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special session of the State Legislature to meet on February 19 law, she also keeps up a persistent flirtation with the Spanish to ask it to give him the power to make a temporary appoint Court, Church, and Army. According to the “ Kreuz-Zeitung," ment. On the convening of the Legislature Governor Philipp the organ of the military party in Berlin, the recent revolution attempted to obtain the passage of an enabling act so that he in Portugal was started by England with the double hope of might fill the vacancy. But the Legislature defeated the bill. ruling that country and of making trouble on Spain's borders This apparently left matters just where they were before. in order to drive Spain into joining England and the Entente The Governor had opposed a special election on the alleged Allies. “New hopes have been created lately," says
the “Kreuz ground that it might give an opportunity for an undesirable Zeitung." " for the Spanish monarch. Thanks to the wise Gercandidate to succeed. With the loyalist vote divided between man diplomacy, the hopes that the Spaniards are beginning to Republicans and Democrats, a pacifist candidate might be suc recognize are not impossible of realization through German sup cessful. The Hon. Irvine L. Lenroot, the well-known member of port." These “new hopes,” it turns out, are Portugal
, Gibraltar, Congress from Wisconsin, told a representative of The Outlook and the French possessions in North Africa. in Washington recently that, if a special election were to be held, Be this as it may, we believe that Alphonso XIII, the business some candidate, he believed, could be agreed upon with sufficient interests, and the people generally are anti-German. The comnon-partisan indorsement to win. While Governor Philipp inti bination of these three elements may ultimately prove to be more mated at the last moment that he wished to appoint Representa- than an offset to the other three-the Court, the Church, and tive Lenroot to the Senatorship, the refusal of the Legislature the Army. to permit him to do so is really a victory for Mr. Lenroot, who has all along asked his friends to stand for a special election. At that election, for which the Governor has now issued a call for
THREE PALACES April 2, Mr. Lenroot has not yet decided whether he will himself According to the London“ Daily News,” King George has be a candidate; if he does, he will represent a hundred per cent offered three palaces for national use. They are his London Americanism. Joseph E. Davies, Democrat, and member of residence, which is Buckingham Palace, and also Kensington the Federal Trade Commission, whose Americanism is also Palace, London, for public offices; and, for wounded soldiers, doubtless at par value, has announced his candidacy; he prob- his Highland residence, Balmoral Castle. ably has the Administration's support. A third candidate is Because of location, size, and equipment, Buckingham Palace Victor Berger, Socialist and ex-member of Congress, who repre is well adapted for public use. As all visitors to London will sents an ultra-pacifist element that is in effect pro-German. remember, it rises imposingly at the west end of St. James's
In this exigency the safe plan would be for the Legislature Park, not so very far from the Houses of Parliament and close to pass a law providing for a non-partisan primary, with to various railway and underground stations. The present palace no party candidates permitted, but open to every one who takes its name from Buckingham House, erected by the Duke might desire to go upon the primary ballot. The names of the of Buckingham over two centuries ago, and later bought by two candidates receiving the highest number of votes at this non George III. partisan primary would be placed upon the election ballot, and In comparison with the present modernized facade of Buckno other candidates permitted thereon. This might insure a ingham, Kensington Palace in Kensington Gardens to the west clear-cut issue between a loyalist candidate and a pacifist candi of Hyde Park is indeed an unassuming brick structure. It date. It is even possible that the pacifist candidate might be was partly built by Sir Christopher Wren for William and eliminated at the primary, leaving in the contest two loyalist Mary, and in historic note outranks the other palace. William candidates. In either event, Wisconsin would have an opportu and Mary died at Kensington, so did Queen Anne and her nity to declare her loyalty to the Government in the prosecution husband Prince George of Denmark. So did George II. Queen of the war.
Victoria and the present Queen were both born in Kensington Certainly some measure should and can be adopted to prevent Palace. a disloyal minority from getting into power by taking political The name “ Balmoral” is Gaelic for “majestic dwelling." advantage of partisan divisions among the loyal majority. Balmoral Castle, built of granite in Scottish baronial style, with
an eastern tower a hundred feet high, is near Perth in Scotland,
and was acquired in 1848 by Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's SPANISH SUPPLIES
consort. He bequeathed it to his wife. As the location is nine For many months General Pershing has found it hard to hundred feet above the sea, as the estate comprises some get lumber, mules, blankets, and other materials from Spain. forty thousand acres
, and as the scenery is superb, Balmoral The reason given for failure to fill his orders was that the should prove an inspiring place for the wounded in which to transportation system had broken down and that it was impos- get well. sible to handle goods destined for export. The Spanish showed more willingness to send supplies, how
IN THE DAYS OF THE MEDICI ever, when it became known that Spanish steamers were being held up in American ports for lack of fuel. Through the con Scores of letters written by Lorenzo the Magnificent were trol of bunker coal by the United States and her allies we were recently advertised to be sold at the famous Christie's London in a position to stop the shipment of goods to Spain. But auction room. With them were hundreds of other autographed Spain needs our cotton, oils, and other commodities. She should letters and historic documents relating to the days of the Medici, now get them in return for the things General Pershing orders. of whom this Lorenzo was the greatest. But the Italian GovernHis ability to buy supplies in Spain would not only save him— ment intervened by injunction. Italy forbids works of art and and us-ship tonnage, but would enable him to build up his objects of historical importance to be removed from the country reserve stores far more rapidly than otherwise would be the case. without permission. It seems that ancient documents are
In truth, Spain's transportation system, as regards both land included under the law. and sea, has partly broken down-on land because of labor
The Medici papers have long been a mine of inestimable strikes and at sea because of German submarine warfare. Spain 'value to the historians and romancists. Thousands of Americans has lost between forty and fifty ships in this way. Her patience have visited the marvelous Certosa near Pavia, built and has been sorely strained. She has sent repeated notes to Ger adorned by the Visconti and Sforza as a propitiation for their many demanding that merchanimen be not sunk without warn many bloody deeds. The letters are full of the story of these ing, that Spain's right to regulate her coastwise traffic without
men and their times. A larger number still have read the reserve be recognized ; in especial, that Spanish territorial
delightful lives of Beatrice and Isabella d'Este by Julia Cartwaters be respected. Germany has flagrantly violated those
wright and have enjoyed the descriptions of the brilliant court rights. She has been giving Spain some of the cause for going life, the endless intrigue and plotting, and the personal feuds. to war that she gave us. Perhaps Spain will follow our exam These letters are the mine from which modern knowledge of ple. We hope so.
fifteenth-century Italian diplomatic secrets, mediæval customs While Germany keeps, on expressing surprise that her sea and fashions, and social and ethical standards have been drawn. deeds should be construed by Spain as violating international Public and private morals were, in the modern view, topsyturvy
in some points. Thus in one of them Cosimo, Duke of Florence, resentment will give way to a more reasonable consideration of asks, in behalf of a friend, the privilege of seeing his son in the Russian situation. In forming a reasonable estimate of the prison. The son, he writes, “ was exiled not for political reasons, Russian collapse Americans will do well to bear three things in but only for murder."
mind. Equally naïve is Lorenzo's statement about Beatrice d'Este's First, the Russian people should be looked on, not with scorn, wedding, that Lodovico il Moro, the bridegroom, realized that he but with pity and sympathy. Modern Russia dates from Peter might expect a request from his bride that he spare the life of the Great, and for the two hundred years since his time Russia one Luigi da Tezago; so, to save himself from any controversy, has been in bondage to a despotic and cruel autocracy unparal* he had him hanged a week ago in the prison at Pavia." leled in the history of modern Europe. Is it surprisilig that
when this autocracy was suddenly destroyed the Russian people
in their new-found but long struggled for liberty should have FRANCE IS NOT “BLED WHITE"
given themselves up rashly to visions and dreams and imprac The following figures, given by Mr. Stéphane Lauzanne, tical schemes of universal brotherhood, and should have reacted editor-in-chief of the Paris - Matin," director of the Official against any and all kinds of authority? Pity for them should Bureau of French Information, show better than any words lead us to give them all the sympathetic and wise help that we that France is far from being exhausted or bled white." can in getting back to a condition of liberty under law.
In 1914, at the battle of the Marne, France had in the field Second, we should bear in mind that the collapse of Russia an army of 1,500,000 men ; to-day, after more than three
is not an unmixed blessing for the military autocracy of Gerof war, France has in the field an army of 2,700,000 men. In many. Doubtless the immediate result will be to provide the September, 1914, the French war plants were manufacturing German military power with food, labor, and other resources. 12,000 shells per day; to-day France is manufacturing 300,000 But Russia can no longer be used as a bogie by the Prussian shells per day. According to an agreement signed by the French Pan-Germans to terrify the German people into a support of High Commissioner in Washington with the
War Department, their plans for creating a Mittel Europa under German domi it is the French war industries which manufacture all the light nation. It has become a truism of historical psychology that the artillery for the American Army.
masses of people in any country are not imperialistic. Their In these war plants, which are the pride of the French nation own domestic affairs are a hundred times more important to and which no exhausted country could maintain, nearly half a them than plans of conquest. The people follow their mili. million women are actually working, day and night. There also tary leaders only when they are persuaded that they must do so progress has been achieved: in 1914 only 25,000 women were in defense of their homes and personal interests. The working working in these factories ; on March 1, 1917, the number had class of Germany in the early days of the war followed the increased to 375,582, and to-day it reaches nearly half a Kaiser and von Hindenburg because they were told that Russia million.
was proposing to swallow them on the north and east and that Since the beginning of the war the French Parliament has England and France wanted to throttle them on the south and voted credits for the war amounting to more than $20,000,000,000. west. The military caste, represented by the Kaiser and von Of these $20,000,000,000 only $2,000,000,000 have been bor- Hindenburg, played upon their fear in this way in order to get rowed from foreign countries. The whole difference was drawn their support for the Pan-German scheme of conquest, but the on the savings of the French themselves; the whole balance was German people are no longer terrified by Russia. They see that subscribed by loans or paid by taxes. Besides that, France has Russia has ceased to be a menace, and thus it may be said that been able to loan $1,000,000,000 to her allies, and to give them the disintegration of Russia takes away from the military party guns and 5,000 airplanes.
in Germany a very important prop. It may be questioned, there And to-day on the western front the French army is still fore, whether Prussian militarism has not been far more weakholding two-thirds of the whole line. At the beginning of the ened than it has been strengthened by the removal of Russia present year 82 German divisions were facing the French army. from the fighting forces of the war. In any event, the destrucAs Mr. Lauzanne points out, to need 82 German divisions in tion of the Romanoff autocracy will in the long run be a great order to hold an exhausted army is, indeed, out of proportion. gain to the progress of democratic freedom and reasonable
international relations throughout the world.
Third, on the whole the most important lesson for us in this WHAT HAS BECOME OF RUSSIA? country from the Russian collapse is that it discloses, in a way
that the simplest mind can understand, the folly of attempting USSIA no longer exists. The nine million square miles to negotiate a peace with the Prussian military autocracy. If of territory, three times as great in extent as the United appeals to reason, fair words, and noble aspirations about human
States, which is called in geographies Russia is still prac brotherhood could make any impression on German autocracy, tically intact. The hundred and eighty millions of people whom or even on the German people-Trotsky and Lenine would we have been in the habit of somewhat loosely calling Russians have succeeded. It is clear that the Kaiser and the Government still live in this vast area. But an empire or a nation is made, group of Germany still believe that “ Might makes Right," and not by its territory nor by the size of its population, but by its that international treaties are “scraps of paper.” If France or unity of national feeling and action. In this sense of the word England or the United States were to-day to endeavor to nego there is no longer any Russian nation. The population is broken tiate with the Kaiser as Trotsky and Lenine did, they would up into geographical communities and political groups that sus suffer, and would deserve to suffer, as they have suffered. pect one another and struggle against each other. How far the Russian collapse is due to German intrigue, propaganda, and military power, and how far it is due to the long evolutionary
WHAT CRITICISM ACCOMPLISHES process of despotism and injustice under the Romanoffs, is an interesting question, but one so complicated and with so many The two articles about the National Administration which political and historical ramifications that it cannot be intelli our readers will find in this issue will help them, we think, to gently treated in a brief newspaper article. The fact that is of understand what is happening in Washington, for the very great moment to the world at the present time is the unques reason that each article is written from a distinct point of view. tionable and manifest fact that there is no Russian Government, In locating a position engineers make observations from two or no Russian nation, and therefore that the Russian people can more points. In examining a piece of sculpture it is always not be a factor in the war nor even in international politics for desirable to see it from more than one side. So we believe that a long time to come.
these two articles together give perhaps a juster view of our The natural impulse of the Allies is to look upon Russia with Government than either would give alone. distrust and bitterness. • Russia has deserted them in their hour Both Mr. Davenport, whose Special Correspondence is enof trial, and their feeling of resentment is very strong. It would titled “ Some Washington Impressions,” and Dr. Odell, whose be surprising if we Americans did not share in this feeling. On article is entitled “ Interpreting the People to the President, sober second thought, however, we believe that the feeling of are experienced observers. Both of them have had training which
enables them to distinguish, among the things that they observe, to-day who see its effect not only in easier work, but in results the important from the unimportant. Neither of them is an that have given greater fighting strength to our fighting forces. advocate of a party or any public man. Neither of them has any A people who withhold criticism from their Government interest in any merely partisan criticism. And yet the reader withhold that to which their Government has a right. will find that the Administration looks rather different as pictured by the one from the way it does as pictured by the other. There is a somewhat corresponding difference in the way in
JUSTICE TO WAR WORKERS which groups of people in this country at large view our Government at Washington. One group is inclined to say, “ The That men at work on the building of ships should have left their Administration has done some things very well indeed, but ? work when, above all things else, ships are needed to overcome the The other group is inclined to say, “ The Administration has enemy, has horrified the country. It is not surprising, therefore, of course made some blunders, but— Thus there is practi that the President should have addressed a Message to the strikcally unanimous agreement on two things: one, that our Gov ers telling them that “no one can strike a deadlier blow at the ernment has to its credit some great achievements; the other, safety of the Nation and of its forces on the other side than by that our Government is responsible for some serious mistakes. interfering with or obstructing the ship building programme;"
It is human nature to crave appreciation for work well done. and asking them, “ Will you co-operate or will you obs 'uct ?” And such appreciation has been accorded to the Administration, The words of the President sobered these strikers, as they and has been accorded ungrudgingly.
sobered the country. But now that the men have gone back to It is also human nature to resent criticism ; but in spite of work, the country should not forget that there is another side that fact there is little resentment of constructive criticism in to this question. the minds of the men at Washington who are doing the hardest What that other side is has been tersely stated. executive work in the prosecution of the war.
“I know of conditions in Newport News,” said Mr. Homer Indeed, those who are doing the best work are the very men Ferguson, President of the Newport News Ship Building Comwho have recognized the value that public criticism has been to pany, in his testimony before the Committee on Commerce of them and to their associates. There is no doubt that since last the United States Senate, “where eighteen people lived in one December, when the investigation of the Senate Committee on room, and in another room a man, his wife, and three children, Military Affairs brought to public notice serious defects in the and two of the children had diphtheria. Imagine such a thing ! Government machine and thus aroused public criticism, there We talk about uplift and training-camp activities and demochas been a very great improvement.
racy, and then create a condition like that. I am not much This does not mean that men in authority and responsible of a settlement worker and that sort of thing, but when the office were slothful or indifferent. On the contrary, there has Government goes ahead and creates a condition where men canbeen no harder or more conscientious work done in this country not live decently-an unnecessary condition-I think it is right than has been done by some of the very men whose branches of bad.” the Government have been under fire.
A great army of laborers must live where the GovernThe fact is, men in public office in time of war need the tonic ment's enormous operations are being pushed through. Thirty of criticism--and for a very simple reason.
thousand men are employed in the shipyards in and near New Those who talk with men in khaki, and especially with men York, and thirty thousand more are coming. Forty thousand who have been in training camps or at the front, know that such workmen have Hocked to Bridgeport, Connecticut. Twenty-five men talk very little about the war, or about questions of policy thousand are going to the great yards now in development on the or strategy, or about the larger movements of troops, or the big Newark meadows. There are no adequate accommodations near questions of administration. The reason is that the time of by. Most of the men come long distances ; they start early and those men is occupied from early morning till well on into the return late. They do not stay long at their jobs. Other men, night with the intense activities of their own particular duty. hearing of the housing conditions, decline to come. The soldier in the trench has little time to think about the in The result is, as Mr. Grosvenor Atterbury, the well-known tentions of the Kaiser, for he has to have his mind on the housing expert, has pointed out in writing to The Outlook, that intentions of Fritz. The medical officer is overwhelmed with to-day labor is traveling from one plant to another, leaving in his medical duties, and then has to devote time and energy to its wake only increasing discontent and unsettlement. And in making elaborate reports. The field officer is concerned with order to tempt men to work under these conditions the Governthe care of his men and the receipt and transmission of ment must raise the current wage rate, said Mr. Atterbury, and orders. Now what is true of men in camp and at the front is as long as it permits these hardships in living conditions to peralso true of men immersed in administrative duties. So long as sist, just so long will it practically bid against itself in the labor they are left unmolested they have nothing to impel them to see market. And, it may be added, just so long will a great and anything but the next thing. If, for instance, they are charged unnecessary overhead charge be added to the expense of making with the duty of providing certain supplies, they have to keep our ships and our munitions which our forces need in abunthemselves alert to see that the requisitions for those supplies dance. come to them as other requisitions should come and are duly This was a condition that was foreseen. The need of houses recorded and attended to as they have always been recorded was known last spring by several bodies that brought the need and attended to. How can such men take up the question to the attention of the Government. Though recommendations whether there is any need for requisitions at all? They cannot were made according to a plan instituted in the War Departand they do not unless some outside
agency, with sufficient press ment, no request was made directly to Congress to provide the ure behind it, impresses upon them the fact that there is some necessary housing. We do not know the reasons for the Govthing more important than the duty of the present routine, and ernment's delay. It was only the more imaginative who were that is the reform of the routine itself.
able to visualize the coming of war to America before it came; This is what has happened at Washington. The old machinery and perhaps the Government did not soon enough visualize the that answered well enough for renewing year by year the sup needs of modern war or the methods to meet those needs. It plies for a stationary army was put to the job of creating a was somewhat so in England. Though the Government there modern army with modern weapons to fight a war three thou saw early that the great increase in the number of workmen sand miles away. The men who constituted that machinery have building ships and making munitions would require a great worked like slaves in order to keep up. They had no thought increase in the number of houses, it did not see as clearly that or mind of changing the machinery itself. Most fortunately for this increase should be in good houses. It is not enough that the country, there were men who did have mind for just there should be simply shelter, sanitation, and provision for that thing. And through the investigation in the Senate the family life. Men and women need something more than that. pressure was brought to bear for a change in the machinery Attractiveness in environment helps the worker as it helps the itself; and already, in two months' time, the effect in some soldier to do his bit more effectively. branches of the War Department is remarkable. And among As Mr. Winthrop Hamlin says in his recent study based on those who are most grateful for that criticism are the men the housing collection of the Harvard Social Museum, “Hap
piness, or the chance for happiness, is still wrongly thought of alive in us the trust that leaves the rest to God that we may do
On page 364 in this issue Mr. Richard S. Childs, in an town and village in the country. The Church should answer
“ The New Garden Cities of England," tells how them, England has undertaken to solve this problem which we have A French soldier, writing from the front, says in a recent been facing for months in this country. He shows how England publication : 1 has not only provided houses for her war workers, but houses
Religion flourishes whenever men pause and begin to think. of beauty in veritable cities of gardens.
Because this war is being carried on by people who are not pro-
such a novel position that even those most limited mentally are
They are forced to think of their destiny, and, willingly or not,
they turn to the God whom they learned to know and pray to ai
their mothers' knees. Dr. Karl Reiland, the rector of St. George's Church in New
If this war does not impel us to think of our destiny and turn York City, in a recent sermon made an excellent suggestion,
to the God whom we learned to know and pray to at our which we commend to our readers :
mothers' knees, it will be the fault of the churches. The Outlook This dynamic of Prussian violation, this world-changing, mili
has defended them from the charge that they have done nothtary murder, this most Godless business of history, has not caused
ing; but are they doing all they can ? No. The Church at this one great ecclesiastical convention, one convocation, one special synod, one Christian communal protest, or clear ringing call
time ought to be an army. It is a series of detachments acting among the differing servants of an offended deity, to voice the independently and separately, with little coherence in counse) vigorous denunciation, the outraged conscience of altruistic hu and little co-operation in action. Dr. Reiland has pointed out manity, the pathetic miseries, which the deep damnation of this one way in which they can do more. His message we repeat to degenerate and blasphemous fratricide unqualifiedly demands. all the churches we can reach:
Why not a great wave of Christian unification in every city and “ We should be workers together with God.”
Actions speak louder than words. Dr. Reiland's counsel is creed, and with nothing but the Sermon on the Mount, forgetting
both illustrated and emphasized by the remarkable dedication for the time all theories of ministerial validity and official quali
of church headquarters at Camp Upton on February 24-a fication, remembering only the Divine Servant girding himself with a towel for a servant's task, and his caution that man
dedication in which Protestants, Jews, and Catholics unitedshould seek the true God through a loving brotherhood of men
of a building to be employed by them all in common under the why not, I say, come together for the greatest communion auspices of a voluntary committee representing six different service ever held on earth, and find the unification of the fold in Protestant communions who provided the cost for the erection a simple, humble, spiritual imitation of the Shepherd? We need of this building: no commission to go anywhere else than out into its own door But that dedication ought not to be an extraordinary event. yard to begin victoriously at home what misguidedly they are It ought to be an example to be followed in spirit in every comseeking vainly abroad. In our own hearts--the realest part of
munity and by all Christian churches, an example of cordial us—we stand close together, for we know best of all that we
cooperation in promoting the religion of faith, hope, and love fundamentally belong to the greatest denomination in the world,
of which no sect has any monopoly. which is the communion of the children of one only God.
Why not, in the spirit of this suggestion, hold weekly, or at least monthly, meetings in each village, town, and city-meetings in which all religious organizations should unite in services
II-A TEACHER OF LIFE
A writer of the first century, a disciple of Jesus, and probport a service the object of which is to support them. Why notably a contemporary, has defined in the following words the substitute for this generally lame and inefficient service a object of the teaching of Jesus : union of all churches, including Jewish synagogues where they For the grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to all exist, in a service aimed to promote both piety and patriotism ? men, instructing us, to the intent that, denying ungodliness and Why inspire loyalty to the country only in halls, and loyalty to worldly lusts, we should live soberly and righteously and godly in God only in churches ?
this present world ; looking for the blessed hope and appearing There are many profoundly religious questions which laymen of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. are asking and to which they have a right to look to the churches
This statement, though very brief, is very comprehensive, for an answer.
for it covers the four possible relations of man to life. His Is war ever right?
To the material world through the body.
To the future,
How did the great Teacher teach his disciples they should Can we maintain a rational faith in the goodness and power
live in these four relations? How should they act toward their of God in view of the awful calamities of the present hour? If
bodies and the material world ; toward their fellow-men in so, what is that faith and how shall we maintain it?
society; toward God; toward the future? What did Jesus How are we to regard death, and in what spirit are we to
mean by the four words: soberly, righteously, godly, hopemeet it when it comes to us and to our dear ones?
fully? What should these words mean to Jesus disciples ? How shall we maintain our interest and activity in promoting What should they mean? Then Jesus did teach his disciples the cause at stake in this war and avoid the worries and anxi
what to think. eties which depress and discourage us ?
Yes. Thinking is an important part of living. But with Jesus “ I do the little I can do, thinking correctly was incidental, living correctly was essential
. And leave the rest to God.”
Too often in the teaching of the Church thinking correctly has How shall we discriminate between the little we can do and
1 Comrades in Courage. By Lieutenant Antoine Redier. Translated by Mrs. the rest that we are to leave to God, and how shall we keep
Philip Duncan Wilson. Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y. $1.40.