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poem. Then the niches are darkened and the light is concen action, is the evidence of the diffidence as well as the self-assurTrated on the stage.
ance of youth. Abject, in wretchedness of body and mind, Job is discerned
Then, with the coming of the whirlwind, the thunder, and the crouching on the ground. Near him stand his three friends. Voice, the scene is darkened and the words of men are silenced ;
and the whole question of the mystery of suffering is visibly engulfed in the mystery of all life.
From the time when the first shaft of light illumined the figures of the Narrators to the closing moment when the light faded from the niches as the Narrators spoke the last word of the epilogue, the audience sat in stilled absorption of the vast dramatic problem as they heard it and saw it. There was no affectation of reverence; there was nothing like the demeanor which people are likely to assume in the presence of something regarded as traditionally sacred. The hush was not the factitious quiet of a congregation exercising with some difficulty a conscious self-restraint. It was the hush of attention.
That audience had probably its share of ordinary human beings. Some of them had probably come to the theater out of curiosity. Some were perhaps prepared for the usual disappointment in store for those who attend the dramatization of Biblical events. Some, perhaps, had pietistic leanings. Some may have been students. It is safe to say, however, that if there were any who left the theater in the mood in which they came it was because they had little capacity for anything besides the usual Broadway show, the prayer-meeting, or the classroom. Capacity for appreciating the nature of some of the great questions that in all ages have searched the hearts of men has been immensely enlarged by the war. The mood of men to-day is receptive to such a poem as the Book of Job. In the sufferings of Serbia and Belgium, in the inexplicable power of an unscrupulous group of military leaders to bring immeasurable woe upon the world, in the vast, belligerent patience of France, men have been confronted with that which confronted Job and his friends. And the closer they have come to the experience of the world at war, the more keenly can they appreciate the impatience of the patient Job with mere pietistic or mere theological explanations of that experience. It ought not to be surprising that an audience of to-day should find themselves absorbed in the work of a master of literature who, though counted among the most
ancient of the ancients, came as near as any writer ever has MARGARET MOWER AS ONE OF THE NARRATORS IN “THE BOOK OF JOB”
come to encompassing the mystery that has assumed the form (Judith Lowry was the other Narrator)
of a gigantic war to baffle a world of moderns. Job begins his lament with a curse on the day he was born. Of all the figures in this visualized poem, the one that reThen Eliphaz begins to reason with him. His words are con mains most vividly in the mind is the Job of George Gaul. It siderate; but, tactful as he tries to be, he cannot conceal the is a figure of great vigor, manliness, masculinity. To say that fact that he regards suffering as a just punishment of evil-doing, even David Bispham was not equal to representing the Voice and therefore bids Job to accept his chastening in good spirit. out of the Whirlwind without lending to the representation This is the philosophy of all three friends, and it angers Job. a suggestion of the theatrical is hardly a criticism. The task
What the dramatic representation of this poem makes clear, that he had was all but impossible. To say that the three as even frequent reading of the poem may fail to disclose, is the friends and Elihu (represented by Walter Hampden, who, by very human qualities of these men as they discuss this the the way, will be remembered as Manson in “ The Servant deepest mystery of life—the mystery of suffering. They get in the House”) were less impressive than Job is not a criticism, personal
. They find that theories when applied to a particular for the ancient writer made Job one of the most impressive case touch the quick. When Job bursts out on his friends in characters in all literature. All those who participated, as well hot protest, you see them turn to leave him in indignation, and as Mr. Walker, who directed the performance, and Mr. Elliott then you see why he bids them stop and listen. When he shows Schenck, who arranged the music, succeeded beyond what we his disbelief in their philosophy by declaring of himself, should have imagined possible. Yet it is right that special “He that hath clean hands shall wax stronger and stronger,”
mention should be made of the dignity, restraint, and power of you see the friends again start to leave him in disgust at what
Mr. Gaul's personification of Job.
If, as we hope, this dramatic rendering (it cannot be called a they think his blasphemy. And when he calls them back again, play) is to be repeatedly given, we commend those who attend " But return
it to Richard G. Moulton's edition of Job. In that little volume they deign to turn to him, only to meet with this bit of grim will be found the book of the play printed very much as it
is given at the Booth Theater. In that volume, as in the play, “ And I shall not find a wise man among you."
such sentences as “Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered and Once in a while Job's vehemence spurs his friends into an
said,” and “Moreover Job continued his parable and said," are attempt to interrupt, but Jol's patience, proverbial though it
treated not as part of the text but as stage directions. So with is, does not amount to passivity, for he checks them with
the prose introduction to the monologue of Elihu. Perhaps to
be of some service to read the book in this form “Hold your peace, let me alone, that I may speak.”
before seeing the performance. To others the seeing of the In such ways as this the action on the stage lends to the performance without a previous reading may make a more vivid words not only force, but clearness, and gives to the whole poem impression. “Job,” however, is a book to be read. And when it a body of humanity.
is read it should be read as it was intended to be not as a set And when Elihu, the young man, undertakes to participate of texts but as a dramatic poem. And if it is once seen as a in the discussion, the spectator can see why his speech is hesi dramatic poem it will never be thought of by the spectator as tating at the start. There, not only in the language, but in the anything else.
WHAT IS BEING DONE FOR THE PHYSICAL TRAINING OF THE
MEN IN SERVICE AND WHY
BY WALTER CAMP
THE COMMISSION ON TRAINING CAMP ACTIVITIES A STATEMENT MADE BY THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY FOR THE OUTLOOK Victory depends upon the control of muscles. Men must be able to make thought instant action, when the fate of a funt depends upon the flying signal for full speed ahead or astern, the turning of a turret, or the firing of a gun. The lives of thousands hung upon the movement of u hand.
Mechanical perfection is demanded in the machinery that drives the vessel, turns the turret, and fires the important is the man. More than a machine, his body is yet the most marvelous of machinery. Systematic exercise, athletics, is to perfect it and muke him master of the whole.
The uthletic programme of the Nay Department Commission on Training Camp Activities under Walter Camp is vital. Its importance to the Nary cannot be too strongly stressedl.
(Signed) JOSEPHUS DANIELS.
T is only through having higher ideals that progress comes. more than any other to the average man. And at this point it When this war began, Secretary Baker and Secretary may be well to show the public why it was advisable for the
Government itself, through the two Secretaries, to establish its camps and naval stations could set an example that would mark own method and a new machinery for the purpose of reprolueour war as epochal in the way of caring for the thousands of ing this home environment. There were already in the Army young men drawn from our homes. They believed that all the and Navy two direct athletic agencies, but each one of these had safeguards possible should surround these youth. It was easy other matters to look after. These two were the regular athletic to enact laws, it was simple to legislate against evil. But laws officer of the division or station and the Y. M. C. A. leader. and legislation had been tried before. All the machinery of They had been in charge of such matters, and both had been that nature had been put in operation in other countries and at extremely helpful. The chaplains had also contributed great aid times in our own without proclucing satisfactory results. It along these lines. But in order to handle any such increase in seemed, therefore, that the problem must be attacked from numbers as was now facing the Government, new and more another angle, and Secretary Baker therefore established the specially adapted machinery was imperative if speedy results War Commission on Training Camp Activities, with Raymond were to be accomplished. The regular duties caused by such an B. Fosdick as Chairman and Dr. Raycroft in charge of athletics, increased number would tax the officers and chaplains to the followed soon after by Secretary Daniels in the establishment limit, while Y. M. C. A. workers also would find their hands of a similar Commission on Naval Training Camp Activities. full. This is indeed a ponderous title, but it means, in short, as Sec Hence the Commission was formed and its work placeil retary Daniels has described it, "home conditions.” It means directly under Government control. It was possible to secure that every boy is to be given just as much chance for relaxa certain appropriations immediately, and in addition to these tion as he might have enjoyed under the special conditions of appropriations hundreds of private individuals, knowing the his own home life. At home, whether in school or college or imperative need of the work and the necessity of quick action, business, he had his evenings and his Saturday afternoons and backed it liberally with funds. The result was that the ('uimSundays for his amusements. Every man gradually lays out a mission was not only able to organize but to reach almost from sort of schedule of these things, and during the day and the the start a great majority of the camps and stations, giving them week looks forward toward those amusements with anticipation, the immediate benefit of trained organizers as well as a consilOn Friday night or Saturday morning his thoughts can hardly erable amount of equipment. Athletic directors
, song leaders, help straying a bit to the pleasure he expects to have in those boxers, and other instructors have been stationed and real organdays of rest. Suddenly all these thousands of young men were ization effected. So much so that the late summer and the fall saw to be thrown out of this normal environment, taken perhaps all kinds of organized athletics and amusements established, and thousands of miles from their homes, and placed in Army can by the time the football season was on there were more teams tonments or naval stations. Let the average man stop for a in the country than ever before, and the boys in the service had moment and think how he would feel if he were to be suddenly some of the best of them, too! There was excellent co-operation deprived of the pleasures of his evenings and his Saturday between the Y. M.C. A., the Knights of Columbus, the chaplains afternoons and holidays ! Suppose he had nothing to which he and athletic officers, and the regularly appointed representatives might look forward but just the daily grind!.
of the Commission, for all were working toward a common end, These two Commissions on Training Camp Activities, under The War Camp Recreation Community of the Playground aml Mr. Fosdick as Chairman, were called upon to face this prol Recreation Society also did splendid work about the camps. 25 lem and determine how it might be solved. When the young did other organizations of similar character. The Commission man was taken out of his home and placed in a camp, was itself undertook also the work of seeing that the laws relative it possible to transfer his environment with him? The solution
to the surroundings of these camps and stations were observed
and enforced. looked extremely difficult; but the first step was to consider what the conditions were, and then meet them. What to-ılay are That the work has been one of stupendous magnitude only the things that appeal most to youth? First, his sports, without those can appreciate who have followed it or who have hail question ; then amusements, like the movies or theaters or sing
some previous experience along kindred lines. But it has been ing. The Commissions must therefore plan to give him these or accomplished. There is much further development and a colelse confess themselves beaten at the start, and allow the camps tinuing need for it, but the first steps have been made, the
forward in the old desultory way of other camps of the organization perfected, the sports given, and the home environgo past. Hit-or-miss athletics the American boy has outgrown. He ment duplicated, and consequently the horrible experiences of has tasted the satisfaction of really organized athletics, and his
former mobilization of civilians in a country not ready for war baseball, football, and basket-ball are all team games that he
have not been repeated. Our boys have had a chance at clean :cmires. And in the winter there is hockey to be added. Of the
and wholesome sport of the kind to which they had been accusmore individnal sports track games and boxing probably a tomed; they have a chance to look forward to their off hours
and days off just as they did at home, and the final result of Naval Aviation Station large classes in the setting-up exercises this is that they are “ running straighter” than any such body have been organized.
have been organized. Especially keen interest is displayed at of young men thrown into cantonments and naval stations sud the Technology Station, where the men are so busy that they denly have ever run before, and Secretary Baker and Secretary have had no time for athletics or recreational sport, but have Daniels and Chairman Fosdick deserve the blessings of thou welcomed the short-hand set-ups, which require only about sands of mothers and fathers for the work.
fifteen minutes' time daily, and which leave the men exhilarated As an example of what is being done in all these stations we physically.” will take one, namely, the First Naval District in Boston. Here One of the most vital problems which the world war has Director Brown has just been making an innovation in organ pushed forward for solution is the general physical fitness of izing tug-o'-war teams. This sport has sprung into popularity the American people. at the Boston Station, and a tug-o'-war event will be featured The revelations made of their physical unfitness for military at many of the track meets and at boxing and wrestling exhibi. or for any exacting service have been astounding. In some draft tions which will be given during the remainder of the winter. districts it has been found necessary to summon two thousand
Mr. Brown has a squad of forty men on his track team. The men in order to get two hundred who are fit to begin service. showing made by the team from this station at the Boston To remedy this a campaign to improve the National physical A. A. games February 2 has given track athletics an encourag condition, to make it fitter for either campaigns or competition ing outlook.
of war or peace, is one of the most important of the tasks which, The boxing and wrestling teams which have been developed at the present moment, confront the stay-at-homes to perform, at the Boston Station are regarded as the finest collections of not only on behalf of those who have gone to war, but on behalf athletes in these sports developed in the Navy this season. A of the future generations of both classes-the descendants of dual meet in boxing and wrestling has been arranged between the present generation of Americans. the Boston Station and the Camp Devens teams in the large We are doing everything possible to see that the men in the Recreation Hall at Camp Devens..
service are kept physically and morally fit, that such diversion, At Commonwealth Pier, Boston, basket-ball is played by hun such athletics, such exercises as tend to this result are fostered dreds of men, and keen interest is shown in boxing, wrestling, in every possible way. And regarding this we have no stronger swimming, and track athletics.
statement than the one which the Chairman of the Commission, Athletics are being organized at the Machias Naval Station Mr. Fosdick, has just sent me: Branch of the Boston Station. Boxing and track athletics have “We have ample evidence that athletic games are developing comprised the first work done. Here is a further report : self-control, agility, mental alertness, and initiative, all of which
“ Probably the two strongest basket-ball teams in naval sta are bases upon which to build military training. The training tions in New England will meet in the game which has just camps and stations of the country are now giving to men whose been arranged between the Boston and the Pelham Bay fives. boyhood ended all too soon an opportunity to play as they
“ Warm interest is displayed in the Boston Station in the never played before. We believe that the harder men play the short-hand setting-up exercises which have just been introduced harder they will fight.” in the various camps of this Station. At the Bumkin Island The writer has had opportunities to meet officers of other camp every man in the station, one thousand in all, has taken countries from time to time, and they have expressed themup the exercise, which is regarded as a highly agreeable change selves as very much impressed with the result of this work that from the former calisthenics. In the Boston Navy-Yard, the is being done by the Commission. It would be impossible to go Jarvard Radio School, the Portland Naval Station, the Machias into technical detail, but the mass of reports coming in daily Naval Station, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from these stations show that the departments have succeeded
ENLISTED MEN BOXING IN THE BARRACKS AT CAMP GRANT Boxing, because of its close relationship to bayonet fightivg, is the only compulsory sport on the comprehensive athletic programme provided for our soldiers and
sailors by the War and Navy Departments' Commissions on Training Camp Activities through this Commission in really establishing home conditions, boys of ours in the Service are having mind and body cared for and, in fact, doing even better, by providing not only home through systematic exercise and athletics as never before, and, conditions but the technical instruction which a great portion in addition to this, they are learning all the detail and technique of these boys were unable to enjoy at home. Hence all these necessary for the Service.
BY THEODORE H. PRICE
RESIDENT WILSON made Josephus Daniels Secretary establishment now embraces more than four hundred thousand of the Navy in March, 1913. Of all his Cabinet appoint persons.
ments this was probably the most criticised. What can On January 1, 1917, there were but three hundred naval a newspaper editor know about ships ? was the question that vessels of all kinds in commission. To-day there are more than was generally and censoriously asked, and it was usually one thousand, and under the command of a corps of officers who answered with a shrug of the shoulders and the statement that have become the admiration of the world they are doing brillthe President was paying a political debt.
iant and effective service in making the seas safe for democracy. The Raleigh “News and Observer," which Mr. Daniels In every department the Navy is functioning with precision, owned and edited, had advocated Mr. Wilson's nomination and promptitude, and efficiency. We had hardly declared war before election. By popular subscription in small amounts, including our fleets were in Europe. And the Secretary under whose a contribution of only $100 from its proprietor and editor, this direction all this has been accomplished is now rediscovered paper had raised some twenty-five or thirty thousand dollars for as one of the ablest heads the Navy ever had. the Democratic campaign fund. Mr. Daniels had been a member Impressed by this revision of public opinion in regard to a of the Democratic National Committee since 1896, and the man upon whose leadership and administrative ability so much political cynicism that was eager to find an unworthy and ulte- depends, I have been led to make a somewhat critical study of rior motive in every act of a minority President was quick to his career and personality with the purpose of ascertaining assume that these facts and the selection made for the Navy whether the confidence that he has come to inspire is justified. portfolio had the relation of cause and effect. For a time the It is at all times difficult equitably to appraise a public man. imputation, which was ignored by both the President and Mr. It is especially difficult when a nation is at war and the man is Daniels, led to a prejudiced interpretation of the latter's every at the head of one of the great departments that is charged with act.
the duty of waging the war. As few of us ever see those who But four years have now elapsed. We have been at war are in the public eye and fewer still can know them intimately, eleven months. From a force of 4,500 officers and 68,000 en we must depend on the newspapers for impressions, and the man listed men in January, 1917, the Navy has grown to 17,000 who can reach the people despite the barrage of a hostile press officers and 325,000 enlisted men, including Marines and Reserves. must be genuine in his sympathy and courageous
in his democracy
. It had 130 stations of all kinds in January, 1917. It now has I count it, therefore, greatly in Mr. Daniels's favor that despite 363. The number of employees at the regular navy-yards in the censoriousness of the press the people have come to trust the United States has increased from 35,000 to over 66,000. him and believe in him; for Lincoln expressed a profound truth
On shore and afloat, including civilians and sailors, the naval when he said, “ You can't deceive all of the people all the time.”
The same progressive growth of confidence in Mr. Daniels's Commander David Worth Bagley, is a naval officer who narhonesty and good sense is to be discerned among the naval cfficers rowly escaped death last December when the United States vessel with whom I have talked. They were at first disposed to resent Jacob Jones was sunk off the French coast; and it was perhaps his uemocracy, for the traditions of the Navy are essentially beçause of his wife's naval affiliations that the Secretary was aristocratic, and no little resentment was expressed when the first drawn toward his present position. Secretary issued his famous order forbidding the service of In his persistent fight against what he has described as the alcoholic drinks on naval vessels or in the yards. But now that "fetish of seniority” Mr. Daniels has also shown a determinawe are at war, the wisdom of that order is generally admitted, tion to make merit rather than the accident of position the and the painstaking impartiality with which both quarter-deck determinant of high rank in the Navy. He has secured the and forecastle have been treated is making Mr. Daniels one of passage of a law under which all promotions above the rank of the most popular Secretaries that the Navy ever had.
lieutenant-commanders are the result of selection by a board of In a letter to Senator Overman written by Mrs. Dewey experienced officers who decide whether the candidate has given shortly after Admiral Dewey's death she said: “I wish you and proof of his ability to command. the people of the country also to know that my husband felt In commenting upon the operation of this law in his annual for the present Secretary of the Navy, Hon. Josephus Daniels, report the Secretary expresses a view that most Americans will a sincere affection. Only a short time ago the Admiral said: approve in saying that the day of promotion by seniority in 'I have been in the Navy sixty-two years and have served the line of the Navy has forever passed. It was the ideal system under many Secretaries, but Secretary Daniels is the best Sec for rewarding mediocrity in the same manner as initiative, retary we have ever had and has done more for the Navy than resource, and great ability were rewarded. It was un-American any other. I am amazed by his knowledge of technical matters. and was apparently framed with the object of protecting the He has studied profoundly, and his opinion is founded on close less efficient from the chagrin of seeing the more efficient observation."
advanced over their heads. It denied the stimulus of a reward Much the same opinion would probably be expressed to-day for professional excellence. Under the new law, whereby line by most naval officers, and the enthusiasm and the effective officers above the rank of lieutenant-commander are promoted team work that are making the Navy what it is would hardly by selection, the question of approved ability rather than be possible otherwise.
length of service determines promotions. It well demonstrates In Washington the other day I inquired of an officer who its superiority over the antiquated seniority system, which had come into the service from civil life since the war how it tended to put a premium upon mediocrity and ultra-prudence. was that the Navy was functioning so efficiently. His answer If a man played for safety under that system, he was far surer was: “We have a good administrator in the Secretary. He of promotion than if he had the sand to do something new that plays no favorites. He trusts us. He puts responsibilities upon involved some chance of accident. Safety and prudence are us and kicks us out impartially if we fail. We can rely upon requisites, but every naval officer who is remembered had the fair treatment, and we are all on our mettle."
courage, when it would serve his country, to take a chance by From the first Mr. Daniels's ideas seemed to have been to an audacious and daring move." establish an equality of opportunity in the Navy and to make The schools for sailors, promotion from the ranks, and the it thereby attractive to the more intelligent youths of the substitution of fitness for seniority as a qualification for high country. Prior to his administration enlisted men had occa position are typical of the reforms by which Josephus Daniels sionally become officers, but the path of promotion was a difficult has democratized the Navy and made it efficient. He is never one and was barred by an examination that only those who had inaccessible. The enlisted man and the officer are always sure both an academic and a technical education could pass. As of a sympathetic hearing and just treatment if they have anythere was no way of getting this education aboard ship, the thing to complain of. By inquiry I learned that on the day that sailor's opportunity to obtain a commission was only theoretical, I visited him the Secretary had found time to see three sailors and the service had little attraction for the ambitious young man who felt that they had grievances; and, as far as I can discover, unless he could enter it by way of Annapolis.
it is to the spirit of comradeship thus manifested that the Now this is changed. There are schools for the enlisted men present enthusiasm of the naval personnel is due. Mr. Daniels on every ship. Attendance is compulsory, and every sailor who says that he wants every man in the service to feel that it is is willing to study hard enough can get the education that is “his Navy;” and he tells with pride how a young officer, when necessary to obtain a commission. The officers are the teachers, asked by an English admiral upon the arrival of our first flotilla and, although some of them protested that they did not enter of destroyers in Ireland when the boats would be ready for the service to be pedagogues, they are commencing to realize service, answered, “ We are ready now, sir.” that in instructing others they are learning much themselves. By some it is regarded as remarkable that a newspaper editor,
Since we entered the war over one thousand men have been whose previous experience could hardly have been regarded as advanced from warrant officers to commissioned officers and a training for such responsibilities, has developed the capacity over thirteen hundred enlisted men have been promoted to war for leadership that the present Secretary of the Navy has disrant officers. Upon the recommendation of the Secretary, four played; but, as boy and man, Mr. Daniels seems to have been years ago Congress passed a law giving him authority to nomi- unconsciously fitting himself for the position that he now nate annually one hundred enlisted sailors under twenty years occupies. of age for examination and entry as cadets at Annapolis, and He has always been a hard worker with the capacity for last year a young man who haul entered the Academy in this taking infinite pains that Carlyle said was a mark of genius. way was the president of his class. In his annual report Mr. He was born in Washington, North Carolina, in 1862. At the Daniels says that it is his purpose to extend this principle further age of nineteen he was publishing a weekly newspaper at when the war is ended and to recommend that after passing his Wilson, North Carolina, and reading law. He was admitted to entrance examination every appointee to the Naval Academy the bar but never practiced, preferring to serve society and should go to sea and serve at least one year as an enlisted man study humanity and the humanities from the editor's chair. before entering Annapolis.
Those who have had any experience in that school will underHe says that the American ideal is that men shall obtain high stand its educational value. From Wilson he went to Raleigh, station by beginning at the lowest rung in the ladder, and that the capital of North Carolina, where he became editor and they should secure place and position by first mastering the owner of the “ State Chronicle," a weekly paper that had been primary duties.
previously under the direction of Walter H. Page, our present He has applied this theory in the case of his own sons, one
Ambassador to England. of whom upon the outbreak of the war enlisted as a private in The year 1893 was one of acute financial depression in the the Marine Corps, while another, aged eighteen, is a cadet at South. Subscriptions were hard to collect and advertising Annapolis. This cadet, by the way, is named Worth Bagley harder to get, and to make both ends meet the young editor Daniels, after Mrs. Daniels's brother, Lieutenant Worth Bag came to Washington and took the position of Chief Clerk of ley, who was the first American naval officer to be killed in the the Interior Department under Hoke Smith, who had been Spanish-American War. Another brother of Mrs. Daniels, appointed Secretary of the Interior by Mr. Cleveland. During