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MARCH 13, 1918
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
THE REGULATION OF WAGES
and they cannot be taken without compensation for their use. Every now and then a new fact comes up which shows to
Besides, there are a good many questions raised by Governwhat a startling degree we have departed in this country from
ment operation that have to be settled by law. For example. the old industrial philosophy of the Manchester school of polit
how shall freight rates now be determined ? So it was inevi. ical economists. The theory of those economists was that all
table that a bill should be introduced and debated in Congress trade activities, including the relations of wage-workers to em
to provide the necessary legislation. ployers, should be governed by what they called the law of
Such a bill has passed both houses of Congress. It was presupply and demand. They contended that the sole function of pared in its original form in accord with the policy of the Adgovernment was to protect life and property, but that it was
ministration that is now operating the railways. Such amend. not to meddle in business or commerce, that the rule of indus
ments as have been made to the bill in Congress have not try was laissez faire. or let things alone. Occasionally to-day materially changed its main purpose. some loyal supporter of the Manchester philosophy struggles to
In its passage through each house it has been accepted as a make himself heard, but for all practical purposes the doctrine
war measure. There are many men in both houses of Congress
who believe that Government operation of railways has come is obsolete, and the war has' rapidly hastened its obsolescence. The United States Government is now regulating our coal, our
to stay; but these men, as well as those who believe or hope food, our income, is fixing the prices we may receive for our
that the railways will go back to private operation, agree that
the provisions of this bill should be regarded as temporary. Of wheat, and in England the Government is even telling manu
course those who hope for the return to private management facturers what they may make and what they may not make. The United States Government has already fixed eight hours
are emphatic on this point, but the believers in Government as the legal length of a day's work for all laborers employed by operation are equally
emphatic, though on other grounds. We it or by contractors working for it. It has now, by an Act just and we cannot stop to debate and discuss and modify and
are in the midst of the war, say the Government operationists, introduced into Congress, taken up the question of fixing wages. Twelve States in the past six years have established Minimum perfect a measure suitable to provide for permanent GovernWage Commissions, and as a result of the reports of these
ment operation. We must recognize that emergency legislation Commissions seven States have fixed the minimum rate of legislation quickly than it is to get it in the best possible form.
is necessarily imperfect. and that it is more important to get wages in certain employments.
Both those who approve and those who disapprove GovernA bill providing for the fixing of minimum wage rates for
ment operation as a permanent policy can agree on a measure women in the various trades and occupations in the District of
that will provide for the Government operation necessary for al
Columbia, known as the Trammell-Keating Bill, was introduced in the Senate and the House on March 1: Senator Park length the provisions necessary for Government operation as a
the prosecution of the war. Afterwards we can discuss at great Trammell, formerly Governor of Florida, is a progressive Southerner whc is regarded as an exponent of the new industry permanent policy. There
are some men in Congress who are
determined to use every effort to bring about permanent Gov. era in the South. Representative Keating, of Colorado, has been a consistent advocate of measures in the interest of wage-earners,
ernment operation who would oppose this measure if they had especially of women and children. He was one of the leading these recard,
for example, the compensation for the use of the
to accept it as a precedent for permanent operation. Some of dan supporters in Congress of the Federal Child Labor Bill, the
railways as provided in this bill to be unscientifically deterconstitutionality of which law is now before the Supreme Court
mined, and, though acceptable enough for a limited period, not of the United States. The Trammell-Keating Bill for minimum
at all acceptable as a permanent policy. Others hold that the wage-fixing cannot affect many women, for there are not many
transfer of the railways to the control of the President is tolerwomen wage-workers in the District of Columbia. But it is
able and perhaps necessary in war time, but that for permanent believed by those actively interested in improving factory conditions for women and children that, if passed, the bill will have operation the railways should be transferred to a distinctively
determined administrative body. great moral influence upon the country at large.
When, therefore, in the Senate the proposal to remove the It will put the Federal Government on record as to the
time limit from the bill was overwheimingly defeated, and by a District of Columbia, over which it has complete control; it large majority it was decided that the provisions of this bill will establish certain Federal boards of inquiry, it will afford
should expire eighteen months after the close of the war, the a means of collecting and arranging statistics as to working and
vote was no indication that the prevailing opinion in Congress living conditions of women throughout the country. For this
is against permanent Government operation. reason the National Consumers' League, which has done so much for the improvement of the conditions of wage-working women, and which has been an influential factor in certain THE HOUSING BILLS great Constitutional decisions of the Supreme Court in labor The first of the two Housing Bills has passed Congress and questions, is watching the progress of the Trammell-Keating has been signed by the President. It makes a beginning of proBill with keen interest and an earnest desire for its passage. viding for housing the army of men who are flocking to yards
where the new boats for Government use are being built.
The other bill, if it becomes law, will make a beginning of THE RAILWAY CONTROL BILL
providing for housing the army of men who are flocking to Though the railways of the country have been for several munitions and other plants where Government contracts are in weeks operated by the Federal Government, and have therefore progress. ceased for the time being to be private enterprises, except that Each bill appropriates $50,000,000. The total sum is one-tenth they are privately owned, they cannot be run without money, of what Great Britain has already spent for a similar purpose.
him," and that the convention made a great mistake in putting curate who does not suit, I can get rid of him ; but I could not such a speaker upon a Canadian platform just now.
do the same with a wife." A Canadian correspondent writes to us :
Five years of Portsea work was an appropriate preparation Four years ago no inore popular visitor of the United States for the Bishopric of Stepney, one of the poorer London districts
, to Canada could be found than Mr. W. J. Bryan. But it is not where Lang remained seven years. Then, in 1908, he was called so now. His actions since the war began have filled Canadians to archiepiscopal honors. with the keenest bitterness, and that feeling is not to be easily As he said in his sermon on Sunday of last week, York brings allayed. He was Secretary of State when the Lusitania was memories of the Roman legions. Do we recall that in 79 A. D. sunk and when both the honor of the United States and the cause
Agricola established a Roman station there, that the Emperor of the Allies demanded that the United States enter the war.
Severus died at York (211), that it was there also that the The subsequent disasters of the war and the entailed deaths of thousands of Allied troops and civilians are laid at his door. The
Emperor Constantius died, and that Constantine the Great, his fact that the United States is now in the war is in spite of his
son, was proclaimed Emperor there (306)? The see sent repre every effort; and the fact that he speaks so loyally now is cred sentatives to the Church Councils of Arles (314) and Nicæa (325). ited to the fact that he has so to speak. Scores of distinguished Hundreds of people in New York City who attempted to Americans have been welcomed and listened to with the keenest hear the Archbishop were unable to find room either in interest in Toronto, but the appearance of Mr. Bryan called' Trinity Church or even in the Cathedral of St. John, where he forth memories too fresh and wounds too severe to be easily
spoke. Dr. Lang has a well-modulated voice. He speaks in forgotten and forgiven. Hence occurred the demonstration that
simple, unemotional language, but with great depth of feeling. is regretted by all liberty-loving people.
Perhaps his greatest charm lies in his modest manner. In the The memories of Americans are proverbially short, but they House of Lords he is preceded only by the King, the Archcannot be so short as to allow Americans to forget the associa- bishop of Canterbury, and the Lord High Chancellor. tion of Mr. Bryan's name since the invasion of Belgium and The Archbishop's message to America was also delivered the Lusitania massacre with pacifists and pro-Germans, and his at Camp Upton, where, in the auditorium of the Y. M.C. A., on personal association with them in public meetings. Whatsoever Monday, March 4, he spoke with such obvious purpose of avoidà man sows that shall he also reap. In a world struggle between ing the dramatic that his words, like those of the preceding those who are willing to fight for liberty and those who either day, had all the greater directness and force. His message is the fight against it or will not fight at all, Mr. Bryan chose at the tremendous urgency of our bringing all that we can to the seroutset to take his stand against those who were fighting for lib vice of the Allies at the present moment. It is not too much to erty. It is not surprising that those who have fought for liberty say, affirmed the Archbishop, that on the coming of American do not find him a welcome visitor. The feelings of the majority man power to Europe depend for many years the foundations of Canadians are most probably expressed by those disturbers, of civilization. but their judgment is probably better represented by the majority in that meeting who would have suffered Mr. Bryan to speak.
WHAT MR. MCADOES
Readers of Mr. Davenport's “ Washington Portraits” in
this issue may be interested in some account of the multituTHE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK
dinous duties which one of the men he portrays is called upon Of the eighty-nine men who have during the centuries been
to perform. Most of these have been compactly recorded in Archbishop of York, the Most Rev. Dr. Cosmo Gordon Lang
some verses by Alvah Bushnell, Jr., of the Alvah Bushnel is the first to visit this country. He is fifty-three years old. Å Company, of Philadelphia, to which is attached what may be portrait of him in his archiepiscopal robes was printed in The
called an envoi by E. B. Seymour, of the Bushnell staff. 'We Outlook two weeks ago.
find both the poem and the envoi in the February number of His father was one of the Moderators of the Presbyterian
“Office Appliances,” whose editor has courteously given us Church of Scotland. The son went to Glasgow University, permission to reprint them. Mr. Bushnell's ballad is as follows: thence to Oxford, where he entered Balliol, and, together
POOR MISTER_MCADOO! with Viscount Grey and Earl Curzon, became part of that
Poor Mister McAdoo ! brilliant set of men who, under Dr. Jowett, added to the
Think of the jobs he's hitched up to!scholarly renown of the ancient College. Young Lang devoted
The Treasury, the Railroad crew, himself to football and athletics as much as he did to his studies.
The Income Tax and then a few. He also became President of that famous debating society the
Each week they hand him something new
To tax his time and temper too. Oxford Union, and secretary of the committee formed to pro
He has to know when loans are due, mote university interest in Toynbee Hall, the London social
What source to get his billions through, settlement. Lang had determined on a political career as afford
What fund to pass each dollar to, ing the best opportunity of helping his fellow-men, and to this
Which tax is what, and who is who; end began to read law, meanwhile lecturing frequently in the
What bonds to sell and what renew, East End of London at Toynbee Hall and Oxford House. This
Which “ trust" to coax and which to sue. led to his conviction that the ministry was, after all, the place
He stretches out each day to two for him. He prepared for it, was ordained, and after occupying
To do the things he has to do. minor positions became Vicar of St. Mary's, the Oxford Uni
The job would founder me or you
But it's a cinch for McAdoo ! versity church, relinquishing this congenial responsibility in two years, however, to accept the charge of a great church at To which Mr. Seymour adds : Portsea, the Portsmouth suburb which contains the immense
STILL MCADOOING naval dockyard. This populous parish afforded full scope for
Leaving aside all jokes and fun, any man's energy. Lang gathered a dozen curates about him
I wish I'd did what McAdone. and organized an elaborate and successful machinery of social
To him I'll have to lift my lidservice.
I could not do what McAdid. Right across from Portsea is the Isle of Wight, and on that island is the royal Palace of Osborne. Queen Victoria, who
STOPPING THE OUTLOOK made him her chaplain, called Lang thither, so the story goes, and said:
The mysterious reactions of the human mind sometimes “ I hear excellent reports of your work at Portsea, and I find
strike the newspaper editor very forcibly. Americans are apt to that you actually keep a staff of twelve curates. You should take
refer with amiable tolerance to the superstition and traditionalto yourself a wife. I believe you would be able to do with two
ism of the Oriental. We congratulate ourselves that there is curates less."
something in the American atmosphere that develops our native The chaplain replied;
intelligence so that it becomes accurate and acute in making “ Ah, no, your Majesty, that would scarcely do. If I have a sound deductions from any given facts. We like to think that
A LOT OF NOISE !
„Ginzug der Gäste."
** The best of it is that now we can admire the Italian works of art with
out being bothered by the silly English !" (BRITISH SKEPTICISM ABOUT THAT MUCH-TALKED-OF SPRING DRIVE)
(A GERMAN VIEW OF THE ADVANTAGES OF THE INVASION OF ITALY) ENGLISH AND GERMAN HUMOR AS SEEN ON THE COVERS OF REPRESENTATIVE COMIC PERIODICALS
common sense is our characteristic National quality. This faith industry, Mr. Heney hopes for supplementary legislation to the
AN AIR MAIL SERVICE
FOR NATIONAL SERVICE a time of deep national feeling, and by long experience we have The Congress of National Service, recently held in Chicago become more or less accustomed to them, but there is such a under the auspices of the National Security League, had a thing as a last straw, and it has fallen with painful effect in the definite and constructive purpose. It aimed to give impetus to form of the following letter:
an American spirit in favor of the vigorous and efficient proseTHE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
cution of the war. It sought to impress upon the American peoExtension Division
ple the necessity of a morale which would endure sacrifice withNorman, Oklahoma Department of Public Information and Welfare
out murmuring and disaster without a shock. The plan of J. W. SCROGGS, Director,
this campaign was presented by a notable group of educators, The Outlook,
January 24, 1918. including Dr. Harry Pratt Judson, President of the l'niversity 381 Fourth Avenue,
of Chicago; Dr. W. S. Currell, President of the University of New York City :
South Carolina; Dr. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the Gentlemen- I received your sample copies of The Outlook and
University of California ; and many other college presidents and your letter this morning. I have always admired The Outlook
members of faculties. Sixteen State Boards of Public Instinovery much, but I will not aid in putting a paper before students which adds an “me” to program. Such subservience to
tion were also represented. These experienced educators entered senseless custom is not an assuring evidence of intelligent inde
most heartily into the programme of the League and promised pendence. I think the time has fully come for educators to take co-operation, this stand. Very truly yours,
Ex-President Taft delivered the keynote speech at the opellJ. W. SCROGGS, Director. ing session, and his emphatic denunciation of the class of people We congratulate our correspondent on having in these days whom he designated as “ whispering traitors "elicited vociferous of perplexity no greater burden than that involved in the redun- approval. Charles Edward Russell ; Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, dant spelling of a word which we refrain from naming here in
President of Leland Stanford University ; Governor Manning
, order to avoid committing almost in his presence the offense
of South Carolina ; Governor Lowden, of Illinois; Governie for which he takes us to task. We are thankful to him for not Whitman, of New York, Mr. Walter Camp, and others
, con accusing us of being in the pay of a corrupt ring of type-found tributed thoughtful and inspiring addresses. Mr. S. Stanwad ers whose profits must be greatly augmented by the sale to the
Menken, the President of the National Security League, in his newspapers and booksellers of the type and spaces, in nobody opening address emphasized the important activities of the knows how many fonts, that are necessary to make that scandal League, and made an eloquent plea for the mental and physical ously umnecessary “me.” The horror of the far-reaching statis- upbuilding of the Nation. tics which might be compiled about the waste of lead, ink, paper,
There were nearly two thousand delegates; many were women, and labor involved in this scandal,grows as one thinks about it! and their interest was manifested in a session held under the Perhaps Mr. Seroggs is right. Perhaps we, who started this chairmanship of Mrs. Thomas J. Preston, Jr. (formerly Mr. editorial comment so light-heartedly, are wrong. We can only
Grover Cleveland). repeat that the reactions of the human mind are sometimes The resolutions expressed in concrete form the spirit of the very mysterious.
Congress, and were an admirable declaration of principles which
here entire :
We stand for the continuance of the war until victory is at
tained. We condemn all efforts towards peace without victor': Co., the well-known Chicago meat-packers, in rejoinder to the
All discussion of such a peace weakens the power and spirit of findings of the Federal Trade Commission, recently reported in the Nation. As Lincoln said to the pacifists of his day, We these pages.
accepted this war for a worthy object, and the war will end when On behalf of the Commission, Mr. Francis J. Heney, of Cali
that object is attained. Under God we hope it will not end until
service resting upon every man, woman, and child. We
the campaign of patriotism through education, planned and
now being pushed by the National Security League, with the instrumentalities in the commission of wrong have been with
immediate purpose of defeating German propaganda in the held from him., that court orders have restrained hiin from taking United States and of solidifying and strengthening the lova? them, and even from using those already seized by his agents. spirit of the Nation to the winning of the war. Hence, to facilitate the Government's inquiry into the parking We reassert our conviction that without National prepared.
ness for defense there is no safety. Therefore we favor the early the best possible illustration of what The Outlook has repeatadoption of universal military training as a permanent National edly pointed out as the core of the international situation in the policy.
eastern Pacific and the countries bordering it. There must be One of the not least important features of the Congress was a leader there; and, just as in the Western Hemisphere the the reading of a letter from ex-Senator Root warning the dele
United States assumes leadership, so must Japan be allowed gates against the danger of attempting to negotiate a peace to assume leadership in the East. This does not mean acquiwith Germany. “ Russia,” he said, having stopped fighting in
sition or aggression, but protection. Japan has spoken clearly favor of the kind of peace she admired, finds herself in a posi- and positively as to her purposes. The interchange of diplo tion where, for the present, she has nothing whatever to say matic correspondence between Viscount Ishii and Secretary about the kind of peace there shall be. We must beware of Lansing defined and reiterated previous agreements. We repeat anything in the remotest degree approaching that.” In Mr. Viscount Ishii's statement as to trade: “ The door is always Root's opinion, which all wise Americans must
inevitably share, open ; it has always been open ; it always must remain open. “ Germany will not abandon her present position and recede to We repeat his assurance that “Japan voluntarily announces a position which will make peace negotiations possible until she that Japan will herself engage not to violate the political or has had a thorough whipping."
territorial integrity of her neighbor.” What applies to China applies by implication to Russia.
In exchange for Japan's assurances the United States, on its JAPAN TO AID HER ALLIES AGAINST the East and has a right to guard those interests, just as Amer
part, has admitted that Japan has certain special interests in GERMANY
ica guards American interests in Haiti and Nicaragua. The
Siberian movement comes under the principle, if not the verbal TT is not as a favor to Japan that the nations fighting Ger- expression, of this mutual understanding. Japan's leadership
many are willing to allow Japanese forces to land in Russian in the East may here be turned to the account of her allies in
territory. It is for the protection of the real Russia, for aid the great war. It is to be expected that the proposed entry in the ultimate victory of the Allies, and to block German plans into Russian territory will be accompanied by a direct state of aggression in Asia.
ment from Japan that Russia's own interests—that is, the Russia to-day has no responsible government. In every self- interests of the Russian people, not of the faction in temporary governing country the men at the head of affairs must or
power—is the ruling
motive. With such a motive, the entry of should have a mandate from the people. Such a mandate was Japan's forces into Russia will be as truly a protective movemed refused to the men who now usurp power in Russia by the Con ment as that of English soldiers into Belgium for the protection
stituent Assembly, the only national representative Assembly of the Belgians. The Japanese Premier a few weeks ago
in Russia since the Czar was deposed. Trotsky and his associ declared before the Japanese Parliament, “ Japan holds herself rates refused to accept the will of the majority of Russians as responsible for peace in this part of the world.” Japan's presso represented; they dispersed the Constituent Assembly; since
ent proposal is the putting of this declaration into action. then their power has rested on the bayonets and machine guns It is not certain, as we write, that America's assent to of a disorganized soldiery, and on the support of the local bodies this movement has been asked. The reports are that not a mere of their own faction—that is, on the various workmen's and assent but a request from England and France will be forthsoldiers' committees. Politically speaking, there is no Russia ; coming. If for any reason the United States is not formally geographically speaking, Russia is falling apart, and Germany called upon to act, it should at least of its own volition exhas her grasp on the severed portions.
press its approval. And even if the feeling is one of disapproval, It is therefore of the utmost importance to the self-governing which we do not believe, the expression ought to be made at a Russia of the future that an end should be put to the constantly once, and it ought to be unqualifiedly No or Yes. The answer
increasing yielding of the Lenine-Trotsky faction to Germany's No might, and probably would, offend Japan; but it would är demands. The statement is made from Berlin that German mili at least indicate resolution, and would inspire respect. The
tary action in Russia has ceased because a preliminary treaty of answer Yes would also indicate strength, honor, and would
peace has been signed by Trotsky's delegates. What was the inspire cordiality. A hesitating, delaying, watchful, waiting : price? The terms of the treaty have not been made public, but policy would indicate neither strength nor cordiality, and would ei it is known that again Germany has added new demands to those inspire neither respect nor friendship.
formerly refused by Trotsky. "One most significant condition is known-Germany's insistence that Turkey shall receive back the territory in the region of Erivan, Batum, and Kars gained NO TIME TO THINK PEACE by Russia long ago in her wars with Turkey. This means simply that Germany, in scorn of the opinion of the civilized world, When a criminal is in deadly struggle alone with a policeman, indorses her unspeakable ally, and assumes part of the guilt of there are only two ways in which the criminal can escape. One the atrocious Armenian slaughter in this war. By itself alone, way is to overcome the policeman by superior strength or skill ; this indicates Germany's purpose of aggression in the East. The the other is to divert the policeman's attention from the struggle occupation of Kiev by Germany is another indication.
and thus relax his strength and skill. If Japan enters Siberia, that will prevent the possibility of For nearly four years Germany has been struggling against Germany (or, what is much the same, the Bolshevik faction) the powers of law and order. She has failed so far to make seizing the enormous store of war munitions piled up at Vladi- good her escape with her booty by superior strength or skill. vostok. Much of this material came from America. It will And now she is attempting by intrigue, suggestion, device, and also prevent future extension of the Greater Germany to the propaganda to divert the attention of her antagonists from the Pacific-perhaps the most menacing development of Pan- struggle itself, and thus to gain her ends by relaxing the Germany. It will block the danger from the two hundred thou- strength and skill of her antagonists. sand German and Austrian prisoners in Siberia. It will protect What she can gain from these tactics is plain to all the world China's interest in the Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria, in the sorrowful experience of Russia. which is part of the Trans-Siberian Railway. It will guard Germany's most dangerous weapon is not her Zeppelin. That Japan's interest in the enormous stores of munitions sold by is obsolete. Not her submarine. That can be overcome. Not Japan, not to the Bolsheviki, but to Russia. In the broad sense, her machine-like army. That has been repeatedly hurled back the way, and the only way, to save all the vast interests of the by the living armies of freemen. Fler most dangerous weapon East as against Germany is for Japan to control the eastern is the propaganda of peace. end of the Siberian Railway, certainly from Harbin eastward While with her hands she murders and despoils, with her and southward. Japan is the only anti-German country ready voice she invites to parleys. and able to do this. China should assist, and, as it is an ally of When liberty is in peril, there is threat of lasting disaster in Japan in the war, may be brought to assist.
the very word “ peace.” The whole situation now calling for action by the Allies is Voices warning against such disaster are raised at this time