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THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK COMPANY, 381 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. LAWRENCE 1. ABBIT, PRESIDENT. N. T. PULSIFER, VICE-PRESIDENT.
YRANK C. BOTT, TREASURER. ERNEST R. ABBOTT, SECRETARY.
TRAVERI D. CARMAN, ADVERTISING MANAGER. YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS FIFTY-TWO ISSUES - FOUR DOLLARS IN ADVANCE. ESTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE NEW YORK POST-OPTER
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Home Guard Army Bargains
AT ALL BOOKSELLERS JOSEPH H. ODELL'S
American Training-Camp Book
The New Spirit of the New Army
Army Officers say: Bannerman's
arsonals aro . Godsond to us." 20,000 Rillos 200 Machine Guns 5,000 Revolvers 100 B-L Field Cannons 6,000,000 Cartry's 60 B-L Navy Cannons 300,000 Equipments 50,000 Explosive Shells 2,500 Tents
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Russia Accepts Germany's Hard Peace
311 The Situation in England..
311 Peace After Victory...
311 Chaplains for Our Fighting Forces ...... 312 War and Trade....
312 Bolo and Boloism.
312 Joffre an Immortal..
313 Conditions in Holland..
313 The Ship-Builders' Strike...
313 The Mooney Case : An Appeal to the President ....
314 The Administration, Pro and Con ...... 314 Cartoons of the Week....
315 The Republican Party in 1920.
316 Sir Cecil Spring-Rice..
316 Let Us Defeat the Germans in the Air . 317 Dr. Odell's Articles.....
317 Kaiser, Premier, and President... 317 Information about the French.
318 Four Lenten Lessons: 1-A Tower of Strength ..
319 February Thaw....
319 “ After the War” Reconstruction in Great
Britain-Some Radical Proposals.. 320 The “Army of Victory or Death 321
By G. H, Mika
322 Special Correspondence A Modern Children's Crusade..... 323
By Rose Weston Bull
325 By Henry Moskowitz Knoll Papers: Recollections of John Morley 327
By Lyman Abbott When the Transports Sail (Poem)...... 328
By Amelia Josephine Burr The Brass Incense-Burner..
328 By Jean Carter Cochran Current Events Illustrated..
329 Weekly Outline Study of Current History 334
By J. Madison Gathany, A.M. The New Books ...
336 Teaching Is Salesmanship.
341 Don't Can the Can... Government Ownership of Railroads.... 343 By Stephen Bell
345 What is Ragtime 2..
345 Topsyturvy Statesmanship.
307 War's Aftermath...
By Joseph H. Odell
Do These Subjects
THE FIRST BOOK ABOUT THE BOYS IN CAMP FOR THE FOLKS AT HOME Secretary of War Newton D. Baker says :
“When the war is over and the men and women of America have had an opportunity to obtain a perspective on its conduct and results, there will be an adequate appreciation of Dr. Odell's statement, 'I would rather intrust the moral character of my boy to the camp than to any college or university I know. ... Educational institutions never possessed the absolute power that is now held by the War Department.'
READY NEXT WEEK Dr. Hillis' GREAT INDICTMENT German Atrocities : How , Nation With Photographs of Affidavits, Diaries, Scenes, etc.
By NEWELL DWIGHT HILLIS Col. Roosevelt predicts that when the conditions described by this unimpeachable witness are known they will “wake every man and woman in America."
Cloth. Net $1.00 Fleming H. Revell Company New York: 158 Fifth Ave. Chicago : 17 N. Wabash Ave.
1. The War Finance Corporation 2. Export Trade Problems and An
American Foreign Trade Policy 3. The War's Effects on English
Trade Unions 4. The Farm Loan Situation 5. Foreign Exchange Regulations 6. The Economic Function of the
These are some of the articles in the
February Number of
The Journal of Political
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General Pershing knew military fundamentals. That's why he was chosen to lead our expeditionary forces in France.
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FEBRUARY 27, 1918
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
RUSSIA ACCEPTS GERMANY'S HARD
13, and as we write, on February 19, is about to meet the PEACE CONDITIONS
second. News of the actual renewal of war on Russia's western front As to the first, an attempt... was made to show that the was officially sent out from Berlin on February 18. It stated Supreme Inter-Allied War Council at Versailles had usurped that German forces had crossed the river Dvina without fighting, political power in declaring that the Allies should bend their and were advancing on the important military post of Dvinsk. energies to military rather than to political war energy. Mr. The next day German forces entered Dvinsk and Lutsk—the Lloyd George promptly met the attack by one of his masterly latter in Volhynia. No fighting appears to have taken place speeches, in which he again said that there is no use in crying anywhere.
peace when there is no peace; that Germany's discussions with Then followed the momentous news that the Bolshevik Gov. Russia show that Germany had no slightest intention to offer ernment had stated officially that it would sign peace on the peace; that England would not recede from the war aims terms insisted upon by Germany at the Brest-Litovsk Council, already stated ; and that there was no dissent in the conclusions of including the retention of Russia's western provinces by Ger. the Council at Versailles. He ended by offering to present his own many.
resignation if the House or country was dissatisfied. A resoluVienna statements say that Trotsky had first asked Count tion, which was in effect one of lack of confidence, was defeated Czernin, Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary, whether Aus- by the overwhelming vote of 159 to 28. Practically the House tria, like Germany, considered itself still at war with Russia. was, with the exception of a few semi-pacifists, perfectly satisfied.
It is beyond question that Germany or Austria will send The other question which has disturbed England is that troops into the Ukraine to support that faction of the Ukrainians which has led to the resignation—or, as he is said to regard it, which lately entered into a formal treaty of peace with Germany. to the dismissal of General Sir William Robertson, the Chief Germany needs Ukrainian wheat and iron ore. Today the of the British Imperial General Staff. An official statement Ukraine is a vast country divided against itself. The new west says that the replacing of General Robertson by General ern frontier laid down in the treaty was coolly drawn by Ger. Henry Wilson came because of the former's unwillingness to many so as to include the province of Cholm, which has never accept limitation of the powers he has heretofore exercised or belonged to the Ukraine, but is part of Russian Poland. Nat to accept an appointment as British military representative on arally there has been an outcry among the Poles in Warsaw, the Supreme Inter-Allied War Council. which is not more than one hundred and fifty miles north The London“ Spectator" of January 26 devotes a long artieast of Cholm. There have even been demonstrations in cle to the defense of General Robertson and of General Haig Warsaw, despite the iron rule of the Germans in the Polish against what it calls “a furious and concerted attack.” At the capital.
time that article was written it was believed that the attack In the Ukraine itself, say long-delayed despatches received was over, and the “ Spectator” does not hesitate to describe it here on February 19, sanguinary fighting has taken place in as a press campaign, and even to use such words as “ atrocious and the streets of the great oity of Kiev. This battle-for if the disgusting.” It considers the attack largely as emanating from despatch is correct in saying that 4,000 people were killed and Lord Northcliffe's newspapers, and to have as its basis various 7,000 wounded it was a real battle took place on February 5; carping criticisms on the detailed conduct of the war and the it ended, the despatches say, in the complete victory of the Red failure to obtain decisive results. Guard of the Bolsheviki, who drove the Ukrainian "reaction But other indications from England are that the real aries” (that is, supporters of the movement for independence point at issue is General Robertson's unwillingness, in the and of the peace treaty with Germany) out of Kiev with heavy opinion of the Prime Minister, to submit to that unity of conloss.
trol and action as between the English army and its allies the Still other war news from Russia came simultaneously with
need of which Mr. Lloyd George believes to overshadow everythe reports just cited. Finland is torn between desire for inde- thing else. It is hinted also that, just as there was a critical pendence on the part of the Finnish people and fierce propaganda difference of opinion two years ago between Hindenburg by the Bolsheviki. The Russian war-ships, now under control of and Falkenhayn as to whether Germany's supreme effort the sailors, have always been nests of anarchy. Their men,
should be made on the eastern or the western front, so now landed in Finland, have slaughtered many of the anti-Bolshevik there is a difference of opinion between the British Chief of faction. The situation in Finland is not unlike that in the Staff and the British War Cabinet as to whether or not all Ukraine. On the other hand, a war danger to the Bolsheviki England's effort this year should be centered on the western is seen in the report that General Alexeieff, formerly Chief of front, and the effort on the other fronts at least lessened. the Russian General Staff, is leading a strong Cossack army east Questions like these are so delicate and so important that they of the Ukraine against the Red Guard. It is not improbable cannot be discussed publicly in detail. that this indicates a military reaction in Russia which may lead to the fall of the Lenine-Trotsky faction.
PEACE AFTER VICTORY Thus Russia enters on a new phase of internal strife, of civil war, and of partial occupation by German armies.
If ever there was a plain, blunt declaration of fixed purpose and intention, it was in these words, uttered the other day
by the Kaiser after his usual professions of piety and divine THE SITUATION IN ENGLAND
partnership: “ We desire to live in friendship with neighboring At the bottom of the recent opposition to Mr. Lloyd people, but the victory of German arms must first be recognized. George lies the lack of recognition of two principles : union Conversely, we Allies, to escape German domination, must in action and concentration of effort. The English Prime bend every effort to victory. Discussion of possible future peace Minister triumphantly emerged from one attack on February terms and hopes of defection in the ranks of the Central Powers
are permissible only when they do not lead us to relax a single the following cable message received at the War Department at nerve or muscle in our military effort and determination.
Washington : Nor do we for a moment doubt the victory of our righteous To the Adjutant General, Washington. cause. Lately there has been one of those waves of pessimism For the Secretary of War : which come and go in all hard-fought wars. It started, no 1. In the fulfillment of its duty to the Nation much is expected doubt, in depression over the removal of Russia as a factor of our Ariny, and nothing should be left undone that will help in in the war. Quite erroneous conclusions were drawn from the keeping it in the highest state of efficiency. I believe the perbelief that Germany might move forces from the Russian line sonnel of the Army has never been equaled and the conduct has to the western front. That she can do so, and that she has
been excellent, but to overcome entirely the conditions found here done so, is admittedly true. But that this means a disastrous
requires fortitude born of great courage and lofty spiritual ideas. offensive against the British and French is the reverse of prob
Counting myself responsible for the welfare of our men in every able. Pessimism on this score has appeared more commonly in
respect, it is my desire to surround them with the best influence the talk of those who read only big headlines in sensational
possible. In the fulfillment of this solemn trust it seems wise to papers than in the writing of military students and close
request the aid of the churches at home. observers. Thus the well-known military writer Mr. Frank
2. To this end it is recommended that the number of chap
lains in the Army be increased for the war to an average of three Simonds, after a full analysis of the situation, says: “ When per regiment, with assimilated rank of major and captain in due this enemy had everything in his favor, he failed at the Marne; proportion, and that a number be assigned in order to be avail. when he had ninety chances out of a hundred at Ypres and the
able for such detached duty as may be required. Men selected Yser, he failed; when he had at least a three-to-one chance at
should be of the highest character, with reputations well estabVerdun, be failed. In his next attack he will not have more
lished as sensible, practical, active ministers or workers accusthan an even chance, if he has that, and all the odds of past
tomed to dealing with young men. They should be in vigorous performances ' in the west are against him.” And in a striking
health, as their services will be needed under most trying circumarticle in the March “ Century” Dr. H. A. Gibbons, the well
stances. Appointees should, of course, be subject to discharges known author of “ The New Map of Europe," says: “The odds
for inefficiency like other officers of the National Army.
It is my purpose to give the chaplain corps through these against Germany and Austria-Hungary, from the purely mili forces a definite and responsible status, and to outline, direct, tary point of view, are too great to secure their final triumph
and enlarge their work into co-operative and useful aid to the on the field of battle."
(Signed) PERSHING. The great mistake made by those who fear the accession of This cable German strength on the western front is that they do not
In the first place, it should give to the ordinary American a realize the defensive power of the three great Allies - France, truer idea than that to which he has been accustomed concernEngland, and America-on that front. An English militarying the esteem in which the fighter holds the military value of BE writer who is a severe critic of his own Government estimates the work of the chaplain. that Great Britain alone will put 630,000 new men on the new In the second place, it should convince Congress of the neces front this year, and urges that this number should be doubled, sity of passing some such bill as is now before Congress providas he believes it well could be. Great Britain's military strength ing for one chaplain for every twelve hundred men. on the western front, apart from such accessions, is tremendous In the third place, it should make every minister in the coun But both in quantity and quality. It has grown steadily from the try, and particularly every minister whose experience records "contemptible little army to the finest fighting force the success in spiritually dealing with men, consider whether he is world has ever seen with the single exception of the German not himself eligible and fit to volunteer. army, but against that German army and side by side with It is to be emphasized that the office of chaplain calls for men the British stands the army of France. It has been the fashion of the highest qualifications. among pessimists to shake their heads and speak of France as “bled white.” That phrase was first used of France in 1916, and it has become almost a grim joke when one remembers
WAR AND TRADE what France has done since then. The army that fought the President Wilson has now placed all exports to all counBattle of the Marne, that held fast at Verdun in 1916, and tries under license by the War Trade Board. His proclamations that in 1917 drove the Germans out of the Verdun sector also apply the license system to all imports. Thus the entire will not let the enemy through in 1918. And it is not foreign commerce of the country is now placed under the license boastful for Americans to believe that their divisions to be in system of the War Trade Board. It is a step to reduce ocean active service this summer will go far to balance the German carriage of non-essentials, so as to release ships for the transaccessions.
portation of troops and supplies. It is to be remembered also that, at the worst, and assuming This is not an embargo. Restrictions are to be imposed only that the Allies do not actually advance their lines on the west when essential to accomplish “ definite and necessary objects. ern front or repeat the successful though not decisive gains of As the War Trade Board's explanatory statement says
, this 1917, they have only to stand on the defensive in 1918, and measure is forced upon us by the critical tonnage then in the next year to renew the fight with really considerable and the necessity of availing ourselves of every possible means reinforcements from America. It is well to be prepared for of maintaining our armies in France."
Moreover, the limitation of exports is further essential to
of possible temporary reverses; but it is a waste of time to listen to idle gossip about anything worse. We do not fear for the conserve the products of our soil and industry “for the use future of the armies which captured Vimy Rilge, Messines our own people and the peoples of the nations associated with
us in the war." Ridge, and Passchendaele, which drove the Turks from Bagdad
The proclamation is worth several Presidential or Prime Wit and from Jerusalem, and which left the long western front not only unbroken by Germany's attack in 1917, but showing Minister definitions of peace after war. It speaks louder than
mere words. Our enemies, we believe, will fully appreciate the positive backward bends of the German lines.
determination which lies behind the fact of any trade renunciaOverconfidence is always folly; but by united effort, and
tion necessary to win the war. almost without regard to what will happen elsewhere, the Allies
B will assuredly erect and defend a wall of men and guns along the trenches in France and Belgium that will make our line
BOLO AND BOLOISM safe for this year and will at its end make still more evident the fact that it is on the western front that the war will ultimately be won-and won for the cause of liberty and democracy.
Paul Bolo has been adjudged guilty of treason and condemned to death. A Paris court martial has been trying him ou charges that he had conducted a widespread German propa. ganda. At the conclusion of the evidence the Court took only fifteen minutes for deiiberation. Bolo has appealed from the verdict to the Court of Cassation.
Filippo Cavalini, former member of the Italian Chamber of
CHAPLAINS FOR OUR FIGHTING FORCES
If there is any question in the mind of any one as to whether a chaplain is a useful officer in an army, it ought to be settled by