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A TEST TO DETERMINE THE PROSPECTIVE AVIATOR’S SENSE OF BALANCE AND DIRECTION Candidates for admission to the Aviation Corps go through a strenuous examination as to their fitness for the service. The picture shows one of the tests. The candidate is whirled about in the chair ten times in ten seconds, his eyes blindfolded. Then he must try to touch the examiner's hand with his forefinger. The manner in which he performs this feat indicates his sense of balance and direction, which must be keen and unimpaired in aerial flight

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SENATORIAL CANDIDATES IN WISCONSIN The Senatorial primaries in Wisconsin have attracted National attention and discussion because of their relation to the issue of loyalty in the war. Both Mr.

Davies and Mr. Lenroot represent the loyalist element. See editorial comment

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his ears grew mobile in those long minutes of reaching and There was only one way to get him now. Through the beast stretching after distant sounds.

To wing him would be to lose the trick. And where was poor Nicholson's body?

But Nicholson, you see, as member of the force's revolver Six feet is short range for a gunman to miss in. Perhaps in team, is one of the four best recorded military revolver shots in the very instant of firing the hand of the Negro had wavered the world. Ile waited till the moment of greatest possible prox. under his sudden recognition of the uniform of the State. imity had come. Then, forty yards from the fugitive, he raised Aimed at the heart, his bullet flew high, striking the left collar. his Colt and fired a single shot. bone, shattering it to bits.

The Negro flung up his arms and plunged out of sight. . The impact had felled Nicholson like a log—crumpled him As Nicholson reached the spot Mauk was already stooping up on the floor. But before the shrewish clock on the shelf had over the body. snapped many seconds away he was up and on his feet again, “Dead," Mauk growled. “ Clean shot, I must say. Through plunging through the door.

the heart.” Then he rose- to his feet, straightening up stiftis, For a bit McCormick's yearning ears had detected the and turned on Nicholson a face of withering scorn.. sound of his footsteps. Then utter stillness succeeded, punctured .“ McCormick," he began, “ you quitter! You rookie! If any at intervals by shots.

one had told me this morning that you would disobey orders, I “One,” McCormick counted. “ Two-three- - four."

what? Good-Lord! Nick, man, is this your ghost ?” “Single shots," he pondered. “Now, what's the meaning of Later that night Private McCormick, still alone, but grimly that?”

contented, conveyed the worse-than-murderer, Ofenloch, through Nicholson, following the two dark figures so far ahead, very dangerous waters safe to jail. counted the shots also. Meantime his running was a miracle. In the black of the morning, Dr. McKee, of Burgettstown: Someway that bitter pain in his shoulder seemed only to act as extracted a 44-40 'fat-nose Winchester bullet from among the a spur. The jar of each step wrenched like red-hot pincers- débris that had been Private Nicholson's left collar-bone. and yet, in spite of it, the lad was running his very best.

Later still, at the coroner's inquest, the identity of the dead When the Negro, firing his fourth shot, vaulted the fence, Negro was established beyond a doubt. He was Charles Smith, Nicholson was already near enough to see the naneuver. And of Braddock, Pennsylvania, professional bad man and pay. so, because he understood it, he instantly changed his course, envelope robber. darting away on the hypothenuse of the triangle, to head off “'Twas all he did for a livin'; just skinnin' us poor devils." his man.

as one grim-visaged miner averred. Calculating speed and space as he few, he knew that he And the tone that rang through the speech found open should make the finish in time. Already he was half-way across. expression in street and slope and shaft-bucket, where men He fixed his eye on the fugitive, now visible for the upper third slapped each other's shoulders, rejoicing, over deliverance from of his body beyond the fence. And, so gazing and so running, a curse. he failed completely to see a ditch directly in his path.

But the coroner's jury, in the matter of the verdict, took i That ditch was eight feet deep and twelve feet wide. It was the bit in its teeth. faced with soft white snow. And yet, as Nicholson smashed to “Suicide. We find that Charles Smith met death by suicide," the bottom, it could not have hurt him worse had it been a pit that jury continued to insist. of jagged stones. The splinters and sharp edges of his broken “But Private Nicholson shot him-shot him through the shoulder ground together under the impact of his whole weight. heart !” protested Mauk. “Verdict must be rendered according For a second his eyes saw purple and black in spots. A wave to the evidence." of ghastly sickness swept through him. Then he was up and “Of course, of course. That's just what it is, just what we're climbing out and away again, his left arm swinging oddly as sayin', ain't it? The deceased attacked a Pennsylvania State he ran.

policeman with a gun. Any man that attacks a Pennsylvania But the interruption had cost too much. Clearly, he could State policeman commits suicide,” insisted the foreman in all no longer hope to head off the man.

painstaking seriousness. Mauk, tearing down the trail from above, perceived him Then the corporal had to argue, to reason, to expound, for now--the unmistakable trooper figure silhouetted against the he wanted the formal verdict that would clear his comrade. white. And Mauk's breast, at the sight, even at that tense mo. At last the thing came straight. ment, filled quick with the fires of unspeakable wrath.

“ Charles Smith,” declared the jury," while in the commis In Nicholson's head, however, one single idea was burning: sion of a felony, met his death at the hands of a member of the “I must get that man! I must get that man! If I don't, I'll State Police. And the said member of the State Police is hereby run till Easter. I'll never go back to the troop,"

exonerated from all blame."

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INTER arma silent leges. (In war time the laws are silent.) Osophic power. He would have a weak mind. Now the pacifist

The clever old Romans appointed a dictator in times when bas a weak mind, in that he thinks he possesses a formula which

action was more important than theory. These same old will solve every situation, “ Don't strike,” he says; but if you Romans, who were the greatest lawyers and lawgivers that the put his child in peril from an assassin who is killing all children world has known, whose religious sense was almost exclusively in the name of God, your pacifist will strike. Ten to one it is expressed in law, had been taught in the days of their early merely the philosophic machinery that is weak in him, and not experience that law itself was a makeshift.

his courage or his common sense. He has not imagination Law is a crude system, and it breaks down in emergencies when enough to solve the problem on a slate; but he can do so when spiritual forces dominate politics, whether for good or for ill. it arises in flesh and blood. Nothing is more remarkable than

To take the most obvious case. You may kill a man in self. the way in which our pacitists have been seeing the light during defense ; but the circumstances cannot be defined. The circum- the last twelve months. Send a pacifist to Belgium, and the nattstances make the law. Here in miniature we have the Anglo ral tint will flash in his face, and he will fight like the next man; Saxon equivalent for the Roman maxim: Inter' arma silent leges. It is the same with those who clamor for free speech-a In a shipwreck private property is taken, men conscripted, food free speech were a formula that solved all the problems of 11 divided-anything necessary is done to save the ship. Every government; as if free speech were a metaphysical and more emergency is its own excuse for a breach of law, and a person structible entity that must be guarded at every moment as the who should have such a conception of law as not to allow for sacred, heaven-descended image of liberty. Free speet wch emergencies would be devoid of common sense and of phil. merely a tendency. The phrase embalms one attribute of libera





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yovernment. This phrase has been discovered during ages of brilliant minds of all ages as the subject of government with de tres civil struggle, and is preserved as a convenient summary the result that nothing is known about the matter except that

Phim But no one thinks that you have a right to call meetings at the individual citizen must be a man of courage if freedom is als in which you advocate measures that society holds in horror. Even to flourish. Every scrap and ounce of the world's free governfugatise in the freest democracy you cannot advocate bomb-throwing ment has been bought by somebody's blood. Freedom from

aud free love. Why not? Because they are crimes ? No; but arrest, the right to choose one's own religion, the right to propQui of great

because society has defined them as crimes. No one will claim erty, etc., have been bought by civil wars. All that is quite saling the right to speak freely to enlisted men in order to get them certainly known about government is that one man will tyran

to desert. No one will claim the right to speak freely to the nize over the next until the sword has taught him not to try it. Une ve German Government about the sailing of our ships. But the The history of Germany well illustrates this point. Germany Health caim is made that during a war the same freedom to criticise herself never developed civil liberty. The example of England

the Government shall exist as in time of peace if not the same and France taught her people to clamor for a constitution, but All me freedom, then something as nearly like it as possible. Well, there when she finally received one it was of no avail. Her revoluimeti you have the crux of the matter. It is true that a great deal tionaries could clamor, but they could not fight. The Prussian chinois more freedom of criticism can and will be allowed in a democ- legislature refused to vote Bismarck's war estimates, and the here to racy during a war than in a tyranny. But there is no dogmatic taxes were raised and paid without the parliamentary consent

or absolute right in the matter. Treason, in old English law, (1862–1866). Civil war should have followed. But the German was the “imagining of the King's death ;” and this definition people were cowed, ignorant, inexperienced. They had not the led to such abuses that the United States Constitution got round spirit of liberty, and the badges and lettering of liberty were the matter rather crudely by saying that treason should consist immediately transformed into chains. only in levying armed forces against the Government. Such is It is Men that count in government—not Form. Of all the the basis of the matter in times of peace. For war time new philosophic writers, of all the practical statesmen, of all the statutes and new rules are required. But no State is going to poets who have given thought to the matter, no one has ever allow the war to be lost for lack of such rules. The Govern. expressed the substance of liberty so well as Sir William Jones. ment will and must rely on the common sense of the people and It is noteworthy that neither Rousseau nor Byron, neither on their willingness to submit to a thousand unpleasant and Montesquieu nor Mazzini nor John Stuart Mill, should have illegal things because the people understand the emergency stated the case so well as the old British jurist Sir Williani

The other day I read that in Poughkeepsie a German Jones, who was among the first Englishmen to champion the D had been rough-handled by a crowd because he said, “Damn native races of India, and who lost his preferment because he

Wilson and his war?” I rejoiced at the news. An instinct of sympathized with the Americans of 1776: self-preservation told me that this incident was a wholesome

“What constitutes a state? sign of the times. Does your theorist say I should grieve? Take

Not high-raised battlement or labored mound, him to Belgium.

Thick wall or moated gate;
It is the same with the Socialists. These people, who are, on the

Nor cities proud with spires and turrets crownedl; Zly whole, mild-mannered and estimable philanthropists, have unfor

Nor bays and broad-armed ports, tunately adopted certain phrases and formulas which they lay

Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride; Die down as fundamental, permanent truths; whereas the phrases are

Not starred and spangled courts, ma really only makeshifts and shies at the truth- convenient guesses.

Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. Let us see what some of the Socialist formulas are: The living

No:—men, high-minded men, wage, old-age pensions, care by the state of the individual, the monopoly of life's necessities by the state, state railways, state

Men who their duties know, food, state theaters, etc.—a benevolent and intelligent pater

But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain." nalism. Now all of thest things exist to-day in Germany in the The present war is the summary of all the previous civil wars

highest degree that they have ever attained on earth ; and yet and of all the previous international wars in which some form per Germany has suppressed the spirit of man and erected a tyranny of personal freedom was at stake. There is nothing new in the

hich shọçks even the Socialists themselves. What is it that cause of the war. To erect an absolute monarchy is one of the Germany has taken from man in the very act of perfecting a things dearest to the heart of man. To conquer the world is a Socialistic state? Ah, that is the question which Socialism can- time-honored ambition. This desire is the strongest passion not answer, for all its phrases, Germany has destroyed the in vis- known to man. It is a historic form of madness, which is apt ible, inestimable spirit of liberty in the individual, which cannot to break out when any nation is in such a positfon as to have be defined, and which does not depend on any one thing, but on the least chance of success. When this happens, the rest of the a host of conditions, on history, on tradition, on character. The world defends. itself with such arms as it can lay hand to. The Socialist reasons from a phrase to a phrase. Even in Germany man who waves the lady's fan of pacificism or of Socialism in to-day there are discontented Socialists who have plans of elec- the face of this monster passion, the man who talks about free toral reform-as if electoral reform would make men of the speech and habeas corpus in the presence of a danger whiclı Germans:

threatens to annihilate him, is a simple-minded person. He The things which we really need, whether in Germany or in would save the handle no matter what becomes of the jug. He America, cannot be given to us by legislation, Socialism seeks has forgotten what the very basis of liberty consists in. That an economic solution of the question of human happiness. As a basis consists in valuing some right more than life itself. It tendency Socialism is valuable, as a dogma it is misleading never consists in keeping out of a fight in order to preserve a What, then, is the “liberty” for which the Allies are fighting? right. The right itself is valuable only because it is a symbol of Why, so far as the thing can be formulated, liberty is expressed courage and a symbol of will. The whole language of freedom in the constitutions, bills of rights, laws, and customs of Eng. turns into a mockery unless it is daily renewed by the fire of land, France, America, and the other free countries—all of which life which, created that language. We observe in this war that formulations tend to prevent men from being enslaved, but none its value lies largely in the fact that all the isms in the world of which will accomplish this end except for citizens who are have been put into the fire by it; all the classes in the world independent, robust, and experienced. Behind the machinery are fused, all the interests in the world are amalgamated. The there must be moral courage. Universal moral courage is the two camps, Tyranny and Democracy, glare at each other with only desideratum which comes near to expressing what liberty murder between them and no shelter anywhere. Labor must implies. Law alone can neither express nor sustain free govern- drop its squabbles, Socialism its certitudes, Reform its teacups. ment. There must be force and common sense in the people and all must fight for their lives. You will find at the present themselves to hold up that part of liberty which law can never moment that whenever an understanding of the war penetrates preserve. There must be a vigilance which ever shifts from the the brain of any man, whether he be laborer, Socialist, banker, unessential to the essential in the conduct of affairs, now insist reformer, priest, or poet, from that moment he steps, willy-nilly, ing on a right, and now subordinating it to an emergency. out of his own rank and class and into the fighting ranks of the

No subject has received such prolonged study by the most Republic. He has become a cog in the war machine.

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