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repair ; road building and repair ; construction of rear-lìne forti With or without the increased rank, as Dr. Mayo adds, the
We do also.
A STATE POLICE
We publish this week the last of the series of three stories It may very well be that members of the Medical Corps who of the Pennsylvania State Police by Miss Katherine Mayo. In have always been ready to work at the actual front and who early issues of The Outlook we shall publish two more stories have many times during this war been under fire, and have from her pen. The first, entitled “The Murder of Sam Howell, even been bombarded in their hospitals, may privately object to is a narrative of the brutal crime which led Miss Mayo and her being classified as non-combatants. General Leonard Wool, friend, Miss Newell, to make a study of the State Police System one of the greatest of living, fighting American officers, came in Pennsylvania and to start a movement in the State of New from the Medical Corps, and did his earliest fighting on our York for the establishment of a similar State police force. In Western frontier as an army surgeon. In 1898, in a letter to a subsequent paper on “The New York State Troopers" Miss Governor Roger Wolcott, of Massachusetts, Major-General Mayo will tell something of the spirit and achievements of the Lawton spoke thus of General Wood's Indian campaign of new and fine body of men who are now protecting the rural 1886 : “ When, through exposure and fatigue, the infantry bat districts of the Empire State under the command of their Sytalion lost its last officer, Captain Wood volunteered to command perintendent, Major Chandler. Governor Whitman-signed the it, in addition to his duties as a surgeon.... I served through enactment creating the Department of State Police on April 1, the War of the Rebellion and in many battles, but in no in 1917, and on the 2d of May he commissioned Major Chandler stance do I remember such devotion to duty or such an example as the head of the new organization. It took some months to of courage and
perseverance. It was mainly due to Captain enlist and train the force. But it has now been in active service Wood's loyalty and resolution that the expedition was suc for seven months, and its record is already remarkable. Miss cessful.”
Mayo's paper gives a vivid account of the human side of this Score at least one for the non-combatant Medical Corps ! record. There will be published in May by the Houghton
Mifflin Company, of Boston, a new book by Miss Mayo entitled
“ The Standard Bearers.” It is a collection of stories of the RAISE THE RANK OF MEDICAL OFFICERS
Pennsylvania State Troopers, and will include those which As Representative Dyer asserted the other day, of late Miss Mayo has contributed to The Outlook, the Atlantic years Congress has not been giving the necessary considera Monthly," and the “Saturday Evening Post." These stories tion to the Surgeon-General's office. Mr. Dyer was speaking are not only narratives of thrilling adventure, but records of concerning the bill in the House of Representatives which he chivalrous courage which prove that the old-time spirit of had introduced, the same bill having been introduced by Sena- knighthood has not died out of the modern utilitarian world. tor Owen, of Oklahoma, in the Senate, to raise the rank of We fancy that good old Sir Walter Scott would, if he could officers of the Medical Reserve Corps. According to the present come back to earth, read these stories with the same zest for law, ranks for officers in the Medical Reserve Corps are lieu virile and courteous bravery which he put into the creation of tenant, captain, and major. The pending legislation provides “Quentin Durward” and The Talisman. for ranks in addition of lieutenant-colonel, colonel, brigadier The general system of a State police, with modifications general, and major-general.
suitable to each particular State, is applicable to every State in Such a law should be passed. It would give to our medical the Union, as we believe those who have read Miss Mayo's men working abroad not only a parity of rank with other med stories and her book “ Justice to All” will agree. Now that ical men working there, but it would give them a position of New York has followed Pennsylvania’s example, we bope to see much-needed authority. Recommendation given by a medical many other States fall into line. officer to a line officer of superior rank has not hitherto carried the necessary weight, and this experience is responsible for the demand for advanced rank. As Surgeon-General Gorgas recently
THE PAINTER'S PAINTER said, as quoted by the New York Times :"
Men call Spenser the poet's poet. So in some sense the late Line officers have had no hesitation in ignoring the sanitary Albert Pinkham Ryder was the painter's painter. recommendations of medical officers of lower rank. The men of Ryder had few of the striking characteristics of artists the Medical Corps should get higher rank, rank commensurate whose names and works one most often sees. His name was with the importance of the positions they hold. Some of them
practically unknown. Since his death, a year ago, it has become are administering great hospitals, yet they hold subordinate rank.
better known, and the memorial exhibition of his canvases at The same paper quotes the following from Dr. Simon Baruch: the Metropolitan Museum of Art, now in progress, will make
Dr. C., a professor of gynecology (therefore expert in ab it well known.
ing at that! As is well known, a north light is generally couReserve Corps for many years, was actively on duty in the
sidered essential for a painter's studio. His was a lonely life.
camp of reunited veterans ať Gettysburg in 1913, has worked with
But he walked abroad at night, and, in the midst of the might and main to make the Medical Reserve Corps a veritable metropolis, learned to know the mystic meaning of the surrezmilitary force, served in its enlargement required by the expan
der of the dark to that light which is the promise of day. W sion of our military force, and is now in active service in Europe see this in his “Noli Me Tangere. with the rank of major. He has recently been superseded in It was this comprehension of the mystical and the magical authority by a former student of his who, having entered the Reg which made him the painter's painter for many painters who ular Army, has now attained a rank superior to Dr. C.
have high technical qualifications lack the quality we see in The number in the regular Medical Corps now on active Ryder's “The Temple of the Mind,” for instance. duty is 775, and volunteer physicians in the Medical Officers' In short, Ryder's canvases give something
beyond the ordinary Reserve Corps to the number of 12,855 are also on active duty. sensation ; they awaken hidden poetry. It is the mission of The well-known surgeon Dr. William J. Mayo, speaking of the such works--as Mr. Daingertield in the March - Scribner's great sacrifices financially and professionally which members of says—" to keep alive the finer attributes, to cause men to see with the Medical Reserve Corps have made, says that the only con other than bodily eyes and to find calm in the presence of nur dition the men ask is that during the time they are in service beauty." Mr. Daingerfield, himself an accomplished painter they shall have working conditions which justify the sacritices. whose article in Scribner's" is a model for crities in that
ary 8, 1918.
it combines human interest with technical authority, believes ** As regards a free passage to the sea from Serbia, there should that for the art lover who owns a fine canvas by Ryder be a solution if there is willingness to find it.” Nor does day some new emotion arises, some new beauty is revealed, and the non-Turkish-nationalities-in-the-Turkish-Empire thesis seem it is forever unfathomable in the qualities of tone, of harmony, unsurmountable. and of color.”
But when he comes to the Polish thesis Prince Alexander Ryder himself drew a distinction between the artist and the balks, declaring it "entirely unacceptable to the German Govpainter, once saying of a distinguished painter who had just ernment, no matter what kind of a German Government there diel, “ Yes, he painted well, but he was not an artist.” Apply- may be, for the reason that Posen [the capital of German ing this standard to Ryder, Mr. Daingerfield passes this judg Poland) lies at the gate of Berlin.” But it is also regrettable, ment upon him:
as the Prince adds, that the Polish problem cannot be solved No more artistic personality has appeared in our art. If we
in an ideal manner from a purely Polish national point of assume that he was a greater artist than painter, we shall be
view. near the truth. . .. I mean to say, the perfectness of emotional As to a league of nations, the Prince declares that all expression is far superior to that brilliancy of technic which is states must ultimately take part in it, to find in it guaranty the token of the painter.
against a return of such a catastrophe as the present war.
In closing, Prince Alexander pays his respects to the Ger
man obsession concerning America and Japan. “ The Germans WHAT A GERMAN PRINCE THINKS OF
must free themselves from their fixed ideas that in this war PRESIDENT WILSON
America thinks only of her material interests and that the Prince Chlodwig zu Hlohenlohe succeeded (aprivi as Im President declared war so that, taking advantage of the occaperial German Chancellor, and was in turn succeeded by Biilow, sion, he might build up a great army with reference to a future Bethmann Hollweg, Michaelis, and the present Chancellor, who, war with Japan.” “ The truth is,” declares Prince Alexander, like Hlohenlohe, is also a Bavarian.
as hotly as could an American, " that President Wilson, when It is natural that the son of a liberal father should himself be he derlared war on Germany, acted under the pressure of the a liberal, and Prince Alexander zu Hlohenlohe is not only a vast majority of his people, and that every American who goes liberal but, in these times, may be counted a radical. His opin to war as well as every one who accompanies the soldiers to the ions on any subject are worth while, both because of his own ships which are to take them to Europe is firmly convinced independence of character and because of the atmosphere he that they are setting forth for the salvation of the imperiled has breathed in the paternal home-an atmosphere not only freedom and justice of the world.” liberal but authoritative, for his ancestors have held positions Of course Prince Alexander's suggestion of a referendum of of
power in the governments of the German states for centuries. the Alsace-Lorraine question, which we discuss more fully else
Last July The Outlook had occasion to comment upon where in this issue, is absolutely unacceptable to France, and Prince Alexander's remarkable articles on the state of German ought to be unacceptable, for several sound reasons, to all the public opinion. In the latest number of the “ Neue Zürcher Allies, including America. It is, moreover, not very satisfactory Zeitung” to reach us we find a no less remarkable article by to have the President's proposed “arrangements and covenants him, and we translate from the original text in the Zurich treated as mere “feelers." Nevertheless such a statement from paper. The article is about President Wilson's address of Janu
a German is a sufficient rarity to be suggestive, although in the
face of the mighty combat on the western front all academic The reception of the auldress in Germany was what might questions of peace negotiations pale into insignificance for the have been expected. “The Pan-Germans in their blind war-and time being annexation fanaticism” regarded President Wilson's utterance “as hypocrisy and arrogance,” says the Prince, and adds: “Yet that they should display such anger is surprising, for it shows
ATHLETICS AND THE WAR how uncomfortable the address makes them and how they fear The report in the American casualty list from France that that this message from the United States, when once the Ger a well-known American track athlete has been severely wounded man nation knows about its details, will so impress it as to calls attention to the athletes from England and America who lead to a change in its mood.” On this account "the Pan-Ger have taken part in the war. mans are shrieking as loudly as possible so that they may over From England, of course, the devotees of cricket are notable. come the President's voice," asserts Prince Alexander.
The Rev. Hervey Staunton, Chaplain to the Forces, whose death Nevertheless, at the risk of becoming the target of Pan- in service has just been announced, was a famous cricketer, and German attacks, any one who can give an impartial judgment another was Captain Thurber, who as early as the age of sevenmust admit, he declares, that the Fourteen Points in the Wilson teen represented Norfolk in the Minor Counties Championship. peace message, even if not entirely acceptable, are a possible He kept the wicket for his side so successfully that he was basis for the beginning of negotiations. "When one reads the invariably chosen to open the innings. In boxing, Oxford has angry newspaper articles from Berlin and Budapest,” he con lost her champion boxer, Lieutenant Charles Ward, the son of tinues, " which see in the address nothing but arrogance, impe Herbert Ward, the sculptor, and also another champion lightrialism, and the will to humiliate the Central Powers and to weight boxer during his student days, Major Robert Gregory. hinder their development, one almost believes that the author's In football a notable loss is that of Lieutenant Wookey, the of these articles have not even taken the trouble to examine the airman who dropped leaflets containing a reproduction of separate theses of Mr. Wilson's address closely.”
President Wilson's speech over the German lines. To discuss each of these fourteen theses or points of this mes From this country the largest representation of active players sage to Congress would take too much space, says this critic. at the front comes, it is claimed, from the sport of pole. Of the Prince Alexander confines himself to the theses which, in his 1,440 members of the forty-nine clubs in the American Polo view, present the greatest difficulties.
Association, 985, or over sixty per cent, have enlisted and are Above all others is the statement concerning Alsace Lorraine. now in the service, not a few having attained highest army rank. Yet, affirms the author, “even a German may acknowledge that At the Polo Association's annual meeting the other day Mr. the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine has remained a thorn in the Henry Lloyd Herbert, the chairman, after pointing out these heart of the French, causing a wound which fifty years has not statistics, paid tribute to the late Major Augustus Peabody been able to heal ; that it has remained a constant danger to the Gardner, who since 1891 had been active in polo. Major Gardrelations between Germany and France, and consequently to a ner played on his Myopia team in many cup-winning events. world peace.” Bismarck himself recognized that he had made a The vigor and determination he had shown on the polo field blunder. From President Wilson's words the Prince concludes
were again evident when, as member of Congress, he became a that a possible solution of the difficulty would be through a far foremost exponent of National preparedness, and especially reaching autonomy or through a referendum.
when, at the outbreak of the war, he was the first member to As to a new Italian border the Prince contents himself with resign from Congress and to carry out his principles by enlistsaying that this does not seem to be a conditio sine qua non. ing in the Army. He showed there, as Mr. Herbert pointed out,
the same brave sporting spirit that he had given in his youth as soon as one crop had been harvested another was started. to games.
Nothing was permitted to go to waste, and the food which While the English are more dogged fighters than are the could not be used at once was dried or canned or sold in the Germans because of British devotion to outdoor sports, and
market established by the company. And, what is more, the
THE FOYERS DU SOLDAT
Last October the French Prime Minister officially invited
These huts are about the same as our American Army and The Pennsylvania Railroad system began its gardening cam Navy Y. M. C. A. huts in their features of concerts, entertainpaign as soon as America became a belligerent. Along its right ments, lectures, educational talks and classes, games, writing of way lie great tracts of land suitable for vegetable production facilities, reading matter, sports, and the canteen. The last These tracts were offered to employees in small plots at a purely named is a very important factor. A recent letter from one of nominal rental. As many of the men who embraced the oppor the American secretaries says: tunity had little or no knowledge of gardening, the company Six times during the three hours and a half that the canteen took a census of prospective gardeners and secured for them was open the big marmite was filled with water, heated, chocolate several thousand copies of the National War Garden Commis made and sold over the counter. . . . At last when the great vat sion's manual on gardening. This Commission, from whose just had been drained of every drop of chocolate and the late comers published pamphlet we learn these facts, reports that this year turned away without the comforting hot drink to sleep on ... the Pennsylvania system has widely extended its movement.
it was found that 1,310 cups of chocolate had been served
It must be remembered that we serve hot
during the day.
drinks only from twelve to one, three to four, and from five
thirty to eight-but this evening we suspended the service dursome fifteen hundred of its employees who expressed a desire to
ing the band concert from six to seven. cultivate gardens a sixty-acre tract of good river bottom land,
The American Secretary of cne of the Foyers wrote recently: which it plowed and prepared for seeding, apportioning the land in small parcels.
The building is by no means the smallest, but with all its size it
is plein [full] Similarly the Oliver Chilled Plow Company maintained
the main room was full of soldiers playing
games. Not a chair was vacant and men were standing ; ... in a large acreage of gardens near its plant at South Bend,
the next room there was no noise. Here every table was in use Indiana; and more than five hundred of the employees of the by the poilus writing letters home. And in the last room, the Brown and Sharpe Company, at Providence, Rhode Island, have reading-room, a still more quiet, homelike atmosphere prevailed. been helping to feed themselves on the products of the com One of the men, looking around at the walls covered with picmunity gardens which the company leased and plowed for them tures, the fireplace, the plants and flowers in the corners, and at Pleasant Valley; while at Meriden, Connecticut, the em the men quietly reading, said: “It's just like home, isn't it?" ployees of Foster, Merriam & Co. had each plots fifty The finest types of American women are helping in many
of by one hundred feet in size on which they produced a thousand the Foyers, and one of them writes: “I am getting on very bushels of potatoes alone, not to mention quantities of other well even without much French, as so many of the soldiers are products, the company securing the seeds and fertilizer in anxious to use their English.” Another one writes: “Here we quantity and allowing the men to pay for them on easy terms. two women work, often only one of us in the building at one
But the conditions which all these corporations had to face time, among this crowd of men--and never a rough word or
company also serves another purpose—the common meeting-ground
, inform the workers of the rules governing gardening enter visited the Foyer at Camp B- The American Secretary prises. The company engaged a garden expert from the Arizona wrote of him : Agricultural Station to make regular visits to the gardens and He spoke in English--and very good English at that and instruct the men. The double-crop system was employed, so that thanked the Americans for the aid they were giving, saying that
he hoped France and America would always be as trne friends living or enough to make life rich, but that it should always at of each other as they are now. He is a wonderful man and least provide the bare necessities of life. extremely popular. While he was in the Foyer he asked if there were any soldiers there who had been cited to the army in the Orders of the Day. Although there were but few in the building at that particular time, one man responded. M. Clemenceau gave
ARE WE TOO LATE! him a handsome watch as a token of his personal appreciation.
EFORE this issue of The Outlook reaches its readers the On March 4 Mr. E. C. Carter, National Secretary of the
German onslaught upon the British army on the western American Y. M. C. A. in France, cabled as follows:
front in France will have proved itself to be either a Clemenceau and Pétain are urging the organization of ten new
momentous disaster for the Allies or a practical failure for GerFoyers daily. The minimum weekly requirements are twentyfive virile native American secretaries. Cannot accept foreign
many. Its purpose is to beat down the British, leaving France ers as representatives. Include athletic directors. Sympathy,
at the mercy of the Prussians, and thus to compel England and energy, adaptability, culture, count more than ability to speak the
the French Republic to sue for peace on terms dictated by language. Highest standard American leadership in Foyers essen
Germany. tial to win the war.
The Germans have never for one moment since they began Of the sixteen hundred “Y” secretaries now in France,
their war of domination and conquest assented to President between two and three hundred are assigned to the Foyer
Wilson's amiable but wholly impracticable doctrine of “ peace work. In each Foyer there should be a French and an
without victory.” At this writing (March 26) it is not believed American director. In response to Mr. Carter's cablegram,
that they will achieve their purpose. With a mass of men, two hundred picked American secretaries from the camps in artillery, and ammunition such as the world has never seen this country are now undergoing a course of intensive training
before in the whole history of warfare they have fallen on the at Princeton in the French language and in French history,
British lines with a terrible impact and by sheer weight have manners, and customs. But hundreds more of the right type of
thrust them back. But they have not broken through. British, men are yet to come forward and be chosen for this work, im
French, and American military experts believe that they will not portant both to army efficiency and to international comity.
break through; that the British and French, with such aid as the courageous and determined but all too few American troops
can give, will hold ; that the Germans, having suffered unparA LIVING WAGE FOR WOMEN WORKERS
alleled losses of men who have been lavishly pushed forward as The humane principle that a State by legislation may re
"cannon fodder,” will undergo the period of reaction that quire that pay enough to insure to workingwomen health, always follows such mighty charges or onslaughts, especially efficiency, and the necessities of life was long ago sustained by when unsuccessful; that a new alignment will be formed ; and the United States Supreme Court. The view that women as
that trench warfare, the warfare of attrition, will be resumed women might be so safeguarded was reached by the Supreme and will continue until such time as the United States can Court largely becanse of the masterly array of facts in briefs throw into the struggle the full strength of its men and resources. prepared by Mr. Brandeis, now a Justice of the Supreme Court, Such, at least, is the hope, and indeed the only hope, of that and Miss Josephine Goldmark.
portion of the civilized world which is struggling for freedom, It is in consonance with this principle that two bills are now for the rights of small nations, for humanity and justice in interbefore the New York Legislature. In hearings on these bills national relations, against the barbaric German doctrine that recently representatives of many women's associations, such as might makes right” and that solemn treaties are merely the Y. W.C. A., the Women's Municipal League, and thes
" scraps of paper. Women's Trade Union League, took part, and it is noteworthy These are anxious moments for the whole American people. that the delegation included two hundred women voters. Bothu They are beginning to wonder if the fatal words, “ Late, late, bills aim to raise the standards of hours and for working
too late! Ye cannot enter now !” are to be pronounced against women and girls in the State. The Lockwood Eight-Hour Bill them. They begin to realize, as they never before realized, that prohibits the employment of women between ten at night and the French and British armies and the British navy have been six in the morning, and provides for an eight-hour day for fighting to keep them safe from the incalculable sufferings of women in almost all industries. The opposition was largely Belgiuri and northern France ; that the blood of others has from public utility companies, which claimed that they would be been shed that they might not become slaves. For if England forced to cease operation at night if they could not employ and France should go down, we the people of the United States women between the hours named above. The war, it was said, should have to make a slavish
should have to make a slavish peace with the Prussian conquerhas reduced the supply of men for such work. The advocates of ors, accompanied certainly by huge indemnities and possibly the bill insisted, however, that there are still available men for by humiliating annexations, or we should have to meet and fight night work. The eight-hour day was urgently advocated, both the Teutonic invaders on our own seaboard. This is as certain as by representatives of general, social, and civic associations, and the invasion of Belgium and the spoliation of northern France. especially by women trades-union members, who now have the We should suppose that today, of all men in the United eight-hour day themselves, and believe that unorganized women
States, President Wilson would be the most anxious. For he need the same privilege if they are to have wholesome living face to face by the policy of neutrality in thought and feeling,
must now see clearly the danger to which we have been brought and time for rest and recreation. Facts were put forward to show that a shorter day did not decrease, but rather increased, of watchful waiting, of unwillingness to prepare for war, of output because of increased efficiency.
attempting to reason with instead of handcuffing organized There appears to have been no opposition to the second of bandits. Every American must fervently pray, as doubtless the bills. This, known as the Wagner Minimum Wage Bill, is
President Wilson is praying, that this danger may be merciinodeled after the Oregon law, which has been declared Consti- fully averted, so that from now on we may have the chance to tutional. The Wagner Bill creates a permanent wage commis
bend every muscle, strain every nerve, spend every dollar, sion composed of three members, who would in turn appoint enlist every man that can fight in the great struggle for world wage boards for each occupation. Each board would consist of freedom. representatives of employers, employees, and the public. After
If we had been of this mind and heart in 1914, 1915, and an intensive study of the cost of living in various localities, it 1916, we should not have had to cable to the British Field Marwould tix living wage rates for women and minors. The princi- shal, General Haig, as President Wilson did on Monday of ples of wage determination would be such as to guarantee tow last week : the worker minimum earnings sufficient to meet the necessi May I not express to you my warm admiration of the splendid ties of life, to maintain health and efficiency.
steadfastness and valor with which your troops have withstood No one can possibly dissent from the wish expressed at
the German onset, and the perfect confidence all Americans feel
that this hearing by a working-girl, that every woman worker in
you will win a secure and final victory ? this country might at least have a living wage. She did not There seems to us to be just one great lesson for this Nation even ask that this wage should be sufficient for comfortable in the awful combat on the western front. Let us all-President,
Congress, and private citizen--forgetting those things that are in the French army 20 generals, 115 superior officers, and 400 behind and pressing forward with renewed courage and deter- ordinary officers of Alsatian origin. At the same time how
many mination towards the future, hope and pray and work together officers of Alsatian origin were there in the German army unceasingly to the end that American valor and American Just four. Of this Mr. Lauzanne has said in a public speech, troops may play a part worthy of this great Republic in win “I call that a referendum.” ning “a secure and final victory,"
What Rabbi Stephen Wise has called the Belgium of 1871 must be restored if justice is to be done. Alsace-Lorraine must
belong in fact, as well as in heart, to France. ALSACE-LORRAINE Prince Hohenlohe's address, which is reported on another THE TRUTH AND THE WHOLE TRUTH page, is less uncompromising than most of the utterances that come out of Germany. Its apparent readiness to yield what When the deputy sheriff of Mohican County called the Happy other Germans would not think of yielding should not blind Eremite unexpectedly to jury duty, the Happy Eremite de Americans to the fact that there are certain demands in it to murred. He had no valid excuse to escape this obligation of which America and her allies can never yield except at the citizenship. He was not really eager to escape it, for he had cost of acknowledging defeat. One of these is Prince Hohen never served on a jury before and the prospect had therefore lohe's proposal that the question of Alsace-Lorraine be sub all the charm of the unknown. He demurred because that mitted to a referendum.
seemed instinctively the thing to do. Men always demur in We have already stated why it would be contrary to justice the matter of jury duty. To do otherwise seemed quixotic. The to leave this world question to be decided by a local vote. only people who ever serve on juries, he said to himself, are have pointed out the similarity between that proposal and men either without influence or without brains capable of inDouglas's doctrine of “squatter sovereignty.” Just as the venting convincing fictions. question of slavery could not be settled by any plan of leaving He reasoned thus with his conscience for the space of thirty it to the voters in any community, so the question of Ger seconds or more while the genial sheriff at the other end of many's aggression cannot be left to be decided upon by any the telephone wire explained that the judge would doubtless community.
excuse a patriotic citizen so busily engaged in the service of Though it cannot be settled, however, by a referendum, it humanity; but only for thirty seconds. For he remembered has been passed upon by a referendum already. Stéphane that he was living in a new age and a new world in which selfLauzanne, the distinguished editor of the Paris “ Matin,” who respecting citizens did not dodge their public duties. He had is now visiting this country, points out that the people of himself preached the new gospel. He felt suddenly ashamed of Alsace-Lorraine themselves have made known what their wishes himself, and told the sheriff that perhaps he might be able to were. When Alsace-Lorraine was seized by Germany in 1871 arrange the matter, after all. in order to get for its military power the war materials that lay He did arrange it, and took his place in the jury-box three in the iron and coal of those regions, Germany was taking that days later feeling solemn at the thought of his responsibility. which was clearly French and had been French for a much It was a Court of Common Pleas, for civil cases only. He longer time than Louisiana has been a part of the United would have preferred a criminal court. Cases for damages, he States. The only part of Alsace that has not been French for told himself, would be hopelessly dull. more than two centuries and a half belonged to Switzerland, He was duly sworn. and by referendum became French in the eighteenth century. ** Case Number 9617,” sing-songed the clerk. “Jean Pierre Lorraine became French more than three and a half centuries against the Columbia Van Company." ago. Upon the German conquest in 1871 Deputies of Alsace Somehow that does not seem to promise much excitement, Lorraine, hearing that their provinces were to be taken by thought the Happy Eremite. Germany, united in a protest in which they said, “ Alsace and The trial began. The lawyer for the plaintiff stated the case. Lorraine cannot be alienated. Today, before the whole world, It was a simple story. The Columbia Van ('ompany had agreed they proclaim that they want to remain French."
to move Jean Pierre's furniture from one house to another. On And when Alsace and Lorraine sent Deputies to the German
between the two houses the furniture had been destroyed Reichstag,-fifteen of them, some of them Protestants, some by fire. Now Jean Pierre wanted damages. Catholics--they signed a declaration in which the following All this had happened in nineteen hundred and eleven. Jean appears : “ In the name of all the people of Alsace-Lorraine. Pierre had, it seemed, been wanting damages for seven years, we protest against the abuse of force of which our country is a Mrs. Jean Pierre was called to the stand. She was a Frenchvictim. ... The contract which annexed us to Germany is null Canadian, with a thin, worn, unhappy face. She told her story. and void."
Her daughter, a girl of eighteen, shy and afraid, followed ; then Like the Assyrians of old, however, the Germans used a her husband. He was not quite sober, and he sprawled in the method for retaining the conquered provinces which would witness chair with his hands smugly folded over his paunch. Je vitiate any referendum whatever. They made it impossible for had bulging, fishy eyes and a red nose and a complacent, disputlarge numbers of the original inhabitants to remain in comfort
tatious manner. and self-respect in their homes, and they sent in from Germany The trial went on. The van driver was called, then his assistpeople who had never belonged in Alsace-Lorraine at all-. ant, then the driver of a coal wagon who had been the first people who in this country have been called “ carpetbaggers. to discover the fire, then the fire chief, then a woman who hrad A referendum which would deny to those who were driven out happened to be sitting on her porch when the var-load of furniof their homes the right to vote, and which would give the ture burst into flame in the street before her house. right to vote to people who were sent in there for the vers The proceedings were as dry and matter-of-fact as the dry and purpose of clinching the robbery, would be a worthless refer
commonplace dramatis persone could make them: the clerk endum, and no other referendum is possible, even if it were who sing-songed; the judge with the calm, intellectual face, lit desirable.
only occasionally by a cool but rather pleasant smile; the two An indication of how far Germany has failed to make Alsace". lawyers, one a young Jew, oratorical, full of wordy buncombe, Lorraine really German can be found in the following figures: prone to call his opponents iiars and thieves, the other a stocky in 1895, when French was prohibited in the public schools, Irishman with shallow, expressionless eyes - both trickstern there were 160,000 in Alsace speaking French; and five years neither to be trusted. later, according to another census, the people speaking French The case was sordid and utterly unimportant; and yet to the in Alsace numbered 200.000. Herr von Jagow in 1913 gave Happy Eremite there was something extraordinarily fascinattestimony as to the French character of this conquered but wi ing in sitting there in the jury-box with his eleven “ peers. reconciled province when he said: “We Germans are obliged watehing the story unfold; something romantic, something in Alsace to behave ourselves as if we were in an enemy's coun adventurous, something not altogether unlike the magic that
1." And in 1914, when the present war broke out, there were lies in exploring unexplored continents. First, th- bare. Ingal