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ister, Count Czernin, replied. These two men assumed different an entirely different form. It may result not in the dispersion rôles. It is altogether probable that their respective rôles of the different elements but in a new arrangement of them in were assigned to them. To Hertling was allotted the task of the form of a free, or semi-free, confederation. The effect of this speaking for the Junkers, the reactionaries, the whole military would be to permit the various nationalities within the Empire hierarchy of the Central Powers. To Czernin, on the other to become autonomous. The Slave and the Rumans, and even hand, was allotted the task of speaking for the more liberal the Italians, might gain a freedom that they have never known elements in both Germany and Austria. Thus everybody in under Hungarian and Austrian rule. It is conceivable, if Ger. Pan-Germany might be supposed to be satisfied. So Hert man victory is conceivable, that the change in Austria-Hungary ling thundered and Czernin cooed. We can imagine the pride may be directed and determined by Germany. with which the conservative read the Hertling speech and the But whatever form that change may take, it is bound to new confidence that it gave him in the might of the German come. Austria-Hungary as we used to know it we shall never arms. On the other hand, we can imagine the thrill that came see again. over the half-hoping, half-despairing liberal as he read Czer. President Wilson’s reply to Czernin is in effect, and we are nin's speech, with its suggestion of promise to long-subjugated inclined to think it was in purpose, a notification to the liberals peoples. Thus Pan-Germany thought to keep up the courage of of the various nationalities in Austria-Hungary that they its fighters while at the same time it allayed within its own bor still have a chance for determining their own destiny instead of ders the ferment of liberalism and enticing with fair words the having it determined for them. It was a notice to the present pacifists and liberals in Allied and neutral countries.
rulers of Austria-Hungary that if they are ready to accede to This is a dangerous game to play; it is like playing with the demands of the Empire's subject peoples they might have explosives. Germany can be handled with comparative safety something to say as to what the new form of the Empire should by its rulers, for the people of Germany have become used to be. It was a notice to the leaders of the Liberal party that here handling. But Austria-Hungary is different. Here is a so-called is an opportunity for them to step forward and to make the Dual Empire that is not dual really, but multiple. It is com people of Austria-Hungary believe that the things which Czer. posed of a group of nationalities that are ready to fly apart. nin had said with his tongue in his cheek they were ready to The ruling classes in Austria-Hungary have acquired skill in promise on their honor and in good faith and put into effect
. keeping these elements together,
It was a notice to the peoples of Austria-Hungary, so far as If we read President Wilson's address of January 11 aright, they could be made to listen or to understand, that if they he saw the possibilities in that game and chose to make use of were ready to throw off German domination and to choose them.
from among their own people leaders willing and able to carry So the President proceeded to show how hopeless the mili out a programme of freedom for the peoples of the whole Emtaristic and Junker doctrine of Hertling was. He set the pire they might save themselves not only further bloody sacriGerman Chancellor aside as hopelessly incapable, at least. at fice in the present war, but future suffering in the convulsions present, of even understanding what men of to-day demand. of a possible revolution. But to Czernin, who had been striking this attitude of liberal To such an appeal the present rulers of Austria-Hungary ism, the President offered, with every appearance of good faith, are not likely to listen. Lloyd George, in discerning no differwords of welcome. Here is a man that can understand the lan ence in substance between Hertling and Czernin, between the guage of the twentieth century, so the President seemed to say. German and the Austrian reply, was right, and it is not likely The dy He has traveled a long way toward the position of the true that the President disagrees with him. But the President's exliberal. If he will only come further, just these four steps (and periment was worth trying, not for any hope of action from the the President enumerated them), he will be on ground where present rulers of Austria-Hungary, but for the chance that the we can actually discuss with him the terms of peace.
Liberals of Austria-Hungary may really see for what the Allies Where does such a speech as that leave Czernin?
are fighting He cannot go further without mortally offending all the There can be no peace without victory; and over such a foe Junkers, the conservatives, the Hindenburgs, and the rest as the Potsdam gang there can be no victory that is not a miliof the Potsdam gang on whom Pan-Germany depends. And yet tary victory. If the President succeeds in detaching
from the he cannot turn back and eat his words without proving to every support of the Potsdam gang the liberals of Austria-Hungary, liberal within the Empire and to every pacifist outside that he the coming of that military victory will be hastened. has been indulging in mockery and false pretense.
tale This would not be important if it were a mere matter of bringing confusion upon a certain Bohemian nobleman. But it INFORMATION ABOUT THE FRENCH is something a great deal more than that. It is a signal of warning to the liberals of Austria-Hungary and its component
We have received from a lady living in one of the most peoples. It is virtually saying to them: “Now is your chance progressive, prosperous, and well-informed cities of New York to turn the trick."
State-a university town—the following interesting and sug. It is evident that Austria-Hungary is destined for a radical gestive letter: change as a consequence of this war. What the nature of that
Has it occurred to you that, in spite of the fact that we are change may be will depend upon circumstances and upon the allies of the French and that there is a general acceptance of the leaders of Austria-Hungary themselves.
fact of their bravery as a nation and people, yet many good If that change comes as the result of a smash from the Allies, Americans harbor a certain prejudice against the French as the elements of the Empire may disintegrate. They may fly to
a social entity, associate with them vice and their affinities. The Jugo-Slavs of Bosnia and Herzegovina fashions, absinthe drinking, grisettes, and Latin Quarters? Would would then join the Serbians and the Montenegrins to make a
not a series of articles and stories bringing out the domestic side greater Serbia; the Poles of Galicia, their brothers of Russia of the people as it really has existed and as it exists now—the
modesty and purity of the girls, the devotion of fathers and and Prussia, to make a new Poland; the Transylvanian Ru
husbands, the helpfulness and cleverness of the women as they mans, their brothers of Rumania ; the Germans of Austria, their
normally have been-would not such articles help to a better uncongenial fellow-Teutons under the thumb of Berlin; the
appreciation of the French people? Czecho-Slovaks would unite to make an independent Bohemia;
When the war was only six weeks old, in 1914, the minister of and the Magyars would be left to rule themselves, something a large church here in in a sermon ridiculed the degenerate they have perhaps forgotten how to do in their effort to rule others. French nation. Of course he had been imbibing at a German This would be a revolution administered from the outside. fountain of truth. In our high schools, at least at
high If the change in Austria-Hungary comes from the inside, it school, the French Department is still under the German Departmay come as an explosion caused by spontaneous combustion. ment, with a strong pro-German, an American of German ances
try, at its head. It will take some effort on the part of parents The disintegration might be quite as complete and might result
and taxpayers to change to a French head, although there is a in much the same new adjustments as those which might come
stampede of pupils from the German classes into the French, from the outside smash.
Now if in a patriotic, devoted city such as ours such prejudice If the change comes from the inside, however, it may assume exists, why not elsewhere? This feeling towards the French
reminds me faintly of the feeling of the abolitionists for the slaves
single-handed, this corrupt monopoly, drive out the traders, set and that of many Northern people to-day for the Negro: “Let
free the doves, and overthrow the tables of the money-changers. him be free and have civil rights, but, for Heaven's sake, keep
It requires greater courage to face, single-handed, popular him down South!”
prejudice, and by fearless condemnation to convert unthinking In response to this letter we make one or two practical sug- applause into unthinking execration. This was the second act gestions to our correspondent. First, establish a Groupe of of Christ's public ministry. From Jerusalem he went to the Alliance Française, if one does not already exist in your Nazareth, the home of his boyhood. His fame as a defender community. The Alliance Française is an American association of the rights of the common people had preceded him. The whose purpose is to do exactly what you want to have done in congregation assembled in the synagogue at first admired the your community. Through lectures and literature it extends a grace of their fellow-townsman. But he turned their admiraknowledge among Americans of the French character, the tion into execration. For he told them that they were not French people, and the fine and noble achievements of the God's favored people; that their own Scripture showed that French in literature, science, and art. Full information about God cared for the heathen no less than for the Jew. Imagine the Alliance Française may be obtained by writing to its secre the reception which an audience of Negro-haters would give to tary, Professor Louis Delamarre, 200 Fifth Avenue, New York. the reformer who told them that no white race had ever made
Second, ask all your friends who really want to know the 80 great progress in so short a time as the Negro race has truth, but who fail to understand the French people because made in the last fifty years; or an audience of Bolsheviki that they are not in the possession of the facts, if they
have read any class legislation by a proletariat is no better than class legisof the following books : First, “ Round My House,” by Philip lation by the capitalists. The admiring congregation were conGilbert Hamerton. Hamerton was an English artist and art verted into an angry mob, and only a marvelous personality, critic of a very fine nature, who married a Frenchwoman and such as has sometimes sufficed to awe a mob, saved Jesus from lived much of his time in the French countryside. “Round My death. House” is a delightful interpretation and portrayal of French It requires a more difficult courage to withstand the entreafamily life outside of Paris. It is most agreeable reading and ties of a devoted friend than the hostility of an angry enemy. full of anecdotes and touches of humor. Second, “ French On one occasion Jesus was denouncing the false leaders in the Traits,” by W. C. Brownell
. Mr. Brownell is perhaps the fore Church of his time. To the hatred of greed and the hatred of most living American critic of literature, customs, and manners.
race prejudice he was adding the hatred of ecclesiastical pride. He had a New England education and lives in New York, but is No wonder his mother thought that the son whom she had a master of French literature. His book was published twenty always reverenced but had never been able to understand was years ago, after he had lived in France for some time, but it is crazed by his enthusiasm. She sought to draw him from his as true to-day as it was at the time it was published. It is full perilous ministry to the safety of his home. “ Thy mother and of keen insight and brilliant wit, and it is brief. Third, “The thy brethren,” said his puzzled and indignant hearers, “ wait France of To Day,” by Professor Barrett Wendell, of Harvard without for thee.” “My mother and my brethren !” he University. Mr. Wendell was a lecturer at the Sorbonne in replied ; .“ who are my mother and my brethren? They who Paris and other French universities in 1904–5. The purpose
do the will of my Father in heaven.” And he went on with his of his book is to give the American reader some understanding teaching. of the substantial and estimable qualities of the French nature. To be understood, appreciated, admired even by a few, is a
The American who will read these three volumes will have great reinforcement to faltering courage. Jesus had not this a very different idea of France, the French family, and the
reinforcement. The leaders of his day both hated and despised French individual from that which is current in the ordinary him. There is no hatred quite so bitter as the hatred of a corARK** Broadway play and the yellow-backed novel.
And the hatred of the Church leaders was quite conscientious. The common people had admired him, but
could not comprehend him. Even to his intimate disciples he FOUR LENTEN LESSONS
was an enigma. In his last interview with them they said to
one another, “ A little while, and ye shall not see me: and again, I-A TOWER OF STRENGTH
a little while, and ye shall see me. What is this that he saith?
A little while.' We cannot tell what he saith." The loneliness 1 There is no authentic picture of Jesus, but the New Testament of Jesus is the most pathetic fact in his splendid but isolated
contains a portrait that indicates the impression which the life. The expression of his loneliness is the most pathetic word physical personality of Jesus left upon his contemporaries. It in his luminous life of sorrow. “Ye shall leave me alone: and is as follows:
yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me.' And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; and in
History affords no picture of a more heroic figure than that the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man,
of Jesus of Nazareth, who had the courage of a soldier attackclothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps
ing intrenched and hallowed injustice, of a reformer assailing with a golden girdle. His head and his hairs were white like as bitter a form of race and religious prejudice as the world has wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire ; ever seen, of a prophet whom entreaties of love could not divert and his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; from his purpose, of an enthusiast who, left to face the great and his voice as the sound of many waters. And he had in his crisis of his life alone, faced it in loneliness unafraid. right hand seven stars ; and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword; and his countenance was as the sun shineth'in his strength.
FEBRUARY THAW This is not a portrait. But this specter of a dream would never have suggested to the dreamer Jesus of Nazareth if Jesus The Happy Eremite listened to the dripping of the water of Nazareth had been the effeminate being which ecclesiastical from the eaves, and the sound was music to his ears. He had art has delighted to depict. The personality of Jesus was a virile been pursued for months, day and night, by the terror of frozen personality. He was a terror to his enemies and a strong tower pipes; in the grayness of six in the morning and the starlit to his friends.
blackness of ten o'clock at night he had ascended the two flights It requires courage to attack a vested wrong, hoary with tra of slippery stairs that led to the top of his water-tower, exposed dition, intrenched behind ample capital and buttressed by the to all the winds that blew ; again and again at the risk of his Church. Such a vested wrong had taken possession of the outer neck he had climbed the perpendicular ladder up the side of court of the Temple. That court had been converted into a the tank (recalling each time the cheerful remark of the friendly market-place where profiteers were robbing the common people. plumber, “ That ladder's only held up there by them two nails The worshiper was compelled to buy here his doves and sheep toed in to the side
of the tank. I've always made up my mind of post for the sacrifice; here to exchange his foreign money for Hebrew that if it should give way, I'd either —"); with the icy blast
money. For the priests would accept only what this market cutting his cheeks he had again and again flashed his pocket furnished. The first act of Christ's public ministry was to assail, electric lamp into the tank with one hand and lunged with a
poker at the frozen crust with the other, holding on with one positive that climbing to the top of the tower in biting wind elbow ; at all hours he had carried oil-heaters to points of dan was excellent for his soul, because it took an effort of will to ger; he had stoked the furnace and burned up his earthly sub overcome a perfectly definite fear that the ladder would go in stance in the coils of electric stoves; he had labored over the the way the friendly plumber dreaded. He knew also that it radiator of his automobile as a doctor over a drowned man ; he was good for his soul to tend to the furnace so many times a day. had exulted as from a full heart over the squib in somebody's for he was not naturally methodic, and the knowledge that to funny column that now at last we knew what the weather-man make a new fire is thirty times worse than to keep an old one meant when he spoke of the “ mean” temperature ; he had going left him reasonably faithful. It was good for his soul, shivered and chattered and ached and grumbled and cursed and likewise, to freeze, to suffer the buffeting of the elements, to plod begged his Irish cook to intercede with the saints
through snow-drifts, to give up for a day or a week the luxury And now the water was dripping from the eaves.
of twenty miles an hour in a closed car for the slower locomo He pushed out the casement window to hear it more certainly, tion that Jack, the farm horse, offered. and to have the further satisfaction of feeling that he was com He believed all that. He accepted the discipline. In a sense fortable with the window open in the room he had been miser he rejoiced in it. And yet the music of the water dripping from ably uncomfortable in with an overcoat on his back and all the eaves! manner of stoves round about.
It was Chesterton who admitted years ago that he was conThe water dripped. He remembered that when it did that stantly tossed to and fro between astonishment at the incredible it arrived sooner or later, by one channel or another, in the cellar, wickedness of mankind and amazement at its incredible sublim. and stayed there, for the cellar drain was not all it should be ity, Surely in winter mankind is at its best, for then the most (the architect having been an artist). But he disregarded that indulgent suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous weather an romantic detail. The eaves were dripping.
with a stoical and humorous resignation which is unnoticed and There was a foot of snow on the ground. The trees were uncelebrated only because it is so common. utterly bare, with no faint hint of new green. On the young oak The Happy Eremite himself felt unusually virtuous. He was tree by the driveway last year's leaves clattered mournfully, certain that his soul had improved very much during the past
But at the other end of the lot, where the potatoes had been three weeks. He was not at all sure that the improvement was and where now the winter rye lay under the snow, there was a not all that the most exacting Deity could ask for one season's smoky mist of steam.
endeavor. He was satisfied to remain without further improve And drop, drip, drip, drop, the eaves were dripping. ment for the present. The Happy Eremite was a disciplinarian. He did not like the Wherefore he closed his eyes and smiled, and listened to the cold, but he was sure it was good for his soul. He was quite water dripping from the eaves.
“AFTER THE WAR” RECONSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN
-SOME RADICAL PROPOSALS FAR-REACHING programme for reconstructive legis ers now either with the colors or engaged in munition produo lation in Great Britain after the war has been recom tion. mended by a sub-committee of the British Labor party.
The “revolution in national finance" that is called for pre It is printed as a supplement to the “ New Republic" of Feb scribes : Assessment by families instead of individuals ; & ruary 16, and is worthy of careful study by American publi- graduated income tax" rising to sixteen or even nineteen cists, legislators, business men, and workers. Its main points shillings in the pound on the highest income of the millionare as follows:
aires ;" the national exchequer to be “normally the heir to al The war signalizes the “ culmination and collapse of a dis- private riches in excess of a quite moderate amount;" a special tinctive industrial civilization,” based on the individualist capital levy to pay off the debt incurred by the war. system of capitalist production.
The “surplus for the common good,” which has heretofore A new social order is presently to be built up on “ a deliber been absorbed by individuals and“ devoted very largely to ately planned co-operation in production and distribution for the senseless luxury," is to be devoted to the permanent welfare of benefit of all who participate by hand or by brain
the community, by providing new capital for public welfare systematic approach towards a healthy equality of material projects ; for the care of the sick and the aged; and for a circumstances.
democratic system of education and recreation. It is in the The democratic control of society in all its activities is, proposal for the appropriation of every surplus for the common according to this proposed platform, to be based on
good that the Labor party most distinctly marks itself off from 1. Universal Enforcement of the National Minimum. the older political parties.' 2. Democratic Control of Industry,
In conclusion, this Labor pronunciamento calls for the annual 3. Revolution in National Finance.
assembly of an Imperial Council to discuss matters of common 4. The Surplus Wealth for the Common Good.
interest to all British dependencies, but only to make recom. The “ national minimum” signifies that thirty shillings ($7.50) mendations for action by the “autonomous local legislatures. per week is to be the lowest
wage for the least skilled adult It desires to put an end to all economic “leagues against workers, on the principle that every member of the community leagues.” It stands for the establishment, as a part of the treaty must have the requisites of “healthy life and worthy citizenship. of peace with which the war will end, of a
“super-national The “democratic control of industry” signifies that there authority, with an international high court
to try all justiciable must be no reconstruction of the “disorganization, waste, and issues between nations;
an international legislature to enact inefficiency involved in a crowd of separate private employers, such common laws as can be mutually agreed on,
and an inter but“ a genuinely scientific reorganization of the nation's indus national
council of mediation.... We would have all the nations try,” based on democracy in industry as well as in govern of the world solemnly undertake and promise to make common ment.” It calls for the immediate nationalization of railways cause against any one of them that broke away from this fundaand mines, and for the production of electrical power on a vast mental agreement." scale for common use; for the nationalization of life insurance for all classes, and for the continuation of Government control by one of the most powerful parties in Great Britain. Its radi.
This platform is significant as being proposed for adoption of all industries which have been taken over during the war. The calism far outruns "American progressivism, but it calls for Government is called upon to formulate a deliberate national serious consideration as a proposed solution of problems that organization for coping with the immense dislocation of indus are certain to confront America as well as England after the try which will occur with the freeing of eight millions of work great battle for democracy is fought and won.
THE “ARMY OF VICTORY OR DEATH” HT
BY G. H. MIKA This article, describing the war action of Bohemians in America and elsewhere, parallels the description of the American Polish Legion recently published in The Outlook. Most of these Bohemian soldiers are technically Austrian subjects, and they therefore face a double danger in fighting Austria. The author is of Bohemian ancestry and is a graduate of an American college.—THE EDITORS.
TO lapse of time, no defeat of hopes, seems sufficient to now in Russia who are ready at a moment's notice to proceed
reconcile the Czechs of Bohemia to incorporation with against their former oppressors. As a matter of fact, the ex:
Austria," wrote President Wilson, several years ago. ploits of the Czechoslovak Brigade, which so nobly distinguished The Czechoslovaks are a nation of ten million people, living itself at Tarnapol last June, are now well known all over the in the very heart of Europe, occupying a compact territory ex world. In one of the communications issued by General Bru
tending over Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Slovakia (North siloff at the time, he speaks of them as follows: "The Czecho TAL Hungary). For purposes of mutual defense Bohemia once con- slovaks, perfidiously abandoned by our infantry at Tarnapol
, cluded a voluntary alliance with Austria, but has since learned fought in such a way that the world ought to fall on its knees by sad experience that Austria as an ally is more to be feared before them.” The motto of these troops is, " Victory or death.” than Austria as an enemy. To recount all of the sufferings of It is a firm rule which every man obligates himself to observe, this liberty-loving nation would require volumes, not merely that they should never surrender to the enemy, but rather fight a few short paragraphs. It is sufficient to say that they were sub to the bitter end. jected to every sort of oppression possible in order to dena A similar autonomous Czechoslovak national army is at the tionalize them and transform them into Germans or Magyars. present time being organized in France. A recent decree
Consequently, it is not a matter of surprise that at the very of the President of the Republic of France regulating the outbreak of the present war the Czechoslovak nation declared formation of this army reads as follows : “The Czechoslovaks, its opposition to the aims of the Central Powers and publicly organizing an autonomous army and recognizing in all military proclaimed its adherence to the cause of the Allies.
respects the superior authority of the French High Command, Very soon after the outbreak of the war the Allied public are waging
war under their own standards against the Central was informed that numerous Czechoslovak regiments in the Powers." They are waging war under their own standard ! Austro-Hungarian army had voluntarily surrendered in Russia, What this means to them only one who has had a taste of Serbia, and later in Rumania and Italy. These wholesale sur Hapsburg oppression can understand. renders were part of a preconceived plan on the part of the Their army may not be large, but the spirit which prevails is Czechoslovaks to paralyze Austro-Hungarian military efforts as a sufficient proof of the indomitable courage of this oppressed far as possible.
nation, which hopes to emerge from this war as a free and Simultaneously, acting on direct authority from the people united people. at home, Professor T. G. Masaryk and Dr. Edward Benes, It is extremely inspiring to see a few of these volunteers both former members of the Austrian Reichsrath, and Dr. M. who are flocking to the Czechoslovak standard from all over R. Stefanik, a noted scientist who is extremely well known in the world. Some of them are from Canada, some come from France, organized the Czechoslovak National Council at Paris Russia, while many of them are periodically arriving from for the purpose of advancing the movement for Czechoslovak America. It has been my good fortune to speak with many of independence. This Council is now the recognized head of the these men. Just the other day a man came all the way from Czechoslovak movement.
Texas in order to depart for France. When informed that, The task which was facing the Czechoslovak National Coun- owing to certain physical disabilities, he could not be accepted, cil at its organization was enormous. It was necessary to create the man burst into tears, saying, “I must go. I care not a compact organization among the Czechoslovaks all over the whether I accomplish much. I only want to go to die in the world in order to make their combined action effective. After trenches, so that when my nation is free and my children grow months of labor this was finally accomplished.
up to appreciate the value of freedom they too can say that their to
The main task of the Council consisted in assisting the Allies father was one of those who laid down his life in order that key to the fullest extent of their ability. At first the Czechoslovaks their nation may not be engulfed in the Pan-German sea that
living in Russia, England, France, and Canada were urged to has almost completely surrounded it already." In one of their join the Allied ranks. Several thousand were thus enrolled, and recent maneuvers grandfather and grandson marched together have distinguished themselves at Artois, Champagne, Dobrudja, to meet the hated Teuton foe. and in the Balkans. Later those Czechoslovaks who volun The advent of this autonomous Czechoslovak national army tarily surrendered were organized, and then, when the necessary should be bailed as the accession of a new ally to the cause of permission was secured, invited to volunteer their services and humanity and civilization. All that these volunteers ask is the join the Czechoslovak army which was to be formed in Russia. privilege of fighting side by side with the Allies in order to coCaptain Firlinger, who
has just reached New York from Rus operate in the gigantic task of liberating the whole of democracy Bia, reports that there are over sixty thousand Czechoslovaks from the Teutonic menace
BOUT a year ago the casual visitor from the States, manual-training school, and the high school. The American if he glanced at the local dailies of Porto Rico, marveled flag floats over every school-house, large and small. The system
greatly at the constant appearance of “Bill Jones runs from the rural schools, the graded schools in the towns, in the headlines, and he wondered who that much-discussed the continuation schools in the larger towns, and the high person might be. Curiously inquiring, he would be informed schools in the cities and certain other municipalities, up to the that the name was the Spanish version of the Jones Bill, normal school and the university. The system is highly cen. which, enacted by Congress, became law on March 2, 1917, tralized. The Commissioner of Education, like the Governor
, making the island an organized Territory of the United States is a Presidential appointee, and is correspondingly removed and conferring upon the Porto Ricans-who for nineteen years from influences that make for inefficiency and graft. Grafting, had had the anomalous status of American subjects but not when attempted by certain local school boards, has been effec citizens—the long-desired boon of citizenship. The event was tively thwarted by the central authority, which controls the celebrated with much enthusiasm, and included a great and fixing of salaries and approval of appointments, the curriculum, beautiful procession of public school children of San Juan, and matters of school-house design and construction. followed by the dedication of a conspicuous public square in The schools are gradually making the population bilingual; the Condado district as the Plaza Segundo de Marzo (Plaza in a generation the process should approach completion. But
, Second of March).
although it is the official language, English can never replace This beautiful tropical island—the second of Spain's Amer- Spanish in domestic and colloquial usage, any more than it ican colonies, and one of the oldest New World seats of can replace French as the idiom of Quebec. French still re Western civilization-has a population numbering about mains the common speech of a large part of Louisiana ; German 1,300,000 persons (much larger than that of many a State as a native idiom still lingers in Pennsylvania. But Mr. Miller, of the Union), and occupies an area equal to only seven-tenths the excellent School Commissioner, tells me that in the less than of that of the State of Connecticut.
twenty years of American rule in Porto Rico a greater advance One extraordinary outcome of this change to a Territorial has been made in the use and knowledge of English than in the status has been the adoption of the prohibition of alcoholic State of New Mexico, which for nearly three-quarters of a cenintoxicants inside of five months, making the Porto Ricans the tury has been part of the United States. first Latin population in the world to take such a step. The Åll teachers in Porto Rico must know English. It is taught Jones Act provides that upon petition of twenty per cent of the in all grades ; in the upper grades it is the medium for all invoters the option as to prohibition may be decided at any struction. As to Spanish, thanks to the public schools, it is now general election held within five years ; otherwise prohibition spoken and written better than when the island was a posseswould take effect automatically a year from the passage of the sion of Spain. bill. At first it was doubted if that many signatures could be Manual training and domestic science are public school feaobtained. But the interests opposed to prohibition succeeded in tures all over the island. Admirable progress has been made in getting them. At the first general election, held last July, the both respects. Instruction in domestic science has borne fruit vote in favor of prohibition was about two to one.
in greatly improved cooking methods and in household economy, This outcome was the more extraordinary since alcohol is including hygiene. It teaches the utilization of native prod. comparatively little abused in Porto Rico. Light wines are in ucts--for instance, green mangoes as a substitute for apples in daily use by most of the well-to-do Porto Rican families, but cooking. It is said that our American pie has become a house
De drunkenness is regarded as a deep disgrace. When a man is seen hold institution in something like ten thousand families. drunk in public, he is almost certain not to be a Porto Rican. Domestic science in the schools is a growing factor in the A young American of irreproachable character, recently arrived food conservation propaganda now in active progress. The na
inde in the island, was strolling about the crowded streets of San ture of the work is essentially different in Porto Rico. It ante Juan on Christmas Eve. Being slightly lame, he walked some dates by some months the campaign in the States. When war what unsteadily. A Porto Rican gentleman, mistaking the was first threatened, there was uneasiness as to the food supply cause of his gait, said in a low voice as he passed, and in excel of an island so largely dependent upon outside sources. So the lent English: “You ought to be ashamed of yourself !” great aim is to make the island self-sustaining. The advice of
The prohibition propaganda was entirely native, American Þr. May, Director of the Federal Agricultural Experiment residents taking no part. Immediately upon the passage of the Station, that beans and other staples be extensively planted, Jones Bill an enthusiastic campaign for prohibition was bore good fruit. Beans had been mostly imported, but were so started; practically every prominent physician came out for it, universally planted in the past year as to yield a surplus after and large meetings were held all over the island, often in the meeting all local needs. There has also been a large crop
of public plazas. Like all Latins, the Porto Ricans are intensely
corn. At the present rate of increase, it is believed that in variemotional, and are deeply moved by sentimental appeals. The ous essentials Porto Rico may, by another year, have a surplus
lui ruling sentiment appeared to be that alcoholic drink was essen for export. Already there is an abundance; the prices of many tially an evil; hence, even though not greatly abused locally, it staples are lower than in the States. should nevertheless be done away with.
The Food Conservation Commission locally constituted has While we Americans have made mistakes in the course of greater powers than the Federal department. It can fix retail administration of Porto Rican affairs, altogether our record is prices, and has made the observation of wheatless days and something to be proud of . Our greatest boons have been the meatless days mandatory,
under penalty. I understand that the public school system, sanitation, and good roads, together with public in general observes these requirements scrupulously; in the assurance of what nearly every self-governing Latin-Ameri the average family no one would touch so much as even a cracker can country lacks-universal tranquillity and good order. When on a wheatless day. The local Commission is to be credited with we took over the island, there were a few inferior private one great business stroke. Rice is in enormous demand here ; schools only; public schools were unknown. Miteracy was every native family must have its daily rice-and-beans. But everywhere the rule. Now the public school system is universal
, little rice is grown on the island. So the Commission purchased on a and is correspondingly valued. Little rural schools dot the way a large cargo of it in Saigon, Cochin China. But when the ship. side throughout the island. In the towns the graded schools
coming by way of the Suez Canal, reached Italy, the Italian Gov: are invariably the finest buildings, more conspicuous than the ernment was so anxious to acquire the cargo, churches, handsome fireproof edifices, usually of reinforced for it, that it was sold at a profit of half a million dollars
, concrete, architecturally tasteful, and in equipment well up to reducing by one-half the necessity for the bond issue of a million date. In Ponce a handsome group of school-houses stands in that had been authorized for the work of the Commission. spacious grounds: the McKinley graded school, the Roosevelt
San Juan, Porto Rico.
and offered so much