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on you, suah!”
paces, an' if you-all comes any closer to me l’se gwine bust down spellings as “ b-a-r-a-x," " M-i-s-u-r-i,” and “Fen-i-x” were
noted in the morning's sending. Phonetically, each word apÅnd the commanding officer was thus held, despite his proximates the one intended, but coming a letter at a time, with threats and pleadings, until the commander of the guard came many shifts of the arm positions, it was easy to see why the men by on his round of inspection, half an hour later.
progressed comparatively rapidly as senders and so slowly as Anathema Johnson's peculiar vocation was not the only oddity receivers, to be brought out by the completion of the qualification cards. During the time the men were being drilled they received One darky gave his age as thirty-three years, and when asked their vaccinations and inoculations, and suffered the usual sore why he had registered replied that he was not sure of his age, arms from the treatment, as a rule feeling the effect more and could not think of the address of his sister, who knew, in time severely than the average white man. But, taken as a whole, the to write and verify the date. He was drawn in the first quota. company did not use the prophylaxis as an excuse for dodging
Drill for men of the Negro division, as indeed for all men of drill, as did some others--primarily because the men feared the the draft armies, began with the fundamentals, and built up ridicule of their comrades once they again appeared in formafrom them only when the men had thoroughly mastered the tion and were behind in drill progress. Some few were quaran. basic principles of their work. The various facings-right-face, tined for measles or mumps, and a smaller number on account of left-face, and about-face--all resulted in confusion. If the in spinal meningitis. These three diseases were widespread at camp, structor, facing the men, would execute right-face properly, most and every precaution was being taken against their spread. of the men would face to the left, so as to reproduce the move Detention camps were instituted to hold the incoming men ment of the leader, while a few would recognize their right, and until their freedom from disease was established, but still the turn in that direction. But if the instructor turned the wrong sickness spread. It was finally determined to test each officer to way at his commands, to look in the direction the men were find whether or not each officer was a carrier of the meningitis supposed to face, there were always a few who turned as he did, germs, even if he showed no symptoms of the disease himself. and faced the wrong front. The men were finally trained to At the time the first group was tested a number of Negro recognize the facings instinctively by having two or more non orderlies and waiters were in the room, and with awestruck commissioned officers in front of them to execute movements eyes saw the medical corps men take a wad of cotton, wind it properly, while the commanding officer stood to one side and deftly on a small wooden skewer, and then poke it clear back went through none of the movements ordered.
to the ultimate end of the officer's nostril, carefully wiping the All the instruction was founded on the natural imitative tend cotton on a glass dish after completing the torture. The darkies encies of the Negro. He learns from example quickly, and it watched in tongue-tied silence until one of the victims, sneezing was but a short time before the men had mastered the simpler violently from the effect of the test, passed near them. A waiter movements of the manual of arms, and could go through them summoned up nerve enough to ask : “ What's dey doin' you-all without a single pause. From the manual to evolutic is on the dat-a-way fo', cap’n ?” drill field was but a step, each new formation being drilled into “Spinal meningitis," answered the captain, shortly. a picked squad first, and this squad used to lead the others until And from that as a beginning word spread over the marvelthe entire company had picked up the movement.
ously fast wireless information system common to the Negro The personnel of the instruction squad was changed fre that the doctors were inoculating the officers with “spiral quently, and in this way each man received the benefit of some McGinnis” (that being the camp corruption of the medical individual instruction, and the C. 0. obtained data upon which term). And from the camp sources it got into the papers, with to base his recommendations for non-commissioned officers' war the added thrill that the doctor caught doing the work had rants, those in force at first being merely temporary, to afford suffered capital punishment ! a skeleton upon which to hang a company formation. The seri The first pay day, long and anxiously awaited, finally came. ousness of drill and its need as a basis for successful and safe and the men were mustered and inspected before being marched handling of the organization was continually kept before the to the paymaster. The quartermaster in charge, to facilitate men, and they were encouraged to bring their questions to the quick payment, had arranged before him piles of bills in larger C. 0. whenever he was at leisure.
denominations and heaps of silver dollars six to eight inches On the evenings when Anathema was not holding forth or high in the centers. Scarcely any of the men even so much as when no talk was scheduled by the lieutenant the men would glanced at the bills, but the mountains of silver fascinated them. gather in groups and practice the work they had been given One man, after receiving a twenty-dollar and a ten-dollar bill as during the day. If there were cases where the orders had been his pay, stood around, hat in hand, until the entire company imperfectly understood, those men who had held the company had been paid off. He approached the pay desk timidly, one eye back were given instruction by those who had solved the move on the pile of silver and the other on the service automatic ment, and in this way the individuals of the organization kept ostentatiously worn by the paymaster. pace together.
“ Cap'n boss,” began the darky, laying down his two bills, The semaphore system of signaling--taught to troops in all “cain't you-all gimme dis in money 'stead of paper ?" branches of the service for communication over short distances And when the paymaster explained that he had just dollars was difficult to master. The average Negro has no conception enough to make the proper change for each man, he asked : of angles, and since a variation of over twenty degrees in the “ Den could
what this comes to in dollars, so's position of one arm may make either a poor “ 1,” or an equally I can see how much I’se got ?" incorrect m,” or a weak “r,” or a slipshod “s," the first How much he had didn't matter much, as by next morning a attempts at transmission were almost hopeless. If the sender luckier-or more skillful-member of another company had stopped to look at the hand he was holding over his head, he taken away the twenty, as well as considerable money from othinvariably shifted the other arm to such an extent that when he ers of the organization. The lure of the bones ” with a month's was satisfied as to his upper arm the position of the lower had pay in hand was too strong to be resisted; though there were changed the letter to something entirely different. This was many men who took most or all of their pay to the lieutenant, gradually overcome, as in the facing drill
, by careful practice asking that he dole it out to them in little bits during the with men in front to set the proper example.
month. Reading messages given to the sender verbally was more a Shortly after pay day an order was received transferring the matter of mind-reading than of signaling. The Negro's spelling lieutenant in charge to another camp. As soon as word of this is usually phonetic with variations. The first time the lieutenant was wirelessed through the company there were applications attempted to read what was being sent he failed so miserably from several of the men for the position of orderly, the idea that he spent two hours that night brushing up on his sema that officers were allowed personal servants in the new Army phore work, thinking that he must have grown rusty in reading apparently carrying over from Civil War days. the positions.
Properly officered, trained slowly and thoroughly, the Negro The next day showed no improvement, and it was not until division will be able to give a good report of itself when the the C. O. attempting to receive wrote down each letter as it test comes, and our Negro soldiers will be loyal to the death to was formed that he was able to decipher the message.
Such those officers who have won their confidence.
stack me up
WEEKLY OUTLINE STUDY OF
HOPE STREET HIGH SCHOOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I.
Based on The Outlook of March 6, 1918
(Those who are using the weekly outline should Mr. Childs's article and this editorial. 8. You
ought to read “Socialized Germany,” by
Interpreting the People to the Presi-
dent; What Criticism Accomplishes.
Reference: Pages 362, 363; 368, 372,
373; editorial, pages 358, 359.
Questions : 358.
1. Professor Davenport speaks of the
“muddle,” “the narrowness of view," and
the “incompetence of democracy." How
rid American democracy of such things?
Would the study and teaching of politics
(public affairs) effect this desired result?
Discuss carefully._2. How prove or dis-
Professor Davenport's statement:
was from the first intended to deceive the Bolsheviki?
Up to date this has been rather too much
of a war of the Democratic party, fought
cratic party”? 3. State definitely what
you think Professor Davenport's opinion of
President Wilson is. Prove your answer
by using statements made by Professor
Davenport. 4. Explain what is meant by answered its own question, “What has
“ a genuine and complete moral victory become of Russia ?” 7. It is quite evident
Germany. How can such a victory be that a government can be destroyed. But
won ? 5. Dr. Odell has quoted many parais the Russian nation destroyed ? 8. What
graphs from President Wilson's speeches.
What statements or points in these express
“ the beliefs of the American people ” ?
Make a list of them. Do they express your
beliefs? Tell why. 6. What reasons does
Dr. Odell give why the American people into her present plight. Where do you place
were and are not thoroughly satisfied with responsibility ? fo. How many lessons in
the President's addresses of January 8 and this topic do you see for any nation?
February 11? Do you agree with him? 11. Read for this topic “Germany, vs.
7. What is the purpose for which “ AmeriCivilization,” by W. R. Thayer (Houghton
cans will give their sons by millions and Mifflin); “In the Claws of the German
their dollars by billions ”? 9. The Outlook Eagle, by A. R. Williams (Dutton); and
believes that public officials “need the tonic Potential Russia,” by R. W. Child
of criticism." Why? Can you add other Dutton).
reasons? 10. What are the conditions of
Own and read and re-read these thought-
provoking, inexpensive books : “ America
in the Making," by Lyman Abbott; “The Questions :
Hindrances to Good Citizenship,” by James 1. Explain England's method of building
Bryce; “ Four Aspects of Civic Duty," by
W. H. Taft; “ Freedom and Responsi-
bility,” by A. T. Hadley ; “ Conditions of
Progress in Democratic Government,” by
C. E. Hughes-all published by the Yale
rectly by the subject-matter of The Outlook, but .
not discussed in it.)
(All of the following words and expressions are Should America be similarly socialized ? found in The Outlook for March 6, 1918. Both Discuss at length. Put extra-serious before and after looking them up in the dictionary or thought into this question. 6. What is the
elsewhere, give their meaning in your own words. condition described by The Outlook (page
The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which
the words may be found.)
A booklet suggesting methods of using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on application
A Severe Test
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Drill Hundreds of marching feet-a sure of getting it is to insert in regiment in action with a roof for your building plans the following:
Barrett Specification its drill-ground—that's what you
Waterproofing "The roof shall be laid according to The see above.
Barrett Specification dated May 1, 1916,
The foundation of this huge and the roofing contractor shall secure for me (or us) the 20-Year Guaranty
structure is also kept dry with a You couldn't use a roof much
Bond therein mentioned."
great seal consisting of alternate more severely than this.
Only competent roofers can ob layers of Specification Pitch and And that's what happened al tain the Bond, and the roof is
Felt. This is the standard type most daily for months on top constructed under the supervision
of waterproofing for all imporof the big Altman Department of a Barrett inspector, who sees
tant underground construction. Store in New York City, where that the Specification is strictly several hundred members of the followed
Below is the Bond that guarantees
your roof for 20 years. Home Defense League have learned to do their “bit."
20-Year Surety Bond Barrett Specification Roofs con
We now offer a 20-Year Surety tain a larger amount of water
Bond Guaranty on all Barrett proofing and protective materials
Specification Roofs of fifty than any other roof-covering.
squares and over in all towns of
20 Year Guaranty Bond That is why they give such towns where our Inspection wonderful service.
S. rvice is available. And not only do they give longer Our only requirements are that service than any other type, but The Barrett Specification of May they cost less per year of service. 1; 1916, shall be strictly followed, If you want this kind of a roof on and that the roofing contractor your building, the way to make shall be approved by us. A copy of The Barrett 20-Year Specification with full information will be sent free on request. Address nearest office
The Barrett Company
New York Chicago Philadelphia Boston St. Louis Cleveland
Sydney, N. S.
Fanatic or Christian ?" BY HELEN R. MARTIN Is it Christian to provide proper housing and working conditions for factory employees and their families-or is it mere fanaticism? That is the question answered by the children and widow of a Pennsylvania Dutch capitalist-a family of contrasting types. The children, modern and college-bred; their mother stolid, plain and common. A story of deep interest, sprinkled with the delicious localisms of speech. Net, $1.40 “FIGHTING STARVATION
Author of “ Casuals of the Sea"
Author of " Bob, Son of Bartle"
building construction, the demands of the
Noteworthy in regard to time element
among the numerous structures erected for Believing that the advance of business is a subject war purposes during recent months is a of vital interest and importance, The Outlook will Government ordnance building completed present under the above heading frequent dis at Washington, D. C., on November 20 cussions of subjects of industrial and commercial last. interest. This will include paragraphs of timely
The structure in question is of hollow-tile interest and articles of educational value dealing
construction, the material for which was
supplied and the work of erection con-
ing Company. Starting on the 3d of MEETING THE HOUSING PROBLEM
November, the work was completed just
seventeen days later. The building as it
In planning different types of buildings,
the durability of the roofing material and for a large working-community hotel in Buffalo, to be located close to the plants of
its ability to withstand all conditions of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corpora
weather must receive careful consideration,
Slate is claimed to be among the most tion and the Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Com
durable of roofing materials. The Vermont pany. This hotel will provide accommoda
Slate Manufacturers' Association describes
some old buildings which testify to the
The Saxon Chapel, Bradford-on-Avon,
England, was built in the eighth century,
lent state of preservation. The gravestones is described in the “ Dry Goods Econo are of gray, green, and brown slate rock mist:”
hundreds of years old. These two ancient Thirty-five retail concerns in Indian and honorable properties are highly reapolis have
adopted the one delivery per spected and are maintained by the townsday plan. The decision to take this action people. The interesting feature of both of was reached at a meeting held a few days these antiquated chapels is that the roofs ago in the rooms of the Indianapolis Mer have never been disturbed. It emphasizes chants' Association. It was further agreed the great importance that thinking propertythat deliveries be made on the day follow owners are giving to the value of watering the purchase.
tight as well as fire-proof roofs. The failure Details of the plan were worked out by
or success of the roof depends upon the a committee appointed for the purpose.
ability to keep water and moisture from Light on the subject of the one delivery a roof boards. The slate on these old digniday was obtained from Dayton, Ohio, where fied properties will average about 3-16 the plan has been a success with some of
inches thick in the rick, and were laid with the stores for some time, and has been the regular standard three-inch lap. Native adopted by the other concerns in Dayton stone were used in each instance for main since January 1.
body of buildings. In 1915 the door-plate The Dayton merchants are reported as on the above-mentioned chapel was still saying that the one delivery a day method attached ; the plate is made of slate has caused a great increase in the number rock and the engraving done in “Old of packages carried home by customers.
English." It is further stated that in Dayton fifty
The oldest slate roof in America now in per cent of the men employed in the deliv use, as nearly as we can ascertain, is the ery departments of the retail stores have one upon the Hotel Rhinebeck, Rhinebeck, been released for other service.
New York. This roof was slated with In Indianapolis, under the new arrange
Welsh slate from Wales, in 1700. The ment, the store wagons will start out be main structure is built of brick, and the tween eight and nine each morning, deliver roof has not been disturbed. ing the purchases of the day before. It is There were quite a few of the old expected that all deliveries will be made colonial homes built from 1776 to 1800 in before 2 P.M. This will be made possible
the seacoast towns in Massachusetts that by the assembling of packages throughout were slated with “ English slate,” the same the day and the giving of more time than
strata of rock as the American-Vermont heretofore to the routing.
sea-green slate. In addition to reducing deliveries to one per day, the Indianapolis merchants will WOMEN HELP BUILD MOTORmake a charge for special deliveries, and
TRUCKS these, as well as C. 0. D.’s, will be discour One of the large automobile concerns of aged as much as possible.
Indianapolis, which has a $10,000,000 Gov
ernment order for motor-trucks, is planning RECORD IN RAPID BUILDING
to employ several hundred women in its CONSTRUCTION
plant in addition to its men employees.
The women will be specially trained and In these strenuous days we have become will then operate in the inspection and accustomeil to hearing of rapid work in machine tool departments.
Special Publishers' Numbers
April 3-May 1-October 2
Each of these issues of The Outlook will
Special reprints of the publishers' announcements, the book reviews, and the article appearing in each of these publishers' numbers, will be sent, coincident with their dates of publication, to a list of approximately nine hundred of the leading book dealers of the country, who in turn will be advised that additional reprints, bearing their own imprint. can be secured from The Outlook at cost price.
Copy for each of these special publishers numbers should be in hand not later than two weeks prior to date of publication.
From " Construction"
BY PAULINE FRANCES CAMP
Who's that by the garden rim,
Head a-bobbin'? Scarlet vest and jacket trim;
Mr. Robin !
Now he whistles, loud and clear,
Eyes a-glisten ;
Look, and listen.
Crocus lifts her waxen cup,
Brimming measure ;
For his pleasure.
In his keeping ;
Heads are noddin’;
Mr. Robin !
TWO CHEERING WAR
We find in the Washington “ Star” the following paragraph by one of its special correspondents in France, Mr. Junius B. Wood:
Sitting in a dugout in the trenches the other night I heard a major give an inspiring talk to the battalion officers. Half a dozen knots glowed in a crude fireplace. There were two candles at one end of the table, the other end being in darkness. Boards nailed to the side walls of untrimmed logs supported other candles, the feeble light and the grotesque shadows suggesting cave life. Every man in the room stiffened as the result of that talk.
“We have reached the top in training,” he said, " and every man in the company should realize it. If you need anything, come and tell me, and I will get it for you if I can. If I do not get it, I do not want to hear about it again, for it means that I cannot get it.
* We will have three meals a day if we can get them. If we have to miss one meal, we will not be badly off, and if we miss two or three it will not be much worse. We are expected to work from midnight of one day to midnight of the next day. If there is any chance to sleep between, all right; it will also be all right if there is no chance. Let everybody pitch in. While mud and water must be fought, it may be much worse. The hopes of the Nation are fixed on each man.
The other incident comes from a very well known Northern citizen who is spending the winter in the South. In a personal letter he writes us as follows:
I can tell you a beautiful story for The Outlook. The policy of giving Negro regiments Negro officers has caused great controversy North and South. I have myself noticed in moving among the soldiers of our own army a very marked unwillingness in many quarters of white officers to salute the superior black officers. There have been several unpleasant incidents in consequence. In the South, naturally, this blameworthy attitude is more in evidence. Here in South Carolina prejudice against the black man is, I think, more marked than in any other State of the Union.
A Negro major in this State found himself in a room with several junior white officers (all, of course, in uniform). The white officers avoided giving the salute. The black man, looking at them steadily, quickly took off his coat, hung it on a chair, and said, "Salute that, gentlemen, and I am satisfied.” The salute was immediately given. A big man, a brave and a witty, that Negro major.
So eggs--for the same food units—cost nearly ten times what Quaker Oats costs. Meats, on the average, cost eight times as much. The average mixed diet costs four times as much.
You can serve seven breakfasts of Quaker Oats for the cost of one bacon-and-egg breakfast.
Then in Quaker Oats you serve complete nutrition. Every needed element is there. You serve the greatest of the grain foods, measured by every standard.
You serve the most favory, most delightful cereal which Nature has created.
Serve in big dishes. Make it the entire breakfast. A multiplied cost can buy nothing comparable.
Then see what flavor it adds to your flour foods. Every pound thus used saves a pound of wheat, and it makes the foods more inviting. See the recipes in each package.
The Extra-Flavory Flakes Use Quaker Oats because of its These luscious flakes cost wondrous flavor. It is faked from
extra price. queen oats only—just the rich And they have made Quaker plump oats. We get but ten pounds Oats the favorite oat food the from a bushel.
12c and 30c per package in the United States, except in far West
and South where high freights may prohibit