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VALENTINE'S

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This is the famous Valspar test. It against it and stick all over it, but it proves that Valspar is absolutely water can't damage or mar the surface. proof.

Valspar is a varnish that really protects An ordinary varnish would blister and and preserves woodwork. turn white in a few minutes if boiling There is nothing like Valspar for genwater were poured on it

eral household use. It like this, but it doesn't

VALENTINE'S is particularly good for affect Valspar one bit.

use in kitchen, pantry, Haven't you

laundry, and bathticed how spotted and

room, where water is shabby most front

freely splashed about doors Jook? That's because the varnish and the wear is severe. No ordinary isn't water-proof. It can't stand up varnish will stand this test. against the elements.

Special Offer – If you wish to test Valspar send But with a Valsparred front door the 20c in stamps and we will send you enough rain can beat on it, snow can bank up Valspar to finish a small table or chair.

VALSPAR

no

The Varnish That Won't Turn White

[ocr errors]

An American product
vastly superior to the
finest imported enam-
els. It starts white and
stays white.
Val-Enamel is very
economical. A small
quantity covers a great
deal of surface, en-
abling the painter to
furnish a superior job
at a reasonable cost.
It is washable. For
dining-room, living.
room or bedroom, for
kitchen, pantry or
bathroom, for interior
or exterior work, use
Val-Enamel. Ask the
Valspar dealer for it.

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The Outlook

MARCH 13, 1918
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries

THE REGULATION OF WAGES

and they cannot be taken without compensation for their use. Every now and then a new fact comes up which shows to

Besides, there are a good many questions raised by Govern

ment operation that have to be settled by law. For example. what a startling degree we have departed in this country from

how shall freight rates now be determined? So it was inevi. the old industrial philosophy of the Manchester school of political economists. The theory of those economists was that all

table that a bill should be introduced and debated in Congress trade activities, including the relations of wage-workers to em

to provide the necessary legislation. ployers, should be governed by what they called the law of

Such a bill has passed both houses of Congress. It was presupply and demand. They contended that the sole function of pared in its original form in accord with the policy of the Adgovernment was to protect life and property, but that it was

ministration that is now operating the railways. Such amendnot to meddle in business or commerce, that the rule of indus

ments as have been made to the bill in Congress have not

materially changed its main purpose. try was laissez faire. or let things alone. Occasionally to-day some loyal supporter of the Manchester philosophy struggles to

In its passage through each house it has been accepted as a make himself heard, but for all practical purposes the doctrine

war measure. There are many men in both houses of Congress

who believe that Government operation of railways has come is obsolete, and the war has rapidly hastened its obsolescence. The United States Government is now regulating our coal, our

to stay; but these men, as well as those who believe or hope

that the railways will go back to private operation, agree that food, our income, is fixing the prices we may receive for our wheat, and in England the Government is even telling manu

the provisions of this bill should be regarded as temporary. Of

course those wbo hope for the return to private management facturers what they may make and what they may not make. The United States Government has already fixed eight hours

are emphatic on this point, but the believers in Government as the legal length of a day's work for all laborers employed by operation are equally

emphatic

, though on other grounds. We it or by contractors working for it. It has now, by an Act just and we cannot stop to debate and discuss and modify and

are in the midst of the war, say the Government operationists, introduced into Congress, taken up the question of fixing wages. Twelve States in the past six years have established Minimum

perfect a measure suitable to provide for permanent Govern

ment operation. We must recognize that emergency legislation Wage Commissions, and as a result of the reports of these Commissions seven States have fixed the minimum rate of

is necessarily imperfect, and that it is more important to get wages in certain employments.

legislation quickly than it is to get it in the best possible form. Å bill providing for the fixing of minimum wage rates for

Both those who approve and those who disapprove Govern

ment operation as a permanent policy can agree on a measure women in the various trades and occupations in the District of

that will provide for the Government operation necessary for Columbia, known as the Trammell-Keating Bill, was introduced in the Senate and the House on March 1. Senator Park length the provisions necessary for Government operation as a

the prosecution of the war. Afterwards we can discuss at great Trammell, formerly Governor of Florida, is a progressive Southerner whc is regarded as an exponent of the new industry

permanent policy. There are some men in Congress who are

determined to use every effort to bring about permanent Govera in the South. Representative Keating, of Colorado, has been a consistent advocate of measures in the interest of wage-earners,

ernment operation who would oppose this measure if they had especially of women and children. He was one

of the leading these regard, for example, the compensation for the use of the

to accept it as a precedent for permanent operation. Some of supporters in Congress of the Federal Child Labor Bill, the constitutionality of which law is now before the Supreme Court

railways as provided in this bill to be unscientifically deterof the United States. The Trammell-Keating Bill for minimum

mined, and, though acceptable enough for a limited period, not wage-fixing cannot affect many women, for there are not many

at all acceptable as a permanent policy. Others hold that the

transfer of the railways to the control of the President is tolerwomen wage-workers in the District of Columbia. But it is believed by those actively interested in improving factory con

able and perhaps necessary in war time, but that for permanent ditions for women and children that, if passed, the bill will have operation the railways should be transferred to a distinctively great moral influence upon the country at large.

determined administrative body. It will put the Federal Government on record as to the

When, therefore, in the Senate the proposal to remove the District of Columbia, over which it has complete control, it

time limit from the bill was overwheimingly defeated, and by a will establish certain Federal boards of inquiry, it will afford large majority it was decided that the provisions of this bil

should expire eighteen months after the close of the war, the a means of collecting and arranging statistics as to working and living conditions of women throughout the country. For this

vote was no indication that the prevailing opinion in Congress reason the National Consumers' League, which has done so

is against permanent Government operation. much for the improvement of the conditions of wage-working women, and which has been an influential factor in certain THE HOUSING BILLS great Constitutional decisions of the Supreme Court in labor The first of the two Housing Bills has passed Congress and questions, is watching the progress of the Trammell-Keating has been signed by the President. It makes a beginning of proBill with keen interest and an earnest desire for its passage. viding for housing the army of men who are flocking to yards

where the new boats for Government use are being built.

The other bill, if it becomes law, will make a beginning of THE RAILWAY CONTROL BILL

providing for housing the army of men who are flocking to Though the railways of the country have been for several munitions and other plants where Government contracts are in weeks operated by the Federal Government, and have therefore progress. ceased for the time being to be private enterprises, except that Each bill appropriates $50,000,000. The total sum is one-tenth they are privately owned, they cannot be run without money, of what Great Britain has already spent for a similar purpose.

And she is ready to spend a billion dollars more. The English amateur sort, and there was an unprecedented number of them are wiser in this respect than we are. What they have done last summer-about three million. If there should be three was described in an article in last week's Outlook.

million gardeners this summer, an extra hour of daylight for We are making but a deferred beginning at the problem; each one after the evening meal on the twenty-six working days but it is better than the past delay. Senator Fletcher's bill

, of each of the seven months would add 546,000,000 working now law, authorizes the Emergency Fleet Corporation, acting hours to the garden work of the country. Writing to The Outlook, under the Federal Shipping Board, to purchase land and Representative Borland, of Missouri, who is sponsor for the houses for the use of employees in the shipyards in which bill in the House, calls attention to the fact that the above there are now being constructed ships for the United States, mentioned stimulus to home gardens will help the transportation to build and lease houses, to acquire land or houses by con situation, for the nearer food is grown to the kitchen door the demnation, and to make loans to corporations to provide less demand there will be for cars to haul produce from distant houses.

points. He believes that the saving in coal thus effected will The Federal Shipping Board, which was established by law free many cars for use in other directions. late in 1916, operates and repairs ships already in existence. There has been some discussion as to why the daylight sav. It does not build ships itself, but has created the Emergency ing plan should not be made to cover the entire twelve months. Fleet Corporation to take over, with a capital of $50,000,000, The United States Chamber of Commerce and the American the mapping out of the ship-building programme, the com

Railway Association are among some of the important organizainandeering of ships already built or being built, the adjustment tions that want to see the plan adopted throughout the year. of the differences between capital and labor, and the building of But the main thing is the saving of daylight in summer. One new boats. Since, therefore, the Emergency Fleet Corporation summer has gone by already since the plan was introduced into builds ships, it is the natural agency to use in building the Congress because of debates and discussions. Is it not evident houses for the ship-builders.

that the thing to do now is to adopt the daylight saving plan for Most workmen do not want to live at such barracks as the the coming summer and reserve debates regarding its extension four at Hog Island, each with a capacity of 500 men; they are until the winter months ? If such a debate in favor of an annual really big frame hotels. What they can now anticipate will be extension of the plan should come up next winter, we should two thousand homes at that point. The workman wants to be vote strongly in the negative. It seems to us that the whole near his work, but, as a rule, he does not want to live in a tem merit of the plan consists in applying it only to the summer porary kind of lodging. Hence we trust and expect that the months. Its merit consists in the fact that it gets people to do Government will build in the best way—the ultimately eco things earlier in the day under an agreement that they shall nomical way. If it does, the slums of Philadelphia may be profess to deceive themselves into a belief that they are doing emptied in favor of the homes at Hog Island.

things just as they have always done them. This professed selfThe Director of Housing under the Federal Shipping Board deception can be solely accomplished by setting the clock for is to be Mr. J. Rogers Flannery, a capable and earnest man, ward in the spring and setting it back in the autumn. There fully aware of the importance of his work.

is, after all, so much of the children in us“ grown-ups ” that we have occasionally to sugar-coat our reforms by this kind of

make-believe self-deception. The element of self-deception AN HOUR OF LIGHT FOR AN HOUR OF NIGHT

will be entirely taken out if we set the clock forward permaGermany, Austria, Australia, Bermuda, Denmark, France, nently. Great Britain, Holland, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal

, and Some of our readers have asked us by what authority Con. Sweden have adopted the daylight saving plan, which consists gress can impose upon the individual citizen the necessity of in setting the clock forward one hour during certain of the setting his watch forward on a given date in March ? The reply spring, summer, and autumn months, and setting it back to is that Congress has no such authority and is not endeavoring standard time in the winter. The practical working of this plan legally to compel any private citizen to follow the daylight is very simple. If at midnight at the close of April 30 next saving plan. Under the Inter-State Commerce Law, however

, every

clock and watch in the United States were set forward Congress can regulate the railways, and the bill now in Conone hour, the man who rises at seven and breakfasts at gress provides that “all common carriers engaged in commerce 7:30 would still pursue his accustomed habits by the watch, between the several States, or between a State and any of the but by standard or solar time he would rise at six and break Territories of the United States, or between a State or the fast at 6:30. He would apparently be getting up, taking his Territory of Alaska and any of the insular possessions of the breakfast, going to the office or store, and eating his midday United States or any foreign country,” shall arrange their and evening meals at just the hour he always had been, but he movements and time-tables in accordance with the new standard would actually have an hour more of the clear and refreshing time established by moving the clock forward one hour. When daylight of the morning and a longer evening of sunlight after all the railways and steamship lines do this, every pri : se citizen his day's work was done.

will have to follow, for, as a matter of fact, every citizen of the The countries that have tried this plan are completely satis United States must set his watch in accordance with the rail. fied with it. It not only gives more time for daylight work and way time of his immediate neighborhood. pleasure, but it is of distinct economic value. It has led to the annual saving in fuel last year of $35,000,000 in Germany, $12,000,000 in England, and $10,000,000 in France. A British

THE AMERICAN ARMY IN FRANCE Parliamentary commission has reported, moreover, that this The reports from France of the courage and skill of the simple device for providing more daylight hours has resulted in American forces actually in the fighting line are good reading a manifest saving of light and health. Last April bills were for all American patriots. It is now no secret that sections of introduced into Congress providing for setting the clock forward · the line are held by Americans, stationed between French on the last Sunday of April and setting it back the last Sunday bodies of troops but acting independently. This state exists in in September. The Senate passed this legislation last June, but three, perhaps four, sectors of the general line. Our troops have the House has debated and discussed it until about a month aided in raids made by French contingents in which prisoners ago. A compromise has been reached between the Senate and were taken and losses inflicted on the enemy, they have sufHouse Committees, and the two bodies have now agreed, we be fered from vicious gas attacks directed solely at the American lieve, on legislation which, if passed, will make the period of day- line, and they have withstood by themselves attacks, one of light saving in this country to extend from the last of March to which was so stubbornly continued that the experts doubt the last of October, a period of seven months. It is believed whether it was a simple raid or had as its ultimate object the that if the daylight saving plan is adopted it will have a very capture and retention of a part of our line. In this particular beneficial effect on the production of food in this country during action, which took place to the north of Toul on March 1, the coming summer. It has been said that many farmers, no Lieutenant Eadie, Lieutenant Hoover, and thirteen men were matter what the clock may indicate, get up at dawn and work killed, while about ten men were wounded. The story of the until dusk. This cannot be said of gardeners, especially of the fight shows that the Americans used their automatic pistols

war.

with notable success, wounded many of their assailants, some she will now again pour forth her treasure to win the war than of whom died in No Man's Land, and took several prisoners. there is that the sun will rise. This was a violent and hard-fought engagement, although, of The exact details of the new loan are not finally fixed. To course, on a comparatively small scale, The German raid was a

some extent they depend upon Congressional legislation. It is failure. The French Premier, M. Clemenceau, in person deco planned, however, if possible, to open the campaign upon April 6 rated and praised several American officers and privates for -a most fitting date, for it is that of the entrance of the United courage shown in this fight.

States into the war against German greed and tyrarny. The anxiety and interest of Americans on this side quickens As has been pointed out repeatedly, the Liberty Loan bonds day by day as our soldiers' activity increases. It is natural, are sound and safe investments for the future, and will increase then, that fuller accounts are urgently desired. The Govern in value after we win the war, if not before. Their purchase, ment is allowing specific statements as to engagements, the however, emphatically represents patriotism and the will to names of officers and men killed ; but it is carrying on help the Government. Every dollar so invested which might an annoying censorship in matters which could not embar otherwise be used for folly or extravagance or speculation rass military effort. If this is regarded as a civilian view, it stands for a blow against world autocracy and for the triumph may be pointed out that the Chief of Staff of the United States of liberty and international law and order. Army, as reported in the papers, himself uses the phrase "muz We must both lend and give in this The first we do zling censorship.” Major-General Peyton C. March, the new through Liberty Loans and War Stamps ; for the second, there Chief of Staff, who recently arrived from France, explained is always recurring need. If the total given for the relief of what he meant by the phrase when he said, as reported, wounded soldiers or to clothe and feed the helpless war victims ** American officers in France could not understand why the abroad or to restore devastated homes and villages were to be censorship lid had been clamped on so tight.” He added that put into one şum, its aggregate would be amazing. The Young the people at home were entitled to know what happened, and Men's Christian Association, the Red Cross, the Knights of that one of the first things he intended to do after reporting at Columbus, and numerous other relief agencies must continue Washington was to advocate a change in the censorship, making to expend money like water to carry on their humane work. it less rigorous.

When one reads that the American Red Cross proposes at the beginning of May to institute its second campaign for a hundred

million dollars, one gasps at first at the knowledge that the THE NEW MACHINE GUN

hundred million dollars raised last summer has already nearly It is encouraging and hopeful to learn from Washington been expended and must be replaced ; but one also feels contireports that at the end of last month satisfactory and promising dent that the twenty-two million members of the Red Cross and results were obtained at a test before experts of the new Browning their friends and neighbors will make their gifts equal to the machine gun and machine rifle. The reports state that army offi need, and that this second intensive drive will be carried as cers were enthusiastic and that some declared that the Browning easily as was the first. And any one who will study for half an was superior to any existing weapon of its kind for the uses to hour the wonderfully graphic account of the work done up to which American soldiers will put it. The small number of parts November 1 last, as told in the pamphlet report then issued by and the ease of assembling the machine gun, together with its the American Red Cross, will have no doubt left as to the comparatively light weight, are the points upon which stress is extent, variety, and value of the efforts of the American Red laid. The machine rifle needs no water-cooling system, it can Cross. be carried almost as readily as an ordinary rife, and is said to be hardly distinguishable from the rifle at a distance. It will

MR. BRYAN REAPS fire twenty rounds without reloading and with only one pull of the trigger.

When William Jennings Bryan, former Secretary of State, There seems to have been a basic misconception of the criti rose to convey the greeting of great temperance organizations cism of the War Department as regards machine guns. For in the United States to a monster prohibition convention in instance, one writer on scientific topics, whose opinion is of real Toronto on the last day of February, he was met by hoots, catvalue, writes to The Outlook at length to prove that the calls, and shouted remarks of derision. Browning machine gun is as good as, or better than, the Lewis “What about the Lusitania ?” gun. He seems to think that the contrary was asserted by The “Put out the pro-German !" Outlook and in Dr. Odell's article on the subject. No such “He held back the United States." assertion has been made. The criticism on General Crozier and We don't want him. the War Department was not on a point of gun-making, but “ Sauerkraut !” one of policy. In a word, it was that the Department should There were answering shouts of “ Put them out" and not have stood still while the Browning gọn, untested in “ Where's your fair play?" but the disturbers kept up the noise. war, was being manufactured and tested. There was at least a They sang “Over There," " Rule, Britannia,” and “The Maple possibility that the test would fail. It was perfectly practical Leaf Forever.” The chairman tried to restore order, but was and easy

in the meantime to purchase other forms of machine met with shouts : gun which had been tested and used in immense numbers in “ Put Bryan off the platform and we'll be quiet." actual warfare. The Navy did this without a moment's delay; Put him out and we'll go out too.” the Army delayed until forced into inadequate purchases by Then a wounded veteran, Major Nasmith, appealed to the public opinion and the example of the Navy. In short, there disturbers. were two policies possible. One was to wait until the perfect gun “Boys," he said, " our men are fighting for liberty and freewas designed, turned out in a factory, standardized, made inter dom in Europe. Let us have it here." changeable, and then produced in quantity. The other policy But many of the men who were making the disturbance haul was to devise and design and turn out better and better all the themselves been in the trenches and fighting for liberty; and time; but meanwhile to use the best motors and best guns the sight of Mr. Bryan as he started to speak set them off again. available.

Nothing that Mr. Bryan said could be heard twenty-five feet from the platform. The great majority in the assemblage wanted

him to have a hearing, but the disturbers could not be quieted ; FOR THE WORLD'S LIBERTY

and Mr. Bryan himself requested that no force be used by the The spirited art poster by Mr. Howard Chandler Christy police, for he said that he was not willing that any one shoul? which we have the pleasure of presenting to our readers on be hurt in an effort to make it possible for him to speak. So another page admirably catches the feeling and enthusiasm Mr. Bryan had to content himself with dictating a statement to which should and will inspire the Third Liberty Loan cam reporters. paign. America has so far responded, not merely generously

After he had stood his ground for an hour and departed, many but with overflowing measure, to the demands made upon her expressed their regret at such an occurrence; but the feeling of for for

money, and for relief. There is no more doubt that the men on the street was that “ Bryan got what was coming to

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Val-Enamel

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This is the famous Valspar test. It against it and stick all over it, but it proves that Valspar is absolutely water

can't damage or mar the surface. proof.

Valspar is a varnish that really protects An ordinary varnish would blister and and preserves woodwork. turn white in a few minutes if boiling There is nothing like Valspar for

genwater were poured on it

eral household use. It like this, but it doesn't

VALENTINE'S is particularly good for affect Valspar one bit.

use in kitchen, pantry, Haven't you no

laundry, and bathticed how spotted and

room, where water is shabby most front

freely splashed about doors look? That's because the varnish and the wear is severe. No ordinary isn't water-proof. It can't stand up varnish will stand this test. against the elements.

Special Offer – If you wish to test Valspar send But with a Valsparred front door the 20c in stamps and we will send you enough rain can beat on it, snow can bank up Valspar to finish a small table or chair.

VALSPAR

WOI beli diti

The Varaish That Won't Turn White

gre

] Di wil

an

An American product
vastly superior to the
finest imported enam-
els. It starts white and
stays white.
Val-Enamel is very
economical. A small
quantity covers a great
deal of surface, en
abling the painter to
furnish a superior job
at a reasonable cost.
It is washable. For
dining-room, living-
room or bedroom, for
kitchen, pantry or
bathroom, for interior
or exterior work, use
Val-Enamel. Ask the
Valspar dealer for it

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VALENTINE & COMPANY, 440 Fourth Avenue, New York

Established 1839

Largest Manufacturers of High-grade Varnishes in the Worla

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