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HARVARD COLLEGE
APRIL 3, 1918
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New YS PRAR

APR 24 1918

On account of the war and the consequent delays in the muils, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries

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THE GREAT GERMAN OFFENSIVE

lost by the defending army ; on the other hand, the loss of the For five days, from March 21 to March 26, a continued attacking army in killed and wounded is likely to be the larger. assault was made by enormous German forces on that part

In the present battle, for instance, the Germans claimed up to of the British line which lies between the Oise River to the

March 26 to have taken some 15,000 prisoners and 600 guns, south and the Somme River to the north and beyond the Somme while British reports put the enemy's loss in killed and River northward to a point a few miles above Bapaume. In the

wounded as high as 200,000. Barring the improbable case of a number of the attacking forces, which has been put as high as smash through on a large scale by the Germans, the real extent a million, in the weight of guns, and in the dense massing of

of the injury is to be judged, not by the amount of territory guns and men on given points regardless of loss, the offensive lost and gaineil, but by the number of killed, wounded, and was astounding. The total result at the end of these five prisoners and the number of guns lost respectively by the two days was, not a British disaster, but a British retirement.

DOUAI.5 The ground thus retaken by the Germans stretches from north to south for nearly fifty miles, and its greatest depth is nearly

oFresnes fifteen miles. The Germans have occupied the towns of Ba

Vitry-en-Artois. paume, Combles, Péronne, Ham, Chauny, Noyon, and many sinaller places. Whether the offensive reached its culmination

ARRAS at the end of these five days' fighting and the line running through the towns just named is the limit of the German

Guemappe advance, or whether the Germans may go farther and gain Albert and Arras, or even possibly reach still farther west

Jo Marquion and occupy Amiens, will probably appear before these lines are

Boiryo
Croisilles
Bullecourt

Sailly read. The map adjoining will show the reader the position of

St. Leger
aQueant

CAMBRAI

Bourlon, the lines on March 26.

Moryg

Moeuvres All the ground fought over in this offensive was occupied by

Naulxo Morchies

D the German forces before the great British advance a year ago

BoDoignies

Marcoing 0

le-Petit this spring. It is hardly a year since we were all rejoicing that

BAPAUMELO the British had taken Bapaume and the French Péronne.

Bertincourto Even before those events took place the Allies had no feeling of

Gouzeaucourts

Gonnelieu despondency whatever, and now that the line in this section has

Lesboeufs swayed back again a few miles to its former position there is

Heudicourt

Vendhuile no more reason (so far as the relative position of the opposing

Combles

Epehyd lines is concerned) to feel despondency than there was then.

Le Catelet

ROASSOY During these five days the British line was not broken, it was

Hargicourt only bent back. It is one thing to penetrate lines of tienches, it is another thing to drive a hole through the main defense. In

Tincourt

Roisel

PERONNES other words, this offensive compares more closely with that

0 waged by the French in the Champagne sector at the time when

Pontrus the French took 25,000 prisoners and drove the Germans back

Vermando over a wide stretch, than with last year's disaster in Italy,

Holnong where for a time General Cadorna's divisions were separated

Omignon Monchy

ST. QUENTINO and outflanked, so that a retreat which might almost be called a

Licourto rout followed, with the loss of enormous numbers of

Chaulnes
and
guns

Roupy
munitions and the surrender of a large sector of Italy; or,
again, the present offensive up to March 26 is more like the
British advance and German retreat through precisely this

St. Simon

Moyo same territory than it is like Mackensen's break through the Russian line at the Dunajec, or Mackensen's utter defeat of the

Wendevils Rumanian armies. The general rule with the great offensives in this war on both sides has been that their force has necessarily worn down after a few days because of the difficulty of bring

RAFEREO

Guiscard ing new men and new munitions into action.

Hermies

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THE NATURE OF THE ATTACK

In all such offensives the attacking party has a certain advantage because the party attacked is never quite sure until the last minute whether the chreatened offensive is a diversion, or perhaps one of two or three simultaneous offensives, or whether it is really an attempt to drive through at the point threatened. The defending forces, therefore, must not too soon be concentrated at one point. It is in the nature of a fierce attack on a large scale also that the larger mumber of prisoners should be

THE GREAT GERMAN DRIVE The map in its shaded area shows the advance of the German arm, up to March 26. On the evening of that day news came that Noyon had been evacuated. The black line indicates the position of the Allies on March 21, when the offensive began; the broken line on the west, the Allies' positions before the

German retiral a year ago

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contending armies. At this date it is impossible to speak defi been great, and, even assuming that Germany has a new and nitely as to that loss.

extraordinary weapon, it does not appear probable that it will The brunt of the fighting during the period here described have a serious effect on the war in its larger aspects. fell with terrific force on the British armies. Gradually the French have been drawn into action as the German advance stretched toward the south, German reports that American

THE DUTCH SHIPS troops were engaged appear to have their only basis in the fact

The President's proclamation, by which the Dutch shapis that two regiments of American railway engineers had been working with the British forces on the line attacked, and, just ment, was perfectly sound in its international law when it stated

now in this country were taken over for use by our Govern as they did in the battle of Cambrai last November, they bravely that the act was “in exercise of our indisputable rights and in dropped their tools and took up their rifles to do their part in accordance with the law and practice of nations." It is natural, the fighting. All accounts indicate that the British in their perhaps, that political leaders in Holland should protest in order retreat inflicted tremendous losses upon the enemy, and that

to still popular outcry. The real cause of indignation in Ilolland there was nothing like a rout or a panic. General Haig declares is the failure of her statesmen to assert Holland's rights to enter that everywhere the retirement was conducted in good order. The British Prime Minister, in a message to General Haig, would undoubtedly have been to the benefit of Holland. They

into an amicable agreement with the United States, such as wrote: “ The British Cabinet wishes to express to the army failed to do this simply because they were, to quote President the nation's thanks for its splendid defense. The whole Empire Wilson again, “under the menace of a Power which has demonis filled with pride as it watches the heroic resistance offered by strated its disdain of neutral rights.” It is an old adage in its brave troops to overwhelming odds.”

criminal law that the attorney who has no case abuses his The English press shows no sign of trepidation, but a spirit nent. So, when we read that the Dutch editors and politicians

oppo of courage and resolution. One paper, the “ Chronicle," even talk of “an act of robbery,” of “holding a pistol at our head," says: Assuming that the German losses are at least one and the like, we rightly infer that they find abuse easier than hundred and fifty thousand, the enemy has sustained a reverse,

argument. In point of fact, the right to do what our Governfor he has not obtained a strategical success directly conducing ment has done in this case is thoroughly well established and to a decision, while he has lost eight or ten per cent of his effec has been exercised by many nations in many instances. tives without similarly lowering the efficiency of the Allies.” Dutch ships have been idle in American and English ports

A British officer now in this country, Colonel Dunmore, for many weeks. We must use our wheat in a certain order of offers this comment:

precedence-first, our own consumers; second, our allies in the If you are willing to sacrifice enough men and material, you war ; third, neutral nations. We offered to send Holland wheat can always take any given area. ... But the thing that counts is and other supplies so far as the other demands upon us permit; the ability to follow up, consolidating the new positions with the but in return for this we asked Holland to arrange her shipping old lines and translating the advance into real victory. ...I methods so as to permit us to fulfill our most pressing National feel justified in saying that the fearful price in man power the Germans are paying for this punch will serve only to hasten the

duties of transportation. She has refused, simply and solely end of the war and victory for the Allies.

because she fears Germany. We have now arranged the matter

ourselves, lawfully and properly. The needs of Holland and of Elsewhere in this issue will be found editorial discussion of

another neutral nation, Switzerland, will be looked after huthe meaning of the great offensive to the Allies, and, in particu- manely and carefully. The financial interests of the owners of lar, to Americans.

the ships will be conserved. In short, Holland is better off since

the taking over of the ships than she was before. THE PARIS MYSTERY

The vessels which have passed into the temporary control of

our Government represent a total tonnage of 470,000, while at How much of myth and how much of reality are mingled the same time Great Britain has taken control of ships in Britin the reports of the long-range bombardment of Paris is still

ish waters with 400,000 tonnage. It is not proposed to use these in doubt as we write. It is certain, however, that nine-inch ships directly for military purposes such as the transport of shells, not bombs, have fallen in considerable numbers in and

troops; but they may relieve other vessels for this work, and it is about Paris. Twenty-four such shells are said to have struck

in this sense that the President is right in saying that imperative Paris on Saturday, March 23, and twenty-seven on Sunday, military needs of the United States dictated the arrangement

. while a smaller number fell on Monday. The first flight of these missiles resulted in ten deaths, but later attacks seem to have done little damage. The bursting force of the shells is said GENERAL WOOD'S VIEW OF to be small compared with ordinary artillery work with missiles

AMERICAN PREPAREDNESS of this caliber.

Major-General Leonard Wood has returned to this country There are at least half a dozen theories as to this bombard

after having been wounded by the premature explosion of a ment. Technical experts and inventive minds have been fertile

shell during his tour of inspection of the western front in in explanations. If the missiles were shot from a gun on land, it

France. Last week he was summoned before the Senate Commust have been over sixty miles from Paris, unless, which is

mittee on Military Affairs, and, under examination,

his extremely improbable, it is concealed somewhere within the

view of the American situation in the war. We reprint from French lines. Experts say that a gun capable of hurling a shell

the New York - Tribune” the following summary of his from sixty to seventy miles through the air must be one hundred and fifty feet long, and that the shell would start with a muzzle opinions : velocity of over five thousand feet a second and attain a height

1. France is eager for America to send men--and more men

to Europe. The French are disappointed at the extent to which of thirty-five miles. But some experts believe that a gun could

this Nation has got into the war. They had not believed the have a special chamber of greater diameter than its main bore,

unpreparedness of this country as bad as it turned out to be. so that the expulsive force in proportion to the diameter of the

2. Airplanes must be supplied to the American forces. There shell might be multiplied. Still others think that the shell itself

are now one thousand American fliers but no machines, and the might have a series of charges to be exploded at intervals based

French cannot spare any. As a result the American sectors are on the increased resistance of the air. Other experts believe in virtually unprotected by aircraft, the French coming when they the possible existence of an aerial torpedo, or a torpedo that can, but infrequently. German planes have flown so low over could be discharged from a Zeppelin, or possibly from an airplane,

the American lines that American soldiers have fired pistols at

them. at a great height from miles away. Still others talk mysteriously of an electro-magnetic weapon which could fire shells to an

3. The confidential opinion of aircraft experts on the other

side is that the Liberty motor will not be as good as the motors enormous distance. Finally, many military experts incline to

being made in France and England for the combat planes, complete skepticism as to the suggested ranges of sixty or ser

though they may prove very satisfactory for bomb-dropping enty miles.

planes. The military effect of this bombardment of Paris has not 4. The morale of the French and British forces is excellent,

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but the Entente forces on the western front are facing superior under Government control. But legislation by Congress was
numbers of Germans, emphasizing the imperative need for more
men from America.

needed to provide for the permanency of Government operation 5. The National Army is a splendid body of men, and should

and for payment to the owners for the property taken over. he moved to France as speedily as possible.

Congress has now passed this legislation, and the President has 6. So far as possible the raw materials should be sent abroad,

signed the bill. Under the new Act Government operation of and munitions, artillery, and airplanes constructed over there.

the railways is to last only twenty-one months after peace is 7. More ships are absolutely essential to the winning of the war. established. But there is nothing in the Act to prohibit a future The ships are needed to carry not only men but supplies to France. Congress from making Government operation permanent, and

8. While the French can supply guns and shells, it is vitally many good judges believe that the step now taken is a perma-
essential that America speed up her output. There are no Amer nent one. If it is found by experience that the railways under
ican guns in France. Materials should be shipped over and the Government operation give more satisfactory service than under
guns manufactured there. It is a war of big guns.
9. The General Staff should be enlarged and should devote

private operation, and especially if the property owners find its time to the big planning. There is great need for this. Gen

that the returns from their investments are more stable under eral Pershing has an excellent staff in France.

Government control than under private control, the country 10. While short of equipment of various sorts, and absolutely

will undoubtedly insist upon continuing Government operation. dependent on the French for artillery and machine guns, the

What we have now under the new Act is Government operaAmerican expeditionary force is a fine body of troops, and will tion and not Government ownership. Following the suggestion give a good account of itself. Its morale is excellent.

of the President made on January 4, 1918, the new Act proSome of the unpleasant facts in this record have been known vides that the Government shall take over the railways and pay for some time to many experts and students of our army condi to the owners as rental an amount to each railway equivalent to tions. The Outlook has been criticised as “unpatriotic” for the average net railway operating income of the three years publishing some of them before. But the most un patriotic thing ending June 30, 1917.” The new law provides that if the rail. that the country can do in this crisis is to refuse to face the ways are returned to their private owners they shall be returned facts. When they are known, the country can set itself to work in as good repair and with as complete equipment as at present. to remedy them.

The President, through the Director-General of Railroads, is
to initiate rates and fares, subject to revision by the Inter-State

Commerce Commission.
SUBMARINES AND SHIP-BUILDING

So far as the traveling public is concerned, little difference In England, as in America, there has been complaint of will be observed at present in the operation of the roads from lethargy in ship-building. A valuable result of the frank state that which appears on the surface under private management. ment as to submarines and ships lately made in the House of In most instances the railway officials will be retained in their Commons by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Sir Eric Geddes, present positions, time-tables will probably be published as usual, has been the centering of public opinion and official effort on the and the names of the various railways will appear on the cars. speeding up of ship-building. It may well have the like effect in But the Government now has it in its power to make some radithis country. This is a case where clear knowledge of the facts is cal reforms and changes, and these will doubtless be made as essential to the right prosecution of war work.

time goes on. There will be central purchasing bureaus for all It is true that since January 6 of this

year there has been no the roads, and steps have already been taken to standardize single week in which the total losses of British ships have been rolling stock, locomotives, and other forms of equipment. There equal to the average weekly number since the ruthless submarine will be many technical changes, but these it is not necessary for warfare began, It is true also that Germany's threats of destroy the layman to think about. What will practically happen will ing British trade within a year have not been fulfilled, or any be that the Government will keep its hand and eye on all receipts thing like fulfilled. Nevertheless the figures now given as to the and on all expenditures, and will guarantee to the railways a world's shipping show that the loss by submarines is serious; specified balance, which is measured by their previous net earnthat the new shipping launched is not keeping up with the ings, for distribution among their stockholders and bondholders. losses ; and that the submarine will be a continuing menace Mr. McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury, as Director-General until ship-building in Great Britain and the United States is of Railroads, has the authority now to dismiss any incompetent speeded up to more than cover the losses. Sir Eric puts the railway officials and employ those whom he thinks can run the gross loss from all causes in the world's shipping (exclusive of railways efficiently. One thing that will doubtless be done at enemy loss) during the war at over 11,000,000 tons, of which an early date for the convenience of the traveling public is the 6,000,000 tons were lost in 1917, and estimates Great Britain's issuance of a mileage book good on any railway in any part of net loss since the ruthless submarine warfare began at the country. Complicated freight classifications and schedules 1,300,000 tons—that is, the losses have exceeded the output by may also be done away with in the near future. This would tend that amount. On the other hand, there was a welcome gain to facilitate not only the convenience and comfort of shippers relatively in the last quarter of 1917 in ship-building, followed, but would abolish the very expensive system of accounting however, by disappointing figures for January and February of which is now maintained by the railways. Routing may also be this year. The need in England, as here, seems to be for skilled improved. If a merchant has a car-load of goods to ship from labor. There as well as here, also, this need may be offset by New York to San Francisco, he may, under the new system, standardizing ship-building, and the outlook in this direction deliver his goods at a receiving point in New York, and Governseems to be good.

ment officials will determine what line of railways shall transIt may be added that the war against submarines carried on port the cars. by British and American naval vessels and armed merchantmen The Post-Office under Government operation is a highly suchas been brave and skillful in the extreme. It is believed with cessful transportation business, and the Parcel Post, which reason that better results are being obtained all the time. As to many people looked upon with misgivings, has justified itself this Sir Eric said:

and has increased the scale of its operations. It is conceivable The results of the past year have shown the ability of our sea that goods or freight of any size, weight, or dimensions might be men to get upon terms with the submarine menace, and gradu transported by the Government, with a system of Governmentally to gain the upper hand. This result has been achieved in

operated railways, like the smaller parcels which are now carried spite of an imperfect knowledge of a new and barbarous method

by the Parcel Post. Thus, as has been suggested by Mr. Theoof warfare and of a scarcity of suitable material. Our material

dore Price, of “ Commerce and Finance,” a shipper, instead of resources for this warfare are already improved, and are being rapidly augmented, whilst science is placing at our disposal

getting a bill of lading and having to settle his freight account means of offense and defense of which we have been in need. at destination, may in some not far distant future buy a ticket

for his packing-case or his piano or his automobile or his steel

beams just as he buys a ticket for himself, and paste this ticket THE NEW RAILWAY ERA

in the form of a Government postage-stamp on the goods which Under the executive war powers of the President the steam he wishes to ship. railways of the United States have been since December 28, 1917, These enticing visions of simplification in the transportation

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of freight are things to be worked out in the future. In the re-election of these Democrats and support the candidacy of the meantime all citizens, whether they are shippers, travelers, or

loyal Republicans who will be nominated against them? railway-security owners, should co-operate with the Government

"This list includes Fitzgerald, of New York, then Chairman of in every possible way to make the railway operation under the

the Committee on Appropriations ; Foster, of Illinois, Chairman

of the Committee on Mines and Mining; and Webb, of North present law a success. We shall then all be in a better position to determine after the war ends whether the new policy adopted

Carolina, Chairman of the Judiciary Committee. It includes the

name of William Kent, of California, whom the President as a war measure shall be made the permanent policy of the recently appointed to a place on the Tariff Commissiou. Is it (ountry,

possible that the President is appointing disloyal men to placra of trust and confidence in the Government?.

Is the test represented by these votes a better test than the AV APPROPRIATE MEMORIAL

vote on the declaration of war against Germany or on the Katun The enactment of the Railroad Bill, under which the

amendments to the Selective Service Act, which were absolutely United States Government has taken over the operation of all

necessary to carry out the Administration's policy touching thie steam railways of the country, brings to the front again the

raising of an army? If not, what will be the attitude of the

Democratic Campaign Committee as to the re-election of Mr. question as to whether all public utilities should be operated by

Kitchin, the leader of the Democratic majority in the House? Government or by private corporations under Government He voted against both of these propositions, regulation. As a matter of fact, we have now and shall have for What will be their attitude toward Chairman Dent, of the Commany years both systems in operation in this country. The mittee on Military Affairs, who opposed the Kahn amendments delivery of potable water in our cities, towns, and villages con and now opposes the passage of a bill amending the Selective stitutes a public utility. In early days this public utility was Service Act proposed by the Administration ? administered by private corporations. It is now universally

What will be their attitude touching the re-election of the administered by Government. But the telephone and the elec

Speaker of the House, who likewise voted against the Kahn tric light, which are also public utilities, are still operated by

amendments? How will they consistently support the election of

the fifty-odd other Democrats who voted against the Kahn private corporations under Government regulation, and we

amendments ? think the sentiment of the country is in favor of such operation,

Without the support of Mr. Lenroot and his associates not at least for the present. Private operation under regulation only one but several of the measures absolutely necessary for and public operation by Government are thus inextricably the winning of the war would have failed of passage. What associated.

would be the attitude of the Democratic Campaign Committee The regulatory system has one advantage which is often lost touching the Democrats who but for the loyalty and patriotism sight of. It is a training school for men who may, should, and

of the Republicans would have defeated the programme of essenoften do become the administrators when public utilities are

tial legislation ? taken over by the Government. Such a man was John Eshle It must be admitted that, during the period in 1914, 1915, and man, of California, who died about two years ago, but whose 1916 when the President was advocating neutrality of thought memory is kept green by a bust which has just been presented and feeling, Mr. Lenroot was to some extent affected by that to the University of California by the Utilities Bureau of policy and by the taint of La Follette-ism which nearly ruined Philadelphia. We reproluce a photograph of this bust on Wisconsin. But since our entry into the war Representative another page,

Lenroot has supported the cause of his country and its allies The Utilities Bureau of Philadelphia is a private civic bodly with vigor, patriotism, and effectiveness. the purpose of which is to keep the public informed regarding As the leader of his party the President has the right and the best methods and achievements of public utility corpora duty to try to get the kind of Congress he wants. If Mr. tions, whether private or Governmental. Mr. Eshleman was a Davies is a better loyalist than Mr. Lenroot, all loyalists in distinguished public utility expert. He had worked as a section Wisconsin should unite on Mr. Davies. But the President's hand and boss on a California railway, prepared himself for action may prove a political boomerang. college by studying at night, often by the light of his railway lantern, entered the University of California, and graduated from that institution in 1902 with the highest honors. He soon

CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS was elected one of the California railway commissioners and On March 20 President Wilson issued an executive order became President of the Commission, and in this office he made providing that all conscientious objectors to military servir a very distinguished record, winning the respect and confidence who have been called out in the selective draft should be given both of the people and the railway managers. If the municipal, non-combatant service. The non-combatant branches as outline! State, or National operation of public utilities is to be success by the President include the Medical Corps, Quartermaster ful, the Government administrators must be men of the type Corps, and the Engineer Service. of John Eshleman, educated for their work, free from partisan This order covers the treatment of all persons of draft am ship, and devoted to the public service. It is a good thing that who have been ordered to report for military service, and why the undergraduates of the University of California shoull have have been certitied by local boards as belonging to religion, before them the Eshlemau bust as a constant reminder that the seets whose creeds forbid participation in war or who object to truest patriotism imposes upon the American citizen a devotion

such participation because of conscientious scruples, but hare to the public service in time of peace as well as to the military failed to receive certificates as members of religious sects. service in time of war.

The service in the Medical Corps includes service in the san. tary detachments attached to combatant units at the front.

service in the divisional sanitary trains composed of ambidane TWO STATEMENTS

companies and field hospital companies on the line of communi In accepting the resignation from the Federal Trade cations, at the base in France, and with the troops and at the Commission of Joseph E. Davies, the Democratic candidate for hospitals in the United States; also the service of supply and Senator in Wisconsin, President Wilson said:

repair in the Medical Department. The McLemore resolution, the embargo issue, and the armed While any service in the Quartermaster Corps may be treate neutrality measure presented the first opportunities to apply the as non-combatant, the President mentions in particular, at the acid test in our country to disclose true loyalty and genuine rear of the zone of operations, service in the following: stere Americanism. It shoull always be a source of much satisfaction

dore companies, labor companies, remount depots, veterinary to you that on these crucial propositions you proved true.

hospitals, supply depots, bakery companies, the subsistence In defending Representative Irvine L. Lenroot, the Repub- service, the bathing service, the laundry service, the salvage lican candidate from the President's implications, Congressman service, the clothing renovating service, the shoe repair service, Anderson, of Minesota, declarel:

and transportation repair service and motor truck companies

. Thirty-five Democrats voted as Mr. Lenroot voted-against While any engineer service may also be treated as non-comtabling the McLemore resolution. . Is it the intention of the batant, the President mentions, at the rear of the zone of oper: Presiilent and the Democratic('ampaign Committee to oppose the atious, the following services : railway building, operation, and

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