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We allow be latine
ing amounts to five per cent. In many fields the method 402 THE OUTLOOK
none too soon. Pointing to Russia as an example of what the minds of thousands who were as respectable as the most respectpresent exigency is, Charles E. Hughes, in an address before able pacifists to-day. St. David's Society of New York the other day, declared Against any peace negotiated with the present masters of that the chief danger to America is psychological. “Let there Germany, against any peace that is less than a peace of victory, not steal over this people,” he said, "the palsying feeling that America stands pledged. Evidence to that is overwhelming, as perhaps effort may not be needed. . . . This is a serious mo is shown by the quotations from President Wilson in Dr. Odell's ment. . . . It is made plain to all of us by the events of the article in this issue. There is a time to every purpose under the past days, the recent days, that this is not the time even to heaven; and this is the time not to talk or even think
peace. think of peace.”
but to set our minds and our bands to that pledged victory. Such a warning as this of Mr. Hughes's needs to be heard up and down the land, among all the people; for Germany has set out to beat down, not merely armies, but nations. As General
ÆSOP ON RUSSIA von Ludendorff has said, “ Battles are no longer decisive. The people must be defeated.”
About twenty-five hundred years ago a slave named Æsop. This saying of one of our enemy's leaders is quoted in an one of the masters of literature, wrote, or perhaps dictated, on article on our National Army by Gustavus Ohlinger in the editorial for this week on Russia. “ Atlantic Monthly" for March ; for it serves to point the moral At least he is reputed to have done so. that Mr. Ohlinger draws from the Nation's experience during It is as follows: this past year. In simple, direct phrase he recounts the miracle of the making of the National Army. He gives unstinted praise between us? said the Wolves to the Sheep. Those evil-dis
Why should there always be this implacable wartare to the people and their representatives who
wrought this miracle,
posed Dogs have much to answer for. They always bark when he records the people's and the Army's enthusiasm. But he makes it clear that this initial miracle and this initial enthusiasm
ever we approach you, and attack us before we have done any cannot carry us through. The Army must have in itself
those might soon be treaties
of peace between us.
harm. If you would only dismiss them from your heels, there “moral forces” which the French Infantry Drill Regulations describe as the most powerful factors for success
* The Sheep, poor silly creatures ! were easily beguiled, and These are the forces of cohesion, will, and courage." These
dismissed the Dogs. The Wolves destroyed the unguarded flock
at their pleasure. moral forces,” says Mr. Ohlinger, “must finally come from the
“Change not friends for foes," people. The Army as a whole, and every soldier in its ranks, is in constant communication and in intimate touch with those in civil life. The opinions prevailing in the community are immediately reflected in the Army; if there be doubt at WHAT IS TO BECOME OF OUR home there will inevitably be indecision in the camp. . . . The
RESERVOIR OF OIL ? sense of duty among the people will produce a corresponding level in the discipline of the Army; their determination to wage Everybody, directly or indirectly, is concerned with the supply the war to a successful conclusion will inspire the will to victory and the price of gasoline. among the soldiers ; if the people falter, the Army will weaken; Particularly at this time of war the whole country is dependent it is true of this Army in a higher degree than of any army in upon the gasoline that will drive our armies' motor trucks, furnish the past, that its morale is a function of the public spirit of the power for our naval motor boats, and keep our airplanes flying Nation."
And yet gasoline is only one of a large number of the products Mr. Ohlinger describes the forces that break up and weaken of petroleum which to-day we find indispensable. In spite of the this public spirit in this country, particularly the German of
gas and the fast-growing use of electricity for lighting. propaganda, and he points out how these forces have been at kerosene is still one of our indispensable sources of light, and work in our National Army already. And, as he says, “ those it is an invaluable fuel. It is oil that is being substituted for who entered the cantonments with enlightened patriotism and coal as the propelling power of an increasing number of vessels high purpose have had their spirits sorely tried by the short not only battle-ships and cruisers, but also merchantmen. Other comings of the Government and the mood of the people at products of petroleum will come to the mind of whe home, Should criticism therefore be stified ? “On the con begins to think about the things that are necessary to industry
, trary," answers Mr. Ohlinger, “ every criticism and every commerce, and domestic life to-day. inquiry prompted by interest in the welfare of the Army and Now this petroleum does not grow, like our crops. It is ne its efficiency should be welcomed. ... A nation indifferent to periodically replenished, like our water supply. There is just so its armies never won a victory."
much of it in the ground, and what is taken out is not and cannot It is not criticism, inquiry, investigation, instituted through be replaced by any new supply. Other supplies may be dis demand for the reasons for apparent failures, but it is apathy, covered where none are now supposed to exist. Substitutes for uncertainty, vacillation, the weakening of the will, that is the certain of the products of petroleum may be discovered or precursor to defeat. And this is Mr. Ohlinger's warning: “The invented. Nevertheless petroleum is, and will for years remain. Army is the cutting edge of the saber, the Government the a great source of wealth and power which we cannot with blade and grip; but the force that must wield it is the people impunity waste. behind the Army. If they lack determination, the blade will not Are we wasting it? be driven home. If there is uncertainty of purpose, the edge There is no doubt that we are culpably, criminally. will be turned and the blade broken."
This energy which Providence has stored in the ground What Mr. Hughes and Mr. Ohlinger have said need repeti- carry us from one place to another, to transport our goods, te tion. Others have seen the danger that they see. In a recent draw the farmers' plowshares through the soil, to pump water
, to address in Boston Mr. James M. Beck spoke of the splendid send our boats across the seas and up and down our waterways discipline that the American democracy has shown in this crisis ;" and to enable us to master the air--this energy we are dis but he noted with solicitude “its seeming indifference to the pating with prodigal negligence. vital element of time." It is this, he said, that "makes the atti Every quart of petroleum that is thrown away or spoiled i tude of America still somewhat lacking in the heroic spirit, and lost to us and to our heirs forever. And yet today makes America the Hamlet of nations,
more intent upon talking only quarts, but thousands and millions of gallons, to be do about the war than working to win it.” It is this element in the stroyed or to be irrevocably locked up in the inaccessible vaults American character which makes America especially vulnerable of the earth. It has been estimated by the State Mineralogist to Germany's peace propaganda.
office of California that one-quarter of the value
of all the old This is no new experience for this Nation. There was a time produced in that great oil-bearing State is lost through evape when the most potent enemy to the cause of the American Union ration alone. In some fields the loss of stored oil through bam forget that the spirit of the Copperhead found lodgment in the adopted for extracting the oil from the ground are
according to estimates of the Bureau of Mines, from twenty-five private hands in various parts of the country. Then oil was disto eighty-five per cent of all the oil in those fields will be left covered on public lands of the West, and prospectors went out underground under conditions that make it impracticable in and, like mining prospectors, tried their luck. Those who had the future to recover it.
good fortune, of course, put in the oil wells as fast as they could In view of these facts, there seems to be one superlative and started taking out their oil before others could get to the danger to our oil resources. That is not the danger of monopoly. ground. Then arose the question of storing their oil. The safest It is the danger of waste.
place to store the oil was, of course, under the ground in the If the oil is not wasted, but is drawn from the ground only natural reservoirs, for there it could not be set afire or flow away. as it is needed, and is taken care of as it is drawn out and but as long as it was left there others might come and take distributed, and then falls into the hands of a monopoly, the it out; so the successful prospector would get it out as fast as injury to the public may be very great; but it is curable, for he could and store it in such receptacles as he could devise and the monopoly can be dealt with. Even if it proves impossible construct. Of course, stored in this way the oil was subject to to get rid of an oil monopoly, the monopoly can be transferred accident and to evaporation. Meanwhile this oil producer would to the Government itself, that is, all the people may own the have to arrange to have his oil transported and refined. With monopoly. But if the oil is drawn out in such a way that it out such transportation and without a refinery his oil was of no cannot be properly stored, but is allowed to run away, to evapo use to him or to anybody else. The great profits in the oil cate, and to burn, and if the great oil reservoirs themselves are industry have been in transporting and refining the oil already spoiled as reservoirs for oil, so that they cannot in the future be producedl; but the waste has occurred in the methods of getting drawn upon, then it does not matter whether we have a it from the ground and in storing it. monopoly or not, for we will have lost, to the extent of our waste, It is in order to protect the public rights in oil beneath the the oil itself.
public lands that oil legislation is needed. In any legislation, therefore, with reference to our oil re It is these lands that are affected by the Ferris Bill. sources the first consideration should plainly be the prevention It is provided in this bill that a person who wants to pros of waste.
pect for oil on Government lands may, if otherwise qualified There are now, and there have been for three or four years, receive from the Secretary of the Interior a permit to prospect before Congress two bills to regulate the production of oil on on not more than 2,560 acres, and that upon discovering oil or Government lands. One of them, known, from the name of its gas he may receive a patent to a quarter of this land, namely, not sponsor in the House of Representatives, as the Ferris Bill, to exceed 640 acres, and under some circumstances not to is now under consideration by the House. It embodies a sound exceed 160 acres; that a person who desires to produce oil principle which the Secretary of the Interior, Mr. Lane (in from Government lands not patented may, if he succeeds in common with a great many others who believe that National competitive bidding, lease such oil lands, but in no case can he resources should be conserved with chief regard not to private lease more than 640 acres ; that no oil producer shall have more but to public interest), holds to be of great importance. This than a tenth interest in any agency for the sale or resale (that principle is that such resources should, as a rule, remain the means too, of course, for the refining) of oil. When the land property of the public, and that there should pass to the indi is patented, of course the right to take oil from it is a permavidual only a limited right for developing them, for which the nent right; when the land is leased, the right continues for a individual should pay. This is known as the Leasing System. period of twenty years, with the right of renewal thereafter at It has been the subject of long debate, and it would undoubtedly ten-year intervals. There are provisions concerning the rate of be a decided advantage, other things being equal, to have this payment for leases ; concerning the “reasonable precautions principle acknowledged as a policy of the Government by having to be taken to prevent waste and injury to oil sands or oil-bear. it embodied in law.
ing strata ; concerning the distance from the boundary of any This principle, however, is not the only thing, or even the trac, within which it is forbidden to drive a well, etc. main thing, to be established by oil legislation. The main thing Three objections made in the public interest to these provisions is to prevent waste. If the Leasing System is adopted under a form of legislation which permits or encourages waste, the 1. Regulations for the control of oil production in patented authority of the Government and the theoretical rights of the lands are very difficult to enforce. The bill, as it stands, makes people will be purchased at an exorbitant price, to be paid in it possible for oil lands to pass into perpetual private ownership thousands and millions of gallons of an indispensable and irre 2. The amount of acreage allowed to each person is, it is argued, placeable form of wealth and power.
so small that in order to make any profit he must draw from There are reasons for believing that certain provisions in the his wells as much oil as he can and as fast as he can. A "test Ferris Bill will not only permit but actually encourage waste. well costs from twenty-five thousand to one hundred thousand Indeed, it is believed by some students of the bill that not the dollars. In one field the average cost of oil or gas wells is forty Leasing System itself, but the conditions under which this bill thousand dollars. In order to justify the expenditure of such an establishes the Leasing System, will cause greater waste than amount of money, a man must get all the oil that he can and the old and superseded conditions under which there was no get it before his neighbor gets it from the same source that is, regulation at all.
if others are allowed to come close enough to him to get at the To understand how this may be, some explanation of the way same oil supply and if he is allowed only a limited amount of in which oil is obtained is perhaps necessary.
acreage from which he can get oil. A result of small acreage, Some time in the early nineteenth century people in drilling therefore, is to put a premium on quick production rather than to find salt pumped up with the salt water what was known as careful production. Excessive competition in oil production is “rock oil.” They had to get rid of this in order to use the salt; wasteful. The bill, it is argued, will inevitably invite this excess 80 they stored the salt water in cisterns, let the oil rise to the ive competition. top, and then allowed it to run off into the streams. Some of 3. At the same time that the bill encourages wasteful combthe salt wells had to be abandoned because there was so much petition in the producing of oil, it is argued, it will fortify and oil in them. It was found later that this oil was an exceedingly intrench monopoly in the transportation and refining of oil. By valuable substance. It was first used, according to Ida Tarbell's insisting that no producer shall have more than a very limited “ History of the Standard Oil Company,” as a medicine—"three acreage and that he shall not himself engage, except in a most teaspoonfuls three times a day.” Later, when it was found that limited way, in refining oil, such a bill seems to enforce by law this oil was a valuable illuminant, men began drilling into the the very conditions which monopoly finds most favorable, ground to get the oil. After a while they found that two oil because it handicaps the only competitors which a monopoly in wells near to one another drew upon the same source of supply. oil is likely to encounter. So when one man
struck oil other men were likely to rush If the objection to this bill were wholly because it favored to the neighborhood and put down wells as near as they were monopoly, the objection would not be insuperable. The remedy able to do so. Lands which had been apparently of little value could be taken at any time by the simple process of transferring thus grew to be very valuable, and men who bought such lands the monopoly to the Government. The really insuperable ob in the early days often grew to be rich. Thus oil lands fell into jections are that the bill permits oil resources to pass permanently
into private ownership and encourages waste. If once vested his life to making democracy safe in America. We do not rights are handed over on a basis which encourages and promotes follow Christ by reading books or hearing sermons about him, waste and destruction of our oil resources, such rights cannot though books and sermons help us to follow him. To follow be recalled, and waste in our oil resources will be made per Christ is to make his ideal our ideal and pursue it with his manent.
singleness of purpose. It is of the utmost importance that the Ferris Bill, sound in Jesus of Nazareth was a man of extraordinary contradictions respect to the Leasing System, should be amended. It would of character fused in a perfect harmony. He was: be ironical if in the attempt to conserve our oil a bill should be A perfect gentleman and a companion of the common people. passed making waste almost necessary. Whatever bill is passed A profound teacher and a lover of little children. should not allow public oil lands to pass into private ownership, Sympathetic with all men, compromising with none. and, above all, should provide for those who lease oil lands The most unworldly of men, freely sharing in the world's life. sufficient acreage to enable them to produce oil without waste. Humble in rendering service; exacting in demanding alle
Meek and lowly; masterly and dominating.
Patiently enduring wrongs to himself; bitterly resentfull of
wrongs to others. III-A LEADER OF MEN
A lover of society; a lover of solitude.
Pious, but not a pietist. The following story is told of Henry Ward Beecher's boy With the courage of a soldier and the gentleness of a woman. hood:
With unparalleled power of invective and unparalleled power In the game of “ Follow Your Leader” he led his fellows a of sympathy. weary and perilous chase, seeing with increasing exhilaration one A man of sorrows, but not an object of pity. after another drop off and abandon him, until at length, from the Despised and rejected; revered and adored. bowsprit of a ship alongside the wharf, he sprang off into the Such are some of the contradictions in the character of Jesus, deep water, clothes all on, and rose to the surface sputtering, to look back and see the last two boys standing on the bowsprit, not
united in action so harmonious that his critics have rarely daring to essay the feat he had achieved.
accused him of inconsistency, in spirit so harmonious that one
of his last gifts to his disciples was, “ My peace I give unto Following Christ is no such boyish game as this. It is not pos you.” To follow Christ is to set this harmoniously self-contrasible for one person to walk in the footsteps of another. Every dictory character of Jesus before us as our ideal, and strive to individual must live his own life and fill his own place. Many realize it in our lives. But, alas ! thousands of ships have followed Columbus across the ocean, We are more eager in demanding of others allegiance to Jesus from the Old World to the New World, but no two of them than in following him ourselves in the humility of his service. ever made the same track across the trackless sea. To follow We copy his resentment when we suffer wrong; his patience, Christ is not to do what he did as he did it. It is to live our life when others are wronged. in the twentieth century in the spirit in which he lived his We recall him in our solitude, and forget him in our social life in the first century.
festivities, At its close he sat down in the evening to a Pentecosta] We nestle in his tenderness, and halt at his invective. supper with twelve friends. They were in an upper chamber; all We compromise with their sins that we may be friendly with reclined at the table; no women were present. In our service sinners. commemorating this Last Supper we meet in a church ; rarely We wish to be revered but are unwilling to be rejected. in the evening; we sit in pews or kneel at an altar ; women We are more fond of “ Neither do I condemn thee," than of join in the service; ordinarily there is no supper. We follow “Go and sin no more.” Christ in this service if it means to us a spiritual fellowship with one another and with our Master in memory of his life and death.
ON BECOMING A MEXICAN BANDIT Just before this supper Jesus washed his disciples' feet and bade them wash one another's feet. Except for a ceremonial The Happy Eremite has borne adverse fate or monotonous feet-washing once a year by the Pope in Rome and a feet-wash- days cheerfully on more than one occasion because of the evering service maintained by one small Protestant denomination, present possibility that he might yet be a Mexican bandit. It Christ's disciples do not wash one another's feet. We follow the is not that he is of a peculiarly rapacious disposition. On the Master's example not by doing what he did but by counting no contrary, he is known to his friends as well disposed to human service menial which really serves, and no companion a menial kind, with a few notable exceptions. Nor is it that he is without because of the service which he renders. The spirit which respect for the rights of property, for he has a few acres of his regards the study of Latin and Greek a higher education and own. It is not that he is under sentimental delusions concerning industrial training a lower education is an anti-Christian spirit
. banditry in general, Mexican banditry in particular, or the evil For any man the higher education is the education which best
end to which an outraged world consigns the bandit when it fits him to render effectively the service to which his nature has the luck to lay its hands on him. He is an avid reader of calls him. The spirit which impels members of the nobility in newspapers, and well remembers a photograph in a certain England to drive motor cars or work in munition factories or yellow journal of a tree with a Mexican bandit hanging from serve as waiting-maids in hospitals or camps is a Christian spirit. it. He is not an unbalanced individual, moreover, and rather Whoever is “ doing his bit” in the service of his country to-day cautious than otherwise. is following Him who washed the disciples' feet.
And yet he is much cheered by the possibility of some day Jesus, at the beginning of his public ministry, was baptized becoming a Mexican bandit. in the river Jordan. He was probably either submerged in the All of which means that to the Happy Eremite the supreme river or stood in the river while John the Baptist poured water charm, if not the supreme virtue, of life is its amazing faculty on his head. To follow Christ is not to stand in a river and for presenting the unexpected. It is, then, let us say, not banditry have water poured on one's head, or be immersed in a river, itself that allures him, but that romantic apparent inconsequence pond, or baptismal pool ; it is to dedicate one's life, as by his of life which would seem to ban the word " impossible" from baptism Jesus dedicated his life, to the fulfillment of all right the vocabulary of all men who are not blind. To the Happy eousness. The form is valuable only as it is an expression of Eremite life is a showman of most extraordinary invention and soul dedication.
resource. No concocter of movie melodramas can compare Paul has interpreted following Christ in a single sentence, with it. * Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus.” There is a boy in Connecticut who does the farm chores for
We do not follow Washington by visiting Valley Forge. We his mother. Next year, he says, he will work in the mill in the follow Washington by devoting our lives to an unselfish endeavor neighboring town and make a great deal of money and spend a to make the world safe for democracy as Washington devoted little more than he does now. But a circus passes through the
village. When next year comes, he is apprentice to a carpenter but whom he jocosely calls Fritz. He is already a corporal, and in Oregon, who took pity, on him when the clown who had is studying his Infantry Drill Regulations night and day seemed so kindly nearly killed him with a kick.
because he intends, he says, to be at least a colonel “ before There is a woman in Pennsylvania. She is not old (though this thing is over.” she is older than many women who are grandmothers), but at The Happy Eremite is willing to agree with the poet that heart she is in the sere, the yellow leaf. Next year, she says, life is real, though he vaguely wonders why the poet thought it she will be asleep in that quiet Moravian churchyard under the necessary to say so. He will not dispute, moreover, that life is mourning firs. An old gentleman stops her on the street and also earnest, if by “ earnest the poet means that living is a asks her to direct him to the old Moravian churchyard. She grave and ticklish business which not one man in ten thousand shows him the way. When next year comes, the life has re ever half masters. But life, he asserts, is something else beside. turned to her body and the light to her eyes, for she is married It is a deep and wonderful comedy, at times in its most tragic to the old man. There is only one cloud on her days. She is moments stirring the spectator to that “sudden glory” which strangely ailing, and the physician is speaking portentously of Hobbes tells us is laughter. For through the grave plot, in and operations. Bravely she faces the worst, and, lo and behold, out, the thin ghost of man's feeble pre-vision is forever dancing gives birth to a son!
with the corpulent embodied Event. There is a boy in Iowa who runs errands for the corner gro When the thermometer is fourteen below and the news from cery man—a gentle spirit, a friend of homeless dogs and friend the front is depressing, and it seems almost as though, contrary less cats, too tender-hearted to hunt and torture wild things like to all rules, wrong, after all, might triumph over right, the the other village boys. Flies struggling on the tanglefoot evoke Happy Eremite consoles himself with the possibility that he his sympathy, and he cannot bring himself needlessly to break may still be a Mexican bandit. And yet he knows, as well as the stem of a single flower. Next year, he says, he will be a he knows anything, that he never will. He knows it, not because clerk, and he rather suspects that he can keep the position for he recognizes the improbability of any man in his particular life if he attends to his business. He wants a position for life. station in life taking to outlawry in his old age, but because he He is not one of those fellows, he says, who are so ambitious has definitely formulated the prospect. that they never get anywhere. He guesses the corner grocery And life, says the Happy Eremite, has a way, for good or and the volunteer firemen and Mabel, the storekeeper's daugh. ill, of disappointing prospects too definitely formed. ter, will round off his days very nicely. Meanwhile next year There is always the possibility, of course, that if he is too he will be cutting cheese, he declares, with more judgment as to sure that he won't be a Mexican bandit, life may swing round weight than that dude in high collars who is trying to cut him andout with Mabel. When next year comes, he is in a trench in But at that point the Happy Eremite throws up his hands France throwing sardine-boxes at somebody he does not know, and reaches for a seed catalogue.
EDUCATING WOMEN VOTERS
N a recent issue of The Outlook we urged that provision be · The past winter, through the Woman's Committee of the Counmade by voluntary organizations throughout the country for cil of National Defense, the women have been reaching groups
a non-partisan study of political problems for the benefit of of foreign women with classes in English, taught by volunteer new voters, having especially in mind the women who have teachers. An elaborate and comprehensive course for study in recently been enfranchised, and we invited “ brief accounts of county and State government comes to us from this Minneany attempt to carry out these suggestions as to preparations apolis club. Probably copies of these documents can be obtained for the new duties of the new day.” We have received a number by correspondence with Mrs. Walter J. Marcley. of responses to this invitation. From these we select a few that Crossing the continent, we find the same eager resolve to preare typical.
pare for the duties of citizenship in Los Angeles, California, The New York State Woman Suffrage party organized, a few where, under the guidance and direction of the Woman's Citi. days after the woman suffrage vote of November 6, educational zenship Club of Hollywood, a suburb of Los Angeles, sysclasses upon political and civic questions and problems of gov tematic study is being pursued on such subjects as State and ernment. A course of lectures was arranged for a period of Federal control of education, community finances, public health, intensive study covering two weeks, which we might call the community recreation, and the like. In all these cases the women normal
course, the object of it being to prepare women who at have been courteously treated by the public officials and given the close of the course could go through the State forming classes aid in their undertaking. in every Congressional and Assembly district where possible. One of the not least interesting of the reports which have These normal courses were held at the Park Avenue Hotel, New been forwarded to us is from the village of Bloomington, York City, where the attendance varied from one hundred and Illinois. In this village what we may call the laboratory method twenty-five to three hundred students. Lectures on Constitu was pursued. It is graphically described by our correspondent tional, economic, and social history, on new problems and theo as follows: ries of government, and on socialized law were given by experts, and a series of twelve lectures on the machinery of government This small village has a very active and progressive club, and was given by several well-known suffrage leaders. Other lectures when partial suffrage was granted the women of Illinois this of a similar character followed, among the lecturers being such
club was awake to its opportunity and duty. Much study in civics well-known persons as Henry Bruère; Mrs. H. M. Richards,
had been done, and a discussion of the suffrage and what it would the new chief of the Woman's Labor Bureau of the United
mean to our women resulted in the appointment of a committee
to undertake a mock election for the instruction of the women of States Department of Labor; and President Henry S. Pritch
the whole community. Every woman's organization-clubs, aid ett, of the Carnegie Foundation. A special feature of each and missionary societies, loilges—was asked to appoint a comof the classes was the reservation of fifteen minutes for
ques mittee to meet with the Woman's Club Committee. Strange to tions and discussion at the end of each lecture.
say, we discovered thirteen different organizations, and when all An elaborate course was provided by the Woman's Club of
their committees met together a large working committee repreMinneapolis, which treated the functions of government under
sentative of the whole community was formed. Each member six heads—the Constitution, both State and Federal, the edu
was given a portion of the work necessary to make a success of cational, executive, legislative, judicial, and county departments.
our object. The women were registered, the town officers lent us
their polling-place and booths, a ballot-box was prepared, women A brief but very comprehensive outline of the Minneapolis city
judges and clerks of election were appointed, ballots printed in government was prepared and printed in pamphlet form. This
regular form, challengers selected-every arrangement made as pamphlet had a very considerable circulation through the instru
if to carry on a real election. The women gathered first in the mentality of the Public Library, the Board of Education, the hall for instruction, which was given by two of our most able Civic and Commerce Association, and certain of the high schools. men, and a question box opened and answers given. After this