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left with me a bag of gold ; more than that—a fortune, if we for immediate action, to the great pleasure and profit of the measure wealth in terms of satisfaction. For on that day I nearest junk dealer.

junked” from my vocabulary and point of view forever the Why do you steal junk ?” I have asked many boys. “ Be unsavory terms “ hoodlum ” and “ vagabond” as applied to cause it's easier to get money


.” “Does the junkman boys of the street, and ever since that time I've looked upon know


stole it?'' "Sure. How else could we get it?” The them as just a “wishing squad." I've come to know hundreds “Fagin ” who teaches boys to pick pockets is no greater menace of them, and have never had reason to change my new point of to society than the junkman who encourages boys to become view. I have grown to feel with them, and to care. So there has thieves by receiving from them stolen goods. So serious has this come about a better understanding of these “ misfit” boys who menace become that the New Jersey Legislature has recently make up the “ wishing squads” of our city streets.

passed a law making it a State's prison offense to buy junk fron Maybe I was born with lots of faith in “misfit boys. We a boy under sixteen years of age. Legal evidence sufficient to had one in our town when I was young. Perhaps that is why the convict them seems difficult to get, and the junkmen continue to term “original good” has always seemed to me to be a fair smile and make their illegitimate profit. working hypothesis. In fact, I sometimes think it works out With honest labor in great demand and juvenile delinquency even better in practice than the other more orthodox term, on the increase, why should not the Government conscript the "original sin.” Yes, I have faith-lots of it-in “ bad” boys; junkmen and put them at some honest job that does not help the same kind of faith I have in seed corn, potatoes, wheat, rye, to make criminals out of the boys of the street? and in the soil. The potential is in the seed and in the soil and Mr. Edison has said : “ Let me have the pay the truant in every boy, but the Eternal Wisdom seems to require some one officers get each year, and I'll make all the boys scoot to school. with common sense and common humanity to raise crops or to Adapt the fascination of the movies to the needs of the class make worthy men out of " misfit” boys.

room, and a very potent cause for truancy will be made to pu]] You will recall that in some parts of the Far West large areas in the right direction. of seemingly desert lands were formerly given up to sage-brush, The potential for the making of a noble man is in the soul of cactus, and rattlesnakes. Then some men with a vision and with every normal boy. an understanding came along; they tapped the life-giving A wonderful harvest of men awaits those who have a vision lakes among the mountains and they brought the water to the of the larger motherhood and the larger fatherhood ; who “wishing ” soil. Homes were built and children played where understand what it means to a boy to feel, perhaps for the first formerly lurked the rattlesnakes. The sage-brush and the cactus time in his life, that “ somebody cares" and is willing to give gave way to the green grass, the fruit, and the flowers.

him a square deal; who have grown by experience to realize The soil of the desert was not really “ totally depraved”— that the largest compensation in life does not come to us in terms only judged so from its fruits. When neglect gave way to of cash, but in terms of satisfaction. understanding and the proper means were used to bring out It was said to me by a philosophical friend,“ Men understand the dormant energy of the soil, abundant harvests were the dogs and horses better than they do boys. Whether men utterly result.

forget their own boyhood or simply misremember it, it is true All normal boys, whether we call them “good” boys or that they misunderstand boys as completely as if boys belonged “bad” boys, are just bundles of energy seeking expression to another species of creature.' our “wishing squad.” If the wishes of these boys are wisely For whatever reason, life is not arranged with much thought directed and satisfied by intelligent parents and teachers, to the natural needs of boys or with much sign of insight into will get the expression of this energy through their spiritual the boy heart. Education, restraint, rebuke, all are arranged and moral growth which we want for the making of men. But with too little imagination for boy impulses that not only cannot if neglected or misdirected this energy will find for itself ways be eradicated but that should not be eradicated. They do not of expression in anti-social acts which lead to the making of sufficiently recognize the boy as a person. We read of boy hard crooks—a harvest of enemies of society instead of noble men ships in biography with immense sympathy and resentment, and and good citizens.

too often forget that the next wishing youngster we meet, par. Every State has its “human dump heap" for delinquent ticularly if he is breaking some rule in the making of which he boys who have committed some anti-social act, such as truancy, has had no voice, is potentially living the first chapter of a vagrancy, incorrigibility, larceny, or“ breaking and entering biography. (I have been a trustee of one of these human dump heaps for I want to see the world made safe for boys. I want to see several years)—an institution to which boys are committed by boys taken into the game, and not shoved aside as common the Juvenile Court to serve time for delinquency.

enemies whose rights, wishes, needs, and potentialities are to When one glances up from the formidable-looking commit be considered only in biographical retrospect. If the boyhood ment paper into the frank, open face of the boy, one naturally of Lincoln was important, not only to Lincoln but to the world, asks: "What got you into trouble, son ?" The answer is almost so every boy's boyhood is important; for though he may never invariably the same: “Playing hooky.” “Why didn't you go be a Lincoln, he is, and will be, a factor one way or another in to school ?” “ The teacher was down on me, or “I didn't like

the welfare of the group in which he grows up. To thwart, the teacher,” or “I didn't like school.” “What did you do badger, or belittle him is to lose sight, not only of something when you weren't in school ?" "Went wid de gang." "What that belongs to him, but of possibilities for good or evil which did the gang do ?” “ Crooked copper, brass, an' things like it is our business to consider for the sake of the humanity od that." “ Where did you sell it?" "To de junkman.” “What which his qualities will react. did you do with the money?" “ Went to the movies or bought The Hindus say, “My neighbor is myself in another body." eats and candy."

It is every man's duty to say, “This boy is myself in a younger Probably ninety per cent of “delinquent” boys will answer body--perhaps a body badly housed, badly fed, badly taught. these questions in almost exactly the same language. Most of badly governed, and, by the will of God, badly tempted. I shall these boys have had very unfavorable home conditions, caused do for him what I should like to have done for me in these cop. by poverty, drunkenness, or the death of a parent.

ditions. I shall not too quickly and smugly say, 'My licking The public schools are inadequately equipped to interest the did me good,' or " My hardships were the making of me, but wild boy who has not been properly domesticated. He does not try to remember how many boys were ruined by lickings blindly fit into the nice round hole prepared for him in the school sys administered in the wrong way at the wrong time, and how tem. There is not time, and there is little inclination, to trim the frequently needless and preventable tortures of hardships have hole to fit the boy, so the teacher “trims” the boy, and the scattered human wrecks along the pathway of life. I shall try

truant officer, when he can catch him, is kept busy dragging the to remember that it is not what I needed (if by a miracle ] I, ' reluctant urchin back to school.

remember that), but what this individual boy wishes and needs, Nature abhors a vacuum. So does a boy, whether it is in his that is to determine my conduct toward him-my conduct per. stomach or in his pocket.

sonally and as a member of human society.” When a bunch of boys “on the hook” get together, each one When this has become the common vision, there will no having an empty stomach and empty pockets, nature finds cause longer be a “boy problem.”

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Based on The Outlook of March 13, 1918 Each week an Outline Study of Carrent History busel on the preceding nnmber of The Outlook will be printed for the benefit of current events classes, debating clubs, techers of history and of English, and the like, and for nse in the lone and by such individual readers as may desire suggestions in the serious study of current history.--THE EDITORS.

[Those who are using the weekly outline should who is not thus concerned? Be sure you not attempt to cover the whole of an ontline in any one lesson or study. Assign for one lesson selected

prove what you say. 2. Discuss the variquestions, one or two propositions for discussion, and

ous relations of your answer to question 1 only such words as are found in the material assigned. to the significance of this editorial. Or distribnte selected questions among different 3. What has The Outlook said by way of members of the class or group and have them report their findings to all when assembled. Then proving that we are wasting petroleum? have all discuss the questions together.1

4. Explain the Leasing System. Tell what

you think of it and why. 5. What provis--INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

ions of the Ferris Bill has The Outlook A. Topic: The American Army in France.

mentioned ? Wliat objections to this bill are Reference: Pages 396, 397.

considered by The Outlook ? 6. What does Questions :

The Outlook believe should be done about 1. What record are the American forces

the regulation of oil production? 7. Do you in France making ? 2. What does this item

think public oil lands should pass into show the spirit of Germany toward Amer- private hands? Reasons. 8. Discuss why tude ? 3. Do you think it would be wise Congress is so slow in passing

needled lega

islation. Are there ways of speeding up for our Government to give out fuller ac

such legislation ? State and discuss. counts of our soldiers' activities? 4. What

B. Topic: The Regulation of Wages ; kind of experiences are ahead of our boys Light vs. Night; Mr. Bryan Reaps; * over there”? Are we and they prepared Educating Women Voters. for these? 5. Read : “ Under Fire,” by H.

Reference : Pages 395, 396, 397, 405, 408. Barbusse; “A Crusadler of France," by

Questions : Captain Belmont; “To Arms," by M.

Note—Make this topic the basis of a Tinayre--all published by E. P. Ditton ;

study of the attitude of the individual “ Trench Fighting,” by Captain Elliott

toward public affairs. 1. Explain what is (Houghton Diiffin); and “Cavalry of the

meant by “ the law of supply and demand.” Clouds," by Captain Bott (Doubleday For what reasons has it been cominonly Page).

accepted? 2. The Outlook says that for B. Topic: Dare We Dicker for Peace? all practical purposes this doctrine is now No Time to Think Peace.

obsolete. Why? 3. What is taking its Reference : Pages 409-411 ; editorial, pages place? Will this mean more for the good 401, 402.

of society than the old belief? Discuss. Questions :

4. In what respects and to what extent 1. What are the convictions and the should the Government control the indideterminations of the American people as vidual in industrial matters? 5. Explain set forth by Dr. Odell? Ilow does he the daylight saving plan. Do you think it know? Does he speak your convictions? would be well for America to adopt it? 2. Show wherein Dr. Odell las or has Should the Government have authority to not proved his propositions. 3. Which of compel citizens to observe such a plan? the quotations from President Wilson's 6. Tell how Mr. Bryan was received at speeches do you like best? Explain why. Toronto. How account for his reception 4. State your opinion of Germany in eight there? What do you think of the incident? or ten sentences. 5. Give as many reasons

7. What is being done for the political as you can why America should or should education of women voters ? (See pages 405, not dicker for peace. 6. The Outlook says 408.) How valuable is this work? Why? (page 402) that “this is the time not to 8. What, in your opinion, are the principles talk or even think peace” (italics mine). that should determine the attitude of the Has it shown convincingly why? Is this individual toward public questions? How statement by The Outlook too strong? is your attitude determined toward such Discuss. 7. What is Germany's most dan affairs? gerous weapon according to The Outlook ?

IU--PROPOSITIONS FOR DISCUSSION Is there sufficient evidence to justify this

(These propositions are suggested directly or indiposition? 8. Are you willing to stand for rectly by the subject matter of The Outlook, but a "peace negotiated with the present mas

not discussed in it.) ters of Germany”? Give your reasons. 9.

1. Germany is worse now than in August, If you are willing to stand for such a peace,

1914. 2. The primary object of education read “ German Åtrocities,” by N. D. Hillis is to free the individual from the tyranny (Revell). Read it, anyway, and get your

of worn-out notions. 3. The average Amerfriends to read it. Read also “ The Diplo- ican does not know enough to form a sound matic Background of the War,” by Profes- opinion on public questions. sor Seymour (Yale University Press).


(All of the following words and expressions are II-NATIONAL AFFAIRS

found in The Outlook for March 13. 1918. Both A. Topic: What Is to Become of Our

before and after looking them up in the dictionary
or elsewhere, give their

meaning in your own words. Reservoir of Oil ?

The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which
Reference: Editorial, pages 402-404. the words may be found.)
Qruestions :

Loathe, sophistries, inarticulate, pact 1. The Outlook says that everybody, (409) ; inmunity, franchises of liberty, directly or indirectly, is concerned with the treason to humanity, quaver (410); oil, supply and the price of gasoline.” Can you gasoline, petroleum, impunity, culpably, not name some one, perhaps a friend of yours, prodigal (102) ; patented lands (403).

A booklet suggesting methods of using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on application

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NEW BOOKS This department will include descriptive notes, with or without brief comments, about books received by The Outlook, Many of the important books will have more extended and critical treatment later

Key of the Fields (The), and Boldero. By

Henry Milner Rideout. Duffield & Co., New

York. $1,35. In an odd way, these two stories recall the manner and style of Mr. Locke's delightful “ The Beloved Vagabond," who certainly had “ the key of the fields.” In short, both stories have the delight of adventure and wandering and the unexpected. As romances of action and surprise they are capital. Orkney Maid (An). By Amelia E. Barr. Illus.

trated. D. Appleton & Co., New York. $1.50. Mrs. Barr returns in this tale to a subject in which she is greatly at home-the islands in which lived the sturdy Scotch race from which she herself descends. In a way the story is a companion piece to Mrs. Barr's “Christine : À Fife Fisher. girl.” It is at least thirty-five years ago since stories and sketches by Mrs. Barr began to appear in this periodical. Sunshine Beggars : A Novel. By Sidney

McCall. Illustrated. Little, Brown & Co.
Boston. $1.50.

Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri (The).

The Italian Text with a Translation in English
Blank Verse and a Commentary. By Courtney
Langdon. Vol. I-Inferno. The Harvard Uni-
versity Press, Cambridge. $2.50.
This latest translation of the immortal
Comedy” differs from the well-known
Longfellow and Norton translations in
being in blank verse. It is an excellent
translation, and the accompanying notes
are very valuable.
Moments of Vision and Miscellaneous

Verses. By Thomas Hardy. The Macmillan
Company, New York. $2.
A welcome addition to the collected
works of one of the greatest of English
novelists, of whom it may also be said that
his merit and power as a poet have been
rather unfairly overshadowed by his work
in fiction.

Hearts of Controversy. By Alice Meynell

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.75.
Miss Meynell's talk about books and
reading, and more especially about the per-
sonal side of the temperament and methods
of authors, is always readable and stimu-
lating to thought. In this little volume she
talks in this way about Dickens, Thackeray,
Swinburne, the Brontës, and others. The
volume is just the thing to take up from
time to time for half an hour's pleasant
Per Amica Silentia Lanae. By William But-

ler Yeats. The Macmillan Company, New

York. $1.50.
In this tastefully printed volume Mr
Yeats gives us, both in prose

pressions of life--and also of death, as in
# Anima Mundi.” Always there are fresh-
ness of idea and strikingly original form of

To Arms (La Veillée des Armes). By Mar

celle Tinayre. Translated by Lucy H. Hum-
phrey. Preface by John H. Finley. E. P. Dut-
ton & Co., New York. $1.50.
This volume presents, in the form of fic-
tion or semi-fiction, a moving and animated
picture of France at the time immediately
preceding the outbreak of the war. It is a
fine record of patriotism and willingness to
sacrifice everything to save France and the
world's liberty.

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TNDERLYING the preparations for

the launching of the drive" for the Third Liberty Bond issue there

exists a well-detined doubt that it will meet with the same enthusiastic support that was accorded to its two predo

This doubt finds its official recognition in the suggestion that these new bonds will be made to yield 44 per cent interest.

These are the two problems that confront the Treasury Department to-day : First, how to insure a full and enthusiastic subscription to the new issue to a probable amount of ten billion dollars; and, second, how to prevent the immediate depreciation of these bonds in the open market once " the drive" and its patriotic enthusiasm have passed and the new bondholders meet the acid-test of financial conditions.

Secretary of the Treasury McAdoo has publicly expressed a feeling of confidence in the dependability of the American people in this exigency when he said, “We have created a patriotic army of ten million bond-buyers in this country,” evidently meaning to imply that they will again respond to the lure of the Nation's need and fye per cent interest.

can call spirits from the vasty deep," declared Glendower.

“ Why, so can I, or so can any man,” answered Hotspur. “But will they come when you do call for them?

It is not that the absorptive power of the country has been exhausted by the assimilation of two Liberty Bond issues together with all of the other demands created by war, but that the rank and file of Secretary McAdoo's bond-buying army is short of ammunition is not to be doubted. Yet, while the conditions are not as favorable to-day for the flotation of another huge bond issue as they were a few months ago, the necessity for a full or over subscription is no less pressing. It is my purpose to suggest a method by which the success of the Third Liberty Bond issue may be assured in advance without resort to any drastic measures or uneconomic rate of interest. Nor do I believe that such a result can safely be left to patriotism plus 14 per cent.

The small wage-earners, who constitute the rank and file of Secretary McAdoo's bond-buying army, the little man who has contributed $1 a week for fifty weeks out of his total income of $20 per week, has found that since he made that investment the remaining $19 have a smaller purchasing power dollar for dollar than before he helped to win the war. He has seen further that each of these dollars loaned to Uncle Sam quickly shrunk in value to only about ninety-four cents. His patriotism may be all right, but, while his ability to invest further has been lessened, he may be pardoned if-unacquainted as he is with the ways of finance--he begins to doubt the value of a form of security that so quickly shrivels under the test of open market conditions.

Among the non-commissioned officers of Mr. McÅdoo's bond-buying army—those, let us say, enjoying incomes from earnings of from $1,000 to $5,000—a similar condition exists. The cost of war has fallen upon them more heavily proportionately, perhaps, than upon any others. Their obli

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