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SETTING-UP EXERCISES ON THE DECK OF ONE OF UNCLE SAM'S WAR-SHIPS and days off just as they did at home, and the final result of Naval Aviation Station large classes in the setting-up exercises this is that they are “ running straighter” than any such body have been organized. Especially keen interest is displayed at of young men thrown into cantonments and naval stations sud- the Technology Station, where the men are so busy that they denly have ever run before, and Secretary Baker and Secretary have had no time for athletics or recreational sport, but have Daniels and Chairman Fosdick deserve the blessings of thou welcomed the short-hand set-ups, which require only about sands of mothers and fathers for the work.
fifteen minutes' time daily, and which leave the men exhilarated As an example of what is being done in all these stations we physically." will take one, namely, the First Naval District in Boston. Here One of the most vital problems which the world war has Director Brown has just been making an innovation in organ- pushed forward for solution is the general physical fitness of izing tug-o'-war teams. This sport has sprung into popularity the American people. at the Boston Station, and a tug-o'-war event will be featured The revelations made of their physical unfitness for military at many of the track meets and at boxing and wrestling exhibi. or for any exacting service have been astounding. In some draft tions which will be given during the remainder of the winter. districts it has been found necessary to summon two thousand
Mr. Brown has a squad of forty men on his track team. The men in order to get two hundred who are fit to begin service. showing made by the team from this station at the Boston To remedy this a campaign to improve the National physical A. A. games February 2 has given track athletics an encourag- condition, to make it fitter for either campaigns or competition ing outlook.
of war or peace, is one of the most important of the tasks which, The boxing and wrestling teams which have been developed at the present moment, confront the stay-at-homes to perform, at the Boston Station are regarded as the finest collections of not only on behalf of those who have gone to war, but on behalf athletes in these sports developed in the Navy this season. A of the future generations of both classes—the descendants of clual meet in boxing and wrestling has been arranged between the present generation of Americans. the Boston Station and the Camp Devens teams in the large We are doing everything possible to see that the men in the Recreation Hall at Camp Devens. .
service are kept physically and morally fit, that such diversion, At Commonwealth Pier, Boston, basket-ball is played by hun- such athletics, such exercises as tend to this result are fostered dreds of men, and keen interest is shown in boxing, wrestling, in every possible way. And regarding this we have no stronger swimming, and track athletics.
statement than the one which the Chairman of the Commission, Athletics are being organized at the Machias Naval Station Mr. Fosdick, has just sent me: Branch of the Boston Station. Boxing and track athletics have “We have ample evidence that athletic games are developing comprised the first work done. Here is a further report: self-control, agility, mental alertness, and initiative, all of which
“Probably the two strongest basket-ball teams in naval sta- are bases upon which to build military training. The training tions in New England will meet in the game which has just camps and stations of the country are now giving to men whose been arranged between the Boston and the Pelham Bay fives. boyhood ended all too soon an opportunity to play as they
“ Warm interest is displayed in the Boston Station in the never played before. We believe that the harder men play the short-hand setting-up exercises which have just been introduced harder they will fight." in the various camps of this Station. At the Bumkin Island The writer has had opportunities to meet officers of other (amp every man in the station, one thousand in all, has taken countries from time to time, and they have expressed themup the exercise, which is regarded as a highly agreeable change selves as very much impressed with the result of this work that from the former calisthenics. In the Boston Navy-Yard, the is being done by the Commission. It would be impossible to go Varvard Radio School, the Portland Naval Station, the Machias into technical detail, but the mass of reports coming in daily Naval Station, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from these stations show that the departments have succeeded
ENLISTED MEN BOXING IN THE BARRACKS AT CAMP GRANT Boxing, because of its close relationship to bayonet fighting, is the only compulsory sport on the comprehensive athletic programme provided for our soldiers and
sailors by the War and Navy Departments' Commissions on Training Camp Activities : through this Commission in really establishing home conditions, boys of ours in the Service are having mind and body cared for and, in fact, doing even better, by providing not only home through systematic exercise and athletics as never before, and, conditions but the technical instruction which a great portion in addition to this, they are learning all the detail and technique of these boys were unable to enjoy at home. Hence all these necessary for the Service.
EDITOR OF "COMMERCE AND FINANCE"
RESIDENT WILSON made Josephus Daniels Secretary of the Navy in March, 1913. Of all his Cabinet appoint
ments this was probably the most criticised. What can a newspaper editor know about ships ? was the question that was generally and censoriously asked, and it was usually answered with a shrug of the shoulders and the statement that the President was paying a political debt.
The Raleigh “ News and Observer," which Mr. Daniels owned and edited, had advocated Mr. Wilson's nomination and election. By popular subscription in small amounts, including a contribution of only $100 from its proprietor and editor, this paper had raised some twenty-five or thirty thousand dollars for the Democratic campaign fund. Mr. Daniels had been a member of the Democratic National Committee since 1896, and the political cynicism that was eager to find an unworthy and ulterior motive in every act of a minority President was quick to assume that these facts and the selection made for the Navy portfolio had the relation of cause and effect. For a time the imputation, which was ignored by both the President and Mr. Daniels, led to a prejudiced interpretation of the latter's every act.
But four years have now elapsed. We have been at war eleven months. From a force of 4,500 officers and 68,000 enlisted men in January, 1917, the Navy has grown to 17,000 officers and 325,000 enlisted men, including Marines and Reserves. It had 130 stations of all kinds in January, 1917. It now has 363. The number of employees at the regular navy-yards in the United States has increased from 35,000 to over 66,000.
On shore and afloat, including civilians and sailors, the naval
establishment now embraces more than four hundred thousand persons.
On January 1, 1917, there were but three hundred naval vessels of all kinds in commission. To-day there are more than one thousand, and under the command of a corps of officers who have become the admiration of the world they are doing brilliant and effective service in making the seas safe for democracy.
In every department the Navy is functioning with precision, promptitude, and efficiency. We had hardly declared war before our fleets were in Europe. And the Secretary under whose direction all this has been accomplished is now rediscovered as one of the ablest beads the Navy ever had.
Impressed by this revision of public opinion in regard to a man upon whose leadership and administrative ability so much depends, I have been led to make a somewhat critical study of his career and personality with the purpose of ascertaining whether the confidence that he has come to inspire is justified.
It is at all times difficult equitably to appraise a public man. It is especially difficult when a nation is at war and the man is at the head of one of the great departments that is charged with the duty of waging the war. As few of us ever see those who are in the public eye and fewer still can know them intimately, we must depend on the newspapers for impressions, and the man who can reach the people despite the barrage of a hostile press must be genuine in his sympathy and courageous in his democracy.
I count it, therefore, greatly in Mr. Daniels's favor that despite the censoriousness of the press the people have come to trust him and believe in him ; for Lincoln expressed a profound truth when he said, “ You can't deceive all of the people all the time."
The same progressive growth of confidence in Mr. Daniels's Commander David Worth Bagley, is a naval officer who narhonesty and good sense is to be discerned among the naval cfficers rowly escaped death last December when the United States vessel with whom I have talked. They were at first disposed to resent Jacob Jones was sunk off the French coast; and it was perhaps his uemocracy, for the traditions of the Navy are essentially because of his wife's naval affiliations that the Secretary was aristocratic, and no little resentment was expressed when the first drawn toward his present position. Secretary issued his famous order forbidding the service of In his persistent fight against what he has described as the alcoholic drinks on naval vessels or in the yards. But now that “fetish of seniority” Mr. Daniels has also shown a determinawe are at war, the wisdom of that order is generally admitted, tion to make merit rather than the accident of position the and the painstaking impartiality with which both quarter-deck determinant of high rank in the Navy. He has secured the and forecastle have been treated is making Mr. Daniels one of passage of a law under which all promotions above the rank of the most popular Secretaries that the Navy ever had.
lieutenant-commanders are the result of selection by a board of In a letter to Senator Overman written by Mrs. Dewey experienced officers who decide whether the candidate has given · shortly after Admiral Dewey’s death she said: “I wish you and proof of his ability to command. the people of the country also to know that my husband felt In commenting upon the operation of this law in his annual for the present Secretary of the Navy, Hon. Josephus Daniels, report the Secretary expresses a view that most Americans will a sincere affection. Only a short time ago the Admiral said : approve in saying that “the day of promotion by seniority in • I have been in the Navy sixty-two years and have served the line of the Navy has forever passed. It was the ideal system under many Secretaries, but Secretary Daniels is the best Sec- for rewarding mediocrity in the same manner as initiative, retary we have ever had and has done more for the Navy than resource, and great ability were rewarded. It was un-American
ny other. I am amazed by his knowledge of technical matters. and was apparently framed with the object of protecting the He has studied profoundly, and his opinion is founded on close less efficient from the chagrin of seeing the more efficient observation.""
advanced over their heads. It denied the stimulus of a reward Much the same opinion would probably be expressed to-day for professional excellence. Under the new law, whereby line by most naval officers, and the enthusiasm and the effective officers above the rank of lieutenant-commander are promoted team work that are making the Navy what it is would hardly by selection, the question of approved ability rather than be possible otherwise.
length of service determines promotions. It well demonstrates. In Washington the other day I inquired of an officer who its superiority over the antiquated seniority system, which had come into the service from civil life since the war how it tended to put a premium upon mediocrity and ultra-prudence. was that the Navy was functioning so efficiently. His answer If a man' played for safety' under that system, he was far surer was : “ We have a good administrator in the Secretary. He of promotion than if he had the sand to do something new that plays no favorites. He trusts us. He puts responsibilities upon involved some chance of accident. Safety and prudence are us and kicks us out impartially if we fail. We can rely upon requisites, but every naval officer who is remembered had the fair treatment, and we are all on our mettle.”
courage, when it would serve his country, to take a chance by From the first Mr. Daniels's ideas seemed to have been to an audacious and daring move." establish an equality of opportunity in the Navy and to make The schools for sailors, promotion from the ranks, and the it thereby attractive to the more intelligent youths of the substitution of fitness for seniority as a qualification for high country. Prior to his administration enlisted men had occa- position are typical of the reforms by which Josephus Daniels sionally become officers, but the path of promotion was a difficult has democratized the Navy and made it efficient. He is never one and was barred by an examination that only those who had inaccessible. The enlisted man and the officer are always sure both an academic and a technical education could pass. As of a sympathetic hearing and just treatment if they have anythere was no way of getting this education aboard ship, the thing to complain of. By inquiry I learned that on the day that sailor's opportunity to obtain a commission was only theoretical, I visited him the Secretary had found time to see three sailors and the service had little attraction for the ambitious young man who felt that they had grievances; and, as far as I can discover, unless he could enter it by way of Annapolis.
it is to the spirit of comradeship thus manifested that the Now this is changed. There are schools for the enlisted men present enthusiasm of the naval personnel is due. Mr. Daniels on every ship. Attendance is compulsory, and every sailor who says that he wants every man in the service to feel that it is is willing to study hard enough can get the education that is “his Navy;" and he tells with pride how a young officer, when necessary to obtain a commission. The officers are the teachers, asked by an English admiral upon the arrival of our first flotilla and, although some of them protested that they did not enter of destroyers in Ireland when the boats would be ready for the service to be pedagogues, they are commencing to realize service, answered, “ We are ready now, sir.” that in instructing others they are learning much themselves. By some it is regarded as remarkable that a newspaper editor,
Since we entered the war over one thousand men have been whose previous experience could hardly have been regarded as advanced from warrant officers to commissioned officers and a training for such responsibilities, has developed the capacity over thirteen hundred enlisted men have been promoted to war- for leadership that the present Secretary of the Navy has disrant officers. Upon the recommendation of the Secretary, four played ; but, as boy and man, Mr. Daniels seems to have been years ago Congress passed a law giving him authority to nomi. unconsciously fitting himself for the position that he now nate annually one hundred enlisted sailors under twenty years occupies. of age for examination and entry as cadets at Annapolis, and He has always been a hard worker with the capacity for last year a young man who hail entered the Academy in this · taking infinite pains that Carlyle said was a mark of genius. way was the president of his class. In his annual report Mr. He was born in Washington, North Carolina, in 1862. At the Daniels says that it is his purpose to extend this principle further age of nineteen he was publishing a weekly newspaper at when the war is ended and to recommend that after passing his Wilson, North Carolina, and reading law. He was admitted to entrance examination every appointee to the Naval Academy the bar but never practiced, preferring to serve society and should go to sea and serve at least one year as an enlisted man study humanity and the humanities from the editor's chair.. before entering Annapolis.
Those who have had any experience in that school will underHe says that the American ideal is that men shall obtain high stand its educational value. From Wilson he went to Raleigh, station by beginning at the lowest rung in the ladder, and that the capital of North Carolina, where he became editor and they should secure place and position by first mastering the owner of the “ State Chronicle," a weekly paper that had been primary duties.
previously under the direction of Walter H. Page, our present He has applied this theory in the case of his own sons, one Ambassador to England. of whom upon the outbreak of the war enlisted as a private in The year 1893 was one of acute financial depression in the the Marine Corps, while another, aged eighteen, is a cadet at South. Subscriptions were hard to collect and advertising Annapolis. This cadet, by the way, is named Worth Bagley harder to get, and to make both ends meet the young editor Daniels, after Mrs. Daniels's brother, Lieutenant Worth Bag- came to Washington and took the position of Chief Clerk of ley, who was the first American naval officer to be killed in the the Interior Department under Hoke Smith, who had been Spanish-American War. Another brother of Mrs. Daniels, appointed Secretary of the Interior by Mr. Cleveland. During the day he worked for the Government and at night he worked Secretary of the Navy we have ever had, and thus he has vindi. for himself, editing his paper by mail and writing breezy let cated the President's judgment in appointing him as well as ters from Washington that so increased his circulation that by his own theory with regard to promotion by selection for menit 1895 he was able to acquire control of the “ News and Ob rather than seniority. He knows his job and he sticks to it server," then and now one of the leading daily papers of the As far as I have been able to discover, he never takes a vam. State. Combining his new acquisition with the Chronicle," tion. He does not even go on the inspection cruises that some he made his position in the world of journalism secure, and of his predecessors used to find so necessary in hot weather. returned to Raleigh, where he remained until Mr. Wilson He is kindly, sympathetic, painstaking, and intelligent. His asked him to take the Navy portfolio. Since he became a democracy is chiefly manifest in his desire to help men; and it Cabinet officer he has simply kept on working, but while work is because he believes that he can do this best by teaching them ing he has been a sympathetic listener and an apt learner. "to help themselves that, from cabin boy to admiral, the Navy is
Thus he has made himself, as Admiral Dewey said, the best to-day able to answer, “ We are ready now, sir.”
FIRST TO FALL
(W. C. S., CLASS OF '15)
BY ELIZABETH HANLY
Brilliant and bold, the service banners fly,
And one by one the frat house windows brighten
Above the river as the sun goes down.
Then sauntering down the chapel aisle you go,
Insouciant, indifferent, and slow,
A sidelong glance of mingled pride and shame
For the bright tablet that will bear your name.
SOLDIERS OF LAW AND ORDER
BY KATHERINE MAYO
AUTHOR OF - JUSTICE TO ALL," THE STANDARD AUTHORITY ON STATE POLICE M H IS happened in Pittsburgh in mid-July. For days and and with sickening smells of bananas and coal gas and bu
nights the heat had been merciless. It had beaten through manity. I the roofs and walls and pavements until roofs and walls She hurried out of the car, dragging the child after her. And and pavements gasped it sevenfold back. It lay and weltered just as the couplings gave their first jerk a brakeman saw the in streets and alleys, a thick and sticky pestilence. The two two jump off, on the wrong side of the track. great rivers, sweating beneath it, clogged the air with steam. He called his conductor. Hanging from the platform the No escape anywhere.
better to watch her, the two men saw her climb down toward The people's first resistance had worn away. Weak ones were the river bank, then, as though she had changed her mind, veer falling, each into his own pit-the weakest first.
back and start out along the bridge. Mary Kaufman's time came early. Mary Kaufman had not “I don't like that,” said the brakenan, as a curve shut off much chance. Physically she was a chip, a rag. Her weight was the sight. under a hundred pounds, and the little length she had was her “No more do I," agreed the conductor. - What's worse, I only dimension. She was under-nourished, anæmic, feebly hys thought she was queer when I took her tieket-and-why, yes, terical. Her inheritance, if she had thought of such things, by George! That ticket was for Kittanning. She shouldn't have inight have scared her. Her personal history was dull. She was got off here at all !" married, and her married life, poor but not poverty-stricken, “ It's my belief," the brakeman observed, “ that the woman is had been troubled. She had one child, a seven-year-old boy, crazy, and that she means to drown the boy. She's just looking and she sometimes wished the boy was dead. The boy himself for the likeliest place to push him off. That's what she's up to. was a bright little creature, loving and gentle and happy mark my words." hearted, but his spirit did not penetrate the fretful mind of his “ With her with a ticket to Kittanning, and getting into sonie mother, who saw in him only a burden to carry in a tiresome mess on the way, there'll likely be a claim against the comworld
pany.” The conductor's fears increased. Under the great, relentless heat-day after day of it, night They stopped the train at the first tower station and sent in s after night-Mary Kaufman began to brood, with a vague warning to Freeport, the seat of the nearest local police. resentment of the whole scheme of life. Then came a morning Meantime Mary Kaufman, pursued by her idea, but as yet when she arose from her comfortless, tousled bed into the grip confused and vacillating, driftit back aeross the bridge. Its of an idea.
sheer height and the stabbing glint of the flood beneath as it Under its spell she dressed herself and the boy, and, without glittered under the terrible sun in some way failed to command stopping for any pretense of food, hurried out into the street her. She must seek her thought in another form. Wandering and away to the railway station. There she bought tickets to still, she strayed through the little river settlement called Kittanning, distant some sixty miles.
Garber's Ferry, and so out and beyond, until her eyes fell upon Half-way to Kittanning, at a station called Butler Junction, a pleasant old white-columned farm-house, standing back among just as the train had finished its stop and was about pulling its green lawns, under the shade of apple trees-comfortable, out, Mary Kaufman suddenly sprang to her feet, and, dragging prosperous, cool. the boy after her, hurried out of the car—the rattletrap day. At this sight, so novel to ber fevereil eves, the poor litt coach gritty with cinders, pasted with soot, reeking with heat city-grown straw whirled into a new edy. She would take the The first of these stories, “ John G.," appeared in The Outlook last week
house, so cool and quiet, so white and malm behind the big pa March 20).
lars, beneath the green shadle. She wenkel take it, and then, Latin
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