the people of Greece had ideas of what is right and which it was written. Great works of art must, as they are wrong very different from those which we accept in America in created, embody living ideas. The ideas themselves may

then the twentieth century of the Christian era. They regarded it as pass away, but the art which enshrines them, if it be consuma matter of course that gross injustice, mad desire for vengeance, mate, remains, as “ Electra " remains, imperishable. and inescapable terror should be apportioned to mortals by the will of the very gods they worshiped. It is such ideas as these that are embodied in the story of the

THE PERFORMANCE play:

Foreign as was the underlying idea of “ Electra" to the Å gamemnon, one of the heroes of Greece, killed his daughter audience who heard and saw the performance in New York City, in sacrifice to the gods. Though his act was regarded as un there can be no manner of doubt that the tragedy profoundly questionably devout, it called for requital. It was requited by impressed and at times moved them. Clytemnestra, his wife, the girl's mother. She betraved him to

This was due to the effectiveness of the stage-setting, the arther paramour, Ægisthos, who killed him. Upon this, Orestes, ing, and the music. the young son of the murdered man, fled from the murderess, Of course the performance was not a duplication--even af his mother, leaving behind him his two sisters, Electra and proximately-of that which the ancient Greeks saw. It was Chrysothemis. All this has happened years before the action of

something better. It was such a performance as would give to the play begins. Meanwhile Electra, who had been made a slave a modern audience the same kind of impression that the original in her own home, longs during the years for her brother's return form of performance must have given to the audiences of old. that he may avenge her father's death.

As the play opens,

Originally there was no scenery; in the Carnegie Hall per

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278

THE OUTLOOK

20 February

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formance the scenery was one of the most impressive elements tunity to deal with facts in the shipping situation, and the of the play. The beauty of the setting (which combined that statements in his article may be relied upon as authoritative. element of realism which modern audiences expect with the Dr. Odell, who contributes a striking special letter from severe architectural lines which in Greek theaters furnished Washington on the President and his powers, is well known to the background for all plays) was, with its lighting effects, a our readers as the author of the notable series of articles in distinct triumph of common sense, a sense of what is appropriate, The Outlook on American camp life entitled “The New Spirit and a sense of beauty.

of the New Army." He was formerly a clergyman in Scranton, The acting deserved the high commendation which it re Pennsylvania, was låter a member of the editorial staff of the ceived from most of the critics. Margaret Anglin's Electra Philadelphia “ Ledger,” and is now the pastor of a Presbyte was a figure of great dignity and emotional power. Not once rian church in Troy, New York. He has had special army did she yield to the temptation to gain a mere factitious effect; associations and has been a student of politics and sociology. not once did she deviate from her purpose of being the Electra His work is not always in the political field, as readers of his of Euripides. That she succeeded in making the character of delightful paper in this journal

, “A Trout Stream and the Electra credible and sympathetic was demonstrated by the atti

. Cracking Universe,” will remember. tude of the audience from the beginning to the end, and such Miss Monks, the author of “ London Etchings,” is a Bostonian an achievement as that is notable among contemporary stage now engaged in personal social work among the women munition productions. Her company furnished competent support. In workers of London. She sends us with these etchings a letter, particular, special mention should be made of the work of the from which we give our readers the following extract, for it is chorus, which plays a rôle in Greek tragedy for which there is a key to the spirit and purpose of the etchings themselves : no modern counterpart and which calls for the exercise of When I went to England a year ago to do war work, every special imagination on the part of those who wish to make it one told me that I ought to keep a diary. I took a book with me credible to the modern audience.

for this purpose, but I soon found myself immersed in work so The chief defect of the performance was in the enunciation strenuous that a daily diary was out of the question. My work of the actors. There must have been many—there certainly was

was of the most practical kind, and I found that what writing I one--in the audience who had difficulty in understanding a

did was for relaxation and had no connection with the work, great deal of what was said. There is a practical as well as a

although nothing in these days is wholly, unconnected with the dramatic value in an actor's learning to speak in what might be

war. My work took me to a very prosaic suburb of London. I

lived there during the week and went to Chelsea for occasional called the grand style. A big performance requires big action week-ends. All my writing was done in Chelsea, and the pieces and big enunciation.

entitled “Battersea Nights" were written in a house on Cheyne Not the least effective element in the performance was the Walk near the house where Turner lived. The contrast of the music, composed for the play by Walter Damrosch and

per beauty of Chelsea to the dingy suburb in which I lived never formed by the New York Symphony Orchestra under Mr. failed to inspire in me the longing for expression that all artists Damrosch's conductorship. It served its purpose of being to the

feel who live in Chelsea and love Battersea Bridge and Four play what inflections are to the individual voice. It tonally lit

Chimneys. up the high spots. We doubt whether it would be very inter

The spiritual awakening in England is very noticeable in all esting performed, even in part, separately for concert purposes.

classes. Not only are the educated and intellectual people

thinking it of the foremost importance, but the reward of sacriThis is not meant as derogatory, but rather as approbative. fice and self-control is bursting out in the hearts of the laboring The music was not meant to obtrude itself, but rather to

people. make the dramatic situations more effectively dramatic. With A social worker in this country asked me the other day if out the music this performance of the play, without any the English workingwoman were not losing her health through music any performance of the play, would become compara

the long hours her patriotism enables her to keep. I answered : tively flat.

“The long hours may strain and fatigue her body, but she is This music was not an imitation of what is supposed to be

finding her soul. Her hours are no longer than the hours of those ancient Greek music. If it had been, it would have been an

of us who are working to make things easier for her. Govern

ment officials voluntarily work as many hours as she does. Her attempt to imitate the unknown, in the first place; and, in the

hours are shorter and the hardships few compared to the duties second place, it would probably have sounded very absurd to of the men in the trenches or the sailors patrolling the North modern ears. What it did do was to serve modern ears in the same Sea, and we are all of us conscious together that serving an way that the music of antiquity served ancient ears. The total ideal instead of our personal advantage is giving us a spiritual effect was a good deal like modern music drama or opera with strength which is beyond the reach of even the worst German most of the nonsensical and ridiculously artificial that accom

frightfulness." panies modern opera eliminated. If Electra had come to the Mr. Driggs, who brings the adventures of Arnold Adair to a front of the stage and indulged in an aria, or even in a recitativo conclusion in this issue, is an ordnance and airplane expert

of secco, or in Wagnerian melos, the audience would have been New York, and has done much studying and writing in conindignant at the sacrilege to art; and yet that is what audiences nection with airplane problems. His lively and vivid stories of not only endure but applaud night after night.

Arnold Adair and his colleagues are about to be brought out A few years ago we remarked that “opera is practically as in book form by Little, Brown & Co., of Boston. old as the spoken drama.” We expected to get a rise, and got Dr. Richmond, whom many of our readers will remember as it. If we remember aright, “ Musical America” rose to the bait

the author of the taking “ Brother Jonathan” poems, conand told us what it thought about the origin of opera. We now tributed to The Outlook in the early years of the European repeat our former remark with a new emphasis, and add that war in the spirit and manner of the “ Biglow Papers," is music drama is the oldest form of drama. Music drama or President of Union College, at Schenectady, New York. In a opera is merely drama in which music is as essential as the letter accompanying his poem “For the Sailors at Sea” he scenery or the acting of the players.

says: “I have a nineteen-year-old boy who has been at sea for It antedates even the Greek drama, and may be found pre three months serving as an ordinary seaman in the Regular served in ancient Hebrew literature. “ Electra” is essentially Navy. I wonder if there are other fathers to whom the inclosed opera. So is the “Song of Songs.” Opera is simply a modern might appeal ?" name given to what in substance has existed, off and on, for as Mr. Herbert Vaughan Abbott, whose paper on Keats affords many years as we have literary record.

a welcome relief from the strain of war, is Adjunct Professor of English at Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts

,

The pleasant and smiling picture of camp life (to which we OUR CONTRIBUTORS THIS WEEK

are compelled by the modesty of the author merely to append Mr. Frederick L. Allen, who writes “ Building the Bridge the pen-name of “ An American Woman") is sketched from to France,” is a graduate of Harvard, was formerly on the staff the other side of the footlights by a writer whose war poetry of the “ Atlantic Monthly,” later was editorially connected with has received wide attention throughout the country. It records the “Century Magazine," and is now serving the Government some of her experiences as an entertainer at the camps of our in Washington. His Government work gives him an oppor new Army.

W

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1918
NOT IN VAIN

a body of “United States Shipyard Volunteers.” The men who

sign the pledge as volunteers under this campaign may not be HATEVER military success Germany may have gained summoned to work to-morrow or the next day, but the Governby the sinking of the Tuscania will cost her dear.

ment wants to know what body of expert mechanics it may have Unlike the sinking of the Lusitania and the air raids

in reserve to call on as yards, ship ways, and houses are con over London, this latest great exploit of German war by stealth

structed for this ship-building army. can be defended under the laws of warfare ; for a transport

The question may arise in the mind of the reader what conveying combatant troops is not a peaceful merchantman nor

he has to do with this movement if he is not an expert is it a community of civilians, but is legitimate prey. But, like ship mechanic. His first duty is to take such part as he can the air raids and the sinking of merchantmen, this deed has put in arousing public opinion to the necessity of ship-building. new fighting spirit into Germany's foes. It has proved again Second, he must help his community to make it plain to every how far astray Germany goes in her calculations. It has

mechanic who is fitted by skill and experience to work at shiprevealed anew the self-control of the American fighting man, building that it is his patriotic duty to volunteer. The ship his readiness for emergency, and his inflexible determination builder's work is equal in its honor and responsibility to the for victory. And it has stimulated recruiting in this country. duty of the man who has enlisted or been conscripted in the For every man that lost his life in that disaster more than one

Army or Navy. Our Army and Navy recruits are giving their man has offered himself for service against Germany.

whole time and thought to the fighting problem. Every man Those who sorrow for the loss of their men, who went down

who can lay a keel or drive a rivet must give his entire thought with the Tuscania have no cause to feel that their loved ones

to that question. died in vain. They gave their lives heroically and to a great

If you who read this know a mechanic who is working in a end. They have been the means of gaining new strength for shipyard or who has volunteered to work at some future time the arms of their country. They have made all Americans their

in a shipyard, take him by the hand and tell him that you look debtors. To them, as well as to those who die at the front, will

upon him with the same grateful respect that you

look

upon belong the victory which they have helped to purchase with

the men who are fighting at the western front, and that his countheir lives.

try expects him to do his duty just as it expects the soldier or the sailor to do his. Every rivet driven into the plates of a new

American transport is a bullet driven into the ranks of the THE BUILDERS OF OUR SHIPS

barbarous militarism of Prussia. As this issue of The Outlook appears, a Nation-wide campaign is being carried on by the Government for the purpose of inform

THE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT ing the American public that if we are going to win the war we must build ships. The facts, which are of grave

importance, are The President's request for absolute and unconditional powers given in an article on another page by Mr. Frederick Lewis to make whatever changes he thinks best in the administrative Allen, who is in the Government service at Washington, who departments of the Government has definitely established two has access to authoritative information, and whose statement of important facts: (1) That a radical reorganization in those do the problem and its only possible solution may be relied upon. partments is necessary to secure co-ordination and co-operation

The American people have now gone into the war whole and power of immediate action ; (2) that this power is not granted heartedly. They are giving their money and their men without to the President by the Constitution, and cannot by him be stint or complaint, but billions of money and millions of men exercised unless granted by legislation. will not win the war unless the men and the commodities bought The United States Constitution gives to Congress powerfor the money can be transported to the European fronts. The

To make all laws which shall be

necessary and

proper ship-building mechanics of the United States are therefore to rying into execution the foregoing powers (that is, all the enuday the men on whom we must depend.

merated powers of Congress), and all other powers vested by this It is the hope of our Government, as stated by the Secretary

Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any of War, to have one million five hundred thousand American department or officer thereof. soldiers on European soil during the year 1918. The estimate of These departmental powers have been conferred and defined English experts is that it requires five tons of shipping to by a great number of laws which the President has no authortransport and supply each soldier on foreign soil, and this ity to repeal, disregard, or override. The reorganization of the amount of shipping increases directly with the distance of the War Department by Secretary Baker, of which we give a sumhome country from the seat of war. Thus, on the most con mary on page 275, probably goes as far as the President servative basis, the United States will need from eight to ten can go without further legislation. It marks a great step in million tons of shipping to transport, equip, feed, and supply advance. It provides a carefully devised plan both for giving to with powder and guns its army of a million and a half, if it bureau chiefs authority to act and for co-ordinating their action should have such an army

this
year.

under one responsible head. It practically abolishes, as far as There are today afloat ships which can be used for this pur executive order can do so, the antiquated and ineffective war pose amounting to certainly not more than three or four million machine, and puts another in its place. So far as one can judge tons. Thus by a very simple process of elementary subtraction it from reading the description of a new machine in print, it is will be seen that we must construct this year at least six million admirably adapted to its purpose. tons if we are to carry out our hopeful programme of placing But its purpose is limited to a single department of the Govan army of a million and a half men in the field. We must do this ernment. or rely on British or Allied shipping, and the submarines are con It does nothing, and could not do anything, to expedite our stantly depleting British and Allied shipping. To get this six mill ship-building. It does nothing, and could not do anything, to ion tons of shipping, without which we cannot strike the blow we meet the possible perils involved in our complicated labor

ogght to strike against Prussian barbarism, the Shipping Board, problem. In England the Government has brought about a be whose Chairman is Mr. Edward N. Hurley, is bending every end reorganization of the laboring force of the whole country, shiftto the completion of the

vast programme of building from six to ing labor from factory to factory and from department to eight million tons of shippingUnder conditions as they exist department in factories, so that its productive force has been it today, with shipyards as they are now being operated and with enormously increased. The British Government has done this the number of men now

employed in ship-building, it is believed by promoting highly skilled labor to the highest places, and pro that if we construct three million tons

of shipping we should be moting the less skilled labor to take their places, thus using the doing well. We must therefore augment in some way or other skill of every workman to the greatest advantage, and by bringour shipyard capacity, the nunber of men who are already at ing women into munition work to such an extent that it has work in those yards, and

the per capita efficiency of those men. been authoritatively said that the women of England by their It is towards this augmentation of American ship-building shell-making won the Battle of the Somme. power that the campaign inaugurated by the Government is

The order of Secretary Baker gives the War Department directed. The movement is officially called a movement to create powers to deal with the transportation of military supplies, but

for car

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