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HARVARD COLLEGE
APRIL 10, 1918

APR 24 1918
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New Yorkar

On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries

FOCH: GENERALISSIMO

been driven back; my left wing is crushed; I shall attack with The power just put into the hands of General Ferdinand

my center.” Foch by the Allies is defined in the announcement by the English Prime Minister on March 30 in these words:

THE GERMAN ADVANCE CHECKED The enemy has had the incalculable advantage of fighting as one army. To meet this the Allies have, since the battle began, The fierce German drive to the westward over the plains taken a most important decision. With the cordial co-operation of Picardy in its second week apparently exhausted, at least of the British and French Commanders-in-Chief, General Foch for a time, the tremendous momentum of its unprecedented has been charged by the British, French, and American Gov thrust. The first week (March 21-28) left the Germans in ernments to co-ordinate the action of the Allied armies on the

possession of Albert in the center of the line and of Noyon western front.

in the extreme southeastern end of the line, while their general It is generally understood that the action now taken was advance stretched from fifteen to twenty miles westward of a seriously considered by the Supreme War Council of the Allies line passing through the three important towns of Bapaume, about two months ago, and that it was really this which caused Péronne, and Nesle. The spearhead, as military men say, of the such perturbation and opposition in certain quarters in Great attack was, and is, directed at Amiens, and here the distance Britain after Mr. Lloyd George's return from Paris. As a re from the German outposts to the city is, as we write, about sult the proposal to put supreme command into one man's hands twelve miles. Happily, we have the assurance of the new Comwas for the moment abandoned. Its imperative need has been mander-in-Chief, General Foch, under date of April 1, that shown by the new German offensive, and especially so because Amiens is safely guarded and that it will be protected from in its southern attack the offensive struck close to the point assault. The eagerness of the Germans to gain the city of Amiens where the British and French forces meet on the line of defense. is easily understood when it is remembered that it is not only There was already a liaison, or plan for mutual action, in in itself a large and important town and a center of highroads existence, but the present juncture calls for large move and railways, but that it is, in a direct line, not over sixty miles ments of troops of both armies in unison and harmony. Never from the English Channel. The port on the Channel nearest to was there a case where division of command might be so disas Amiens is the little seaside town of St. Valery, famous in histrous.

tory as the place from which William the Conqueror embarked Among the French commanders none, unless perhaps it be

for England. Pétain, could be regarded as General Foch’s equal for this During the week ending April 2 attack after attack in the supreme office. Ferdinand Foch (the name is, we understand general direction of Amiens from the northeast and the southpronounced with the soft ch-Fosh-as a French word, rather east was resisted and checked. Just west of Albert on the one than with the guttural ch as in German) was born in the south of hand, and just west of Mézières on the other, the assaults were France, and is said to be of mingled Basque and Alsatian blood terrific, but no essential German gains were made. Near Albert and to derive his name from the latter source-many of the the British completely checked the enemy and held their posiAlsatians who have been ardent French patriots for generations tions. Near Mézières the battle-line wavered back and forth have names which are German in form.

through several small towns, but the French, who had been General Foch has been called by his former chief, General moved northward to aid the British, were in the main successJoffre, “ the first strategist in Europe.” Llis training was gained ful. For instance, the small towns of Moreuil and Demuin in the French artillery. He is sixty-six years old ; so that we have were the scenes of severe engagements, and the former at least facing one another in supreme command of the two armies on changed hands two or three times. the western front two men each above sixty-five years of age. Apart from the drive toward Amiens, the most important General Foch has in the highest degree the confidence of his battle front was that to the northward, around Arras. officers and men. By the latter, indeed, he is regarded as having Here the Germans found a very different situation from that almost miraculous powers of quick determination and infallible which existed when they were advancing over nearly level judgment. His prime military dogma is said to be, “First find ground. The defenses of Arras and Vimy Ridge behind out your enemy's weak point, and then concentrate your blows provedl an insuperable obstacle. The fighting about Arras ou there." It was this axiom which he applied in his famous attack Thursday, March 28, has not been surpassed in violence in any at the Battle of the Marne. Neither Foch nor Manoury nor Joffre part of this movement. The magnitude of the attack was lost singly won the Battle of the Marne, but the deep and wise sight of in the despatches because of the extremely critical posiplanning of Joffre and the quick eyes, rapid brains, and light- tion farther south, but the defense will long stand as one of the ning-like action of the other two commanders saved Paris and finest achievements of the British army. General Haig's forces France and Europe.

in this vicinity maintained their position and beat off the Equally brilliant was General Foch's attack when the Ger enemy, inflicting, it is reported, tremendous losses.

were endeavoring to head off the Allies near Ypres The week ending April 2 was for the most part one of conand both armies were rushed northward in a race to reach centration and recuperation for both the armies. Whether it the seacoast first. It was General Foch who at this time will be followed by a second offensive of equal magnitude, or stopped the German drive toward Calais and won the race to whether a counter-offensive will drive back the Gerinans, or

whether they will “dig in ” where they are and maintain their Many are the stories of Foch's brilliant retorts and orders. lines—these are questions which it is not possible to answer To an officer who declared that his men were exhausted Foch

as we write. Looking at the war front in a broader sense, it is -xclaimed: “So are the Germans. Attack !" Every one has also a matter of speculation whether the Germans will continue heard of Foch's despatch to Marshal Joffre when the balance of their desperate effort to break through the defeuse in the victory was hanging even at the Marne: " My right wing has southern part of the British line, or whether they will inangarate

mans

the sea.

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an entirely new offensive either against the French line farther and, under the general direction of the French commandsouth or perhaps against Italy.

will, in all probability, speedily be placed in the s It is impossible at this stage to form reliable estimates as to reserve, and may at any moment take part in the activa the relative losses in the last two weeks of fighting. Yet upon ing. An apparently authorized Washington despatch te this matter depends the conclusion as to the relative value to one hundred thousand as the number of American soldier Germany of her desperate effort. A French official estimate of ally available for the battle line. the German losses made on April 1 puts the total German In this country there are unmistakable indications that ex casualties at between 275,000 and 300,000 men, and states that speed is being shown in the sending abroad of the forces about one hundred separate German divisions have been iden are sushciently advanced in training, and statements maltified as having been engaged. This, at the total strength, would cially show that the Government is well satisfied with the mean about a million and a quarter men ; but the actual number proved methods of transportation which have been put in i is probably nearer a million. The British and French losses are unquestionably much smaller than those of the Germans.

TENNESSEE FOR LAW AND ORDER Most military writers agree that in this summer's campaigns the main offensive lies with the Germans. Their increase in Lynchings and other forms of mob violence hare so forces and guns on the western line, following the breakdown

up the people of Tennessee to take public action in behalte of Russia, have made this almost certain. For the British, the maintenance of law and order. We learn from the Nati French, and the Americans the part to be played will be that

" Banner" of a recent meeting held at Nashville under the of grim, persistent, determined resistance. We who sit at home pices of the Law and Order League of that city for the per and read of terrible offensives like that which has been going of considering what could be done to protect the good nas on must not conclude that the war is going against us. In the

the State from the damage inevitably done to it by motor, earlier part of the war Great Britain and France showed in

lence. The meeting was attended by representative (20 domitable and astonishing power of resistance when their forces letters, telegrams, and resolutions from civic bodies throu:were not yet fully ready to fight. Now they are ready and are

the State were received commending the movement. One of abındantly supplied (as they were not in those earlier stages) significant addresses is recorded by the Nashville " Banner with trained men and vast quantities of munitions. With such

follows: help as America can give them this year most assuredly they The next speaker called upon was Senator W. R. Webb. H will hold fast and “

carry on.

.” And when this stage of the de referred to the great value of a good name, whether it be of the fensive ends, with German armies weakened and thinned out, individual, a firm, corporation, commonwealth, or political un. and with American soldiers in hundreds of thousands coming

“ You may go back to the most barbaric land and you will be from the training camps into the front line, the hour of our

find an act more savage than the lynchings here in Tenneset

.

“I want to affirm that a mob is a coward. No matter what the victory will approach. The next great campaign will see the

crime, a man has a right, a Constitutional right, to a trial, an Allies in the offensive all along the lines.

should be turned over to the officials and given trial.

“If we are going to have law and order, we must train ou

people in the elementary principle of law; we must start the A GOOD FRIDAY SLAUGHTER

training in the family. The German Emperor, in his letter of congratulation to

“It has always stirred my indignation when colored people the managers of the Krupp works at Essen because of their have been mistreated, for they are of the weaker class. invention and manufacture of the gun which has been bombard

“My mother was protected by Negroes during the Civil Wa

while she lived on an isolated farm. Her six boys were in the ing Paris at long range, expressed his Imperial thanks “ for this

Confederate arıny, and she was entirely safe.”
achievement of German science and labor," but for once omitted
to join the Almighty with him as a co-worker.

Some very vigorous resolutions, reported by the Resolutis
This was perhaps fortunate, as all Christian peoples have

Committee, of which Dr. Bruce R. Payne, the distinguiba been inexpressibly shocked by the slaughter of innocent non

head of Peabody College in Nashville, was chairman, were ma combatants, largely women and children, in an unnamed church

and adopted. The spirit of these resolutions is indicated by the in Paris on Good Friday. It is known that over seventy-five following paragraph : people were killed and a still larger number wounded. This We record our solemn protest against the atrocities whirl - achievement" is in line with the bombarding of cathedrals,

have been perpetrated by the mobs which have lynched men it the deliberate throwing of shells from airplanes on residential

Tennessee in the past. However brutal may have been the

crimes which have provoked such mob violence, we find no e quarters of great cities, and the German complicity in the Arme

tenuation, no alleviation, in the abrogation of law. We have the nian massacres. The indignation of the Pope has taken the forin

strong conviction that lynching is unjustifiable under any ani of a threat of public condemnation of Austria, so it is reported,

all circumstances, and is wrong in the sight of man and in the unless Austrian responsibility in this massacre is disavowed. sight of God. Mob violence is an economic, social, and moral

evil, and a peril that must be stopped. It is a cure for nothing

it aggravates rather than prevents crime. Mobs are a menace to AMERICANS TO THE FRONT

civilization—they make no distinctions, violate all reason, an! General Pershing's assurance in a formal conference with set no limits to their passions. General Foch that the entire American force in France was at The resolutions adopted called for the organization of a star the immediate disposal of the Allies was something more than Law and Order League and for the creation of similar lexi a formal recognition of General Foch's new authority. It was an organizations in all communities throughout the State. expression of American determination to put its army on the hope the new State Law and Order League of Tennesser wil fighting line as fast and as far as military consideration make familiarize itself with the work of the State Police in Penin possible. As General Pershing stated in his cable message to vania and New York, about which remarkable agencies for lav our General Staff, all our resources are available and all our and order The Outlook has recently had a good deal to si divisions will be used if and when needed. Enthusiasm in the The State Troopers of Pennsylvania and New York have het ranks of the Army in France on learning of this assurance was able to solve problems in suppressing sporadic and organize spontaneous and eager. One description says :

violence that have so far been insoluble for local police or erri The order to prepare to march was received by the men with for State militia. This is very early proved by Miss Katheriu cheers ; their cheerfulness was enhanced by the prospect of early Mayo's remarkable book " Justice to All,” which is publishe. action; the whistling and singing about the camps increased'; by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. they rejoiced at the prospect of participation in the greatest of battles, and they marched out of the villages where they were billeted with songs on their lips : “ The Battle Hymn of the THE IMPORTANCE OF AMERICANIZATION Republic," " Tipperary," and " Where Do We Go From Here"

Secretary Lane has written to us, calling our attention to It is known that certain of our divisions have already the serious condition of illiteracy in this country as “ being our wored northward toward the scene of immediate conflict,

of urgency upon which the country should act.” In a statement

which he has made to the President and to the Senate and House good painter or sculptor may clothe his figures in fleecy, shimCommittees on Education, Mr. Lane says that in 1910 there mering robes; but he has first molded or painted the figure itself were niore than five and a half million persons

over ten years

of in accordance with the laws of anatomy. The skeleton of any age who were unable to read or write in any language. There are one of Debussy's works is by no means a mere heap of bones. now nearly 700,000 men of draft age in the United States, who Of all his works his opera “Pelléas and Mélisande" is the are, I presume, registered, who cannot read or write in English or most famous; but it still stands practically unique among in any other language.” Formerly the United States Army would musical compositions for the stage. On the other hand, his works not enlist illiterates, but since April 1 last nearly 40,000 men for orchestra and for the pianoforte have had great influence. have been drafted into the Army who cannot sign their names, He has gone as far as any one in his explorations into new fields cannot read orders posted on camp bulletin boards, cannot study of music; but he has gone off into quite another direction from their manual of arms, cannot read or write their own letters, the equally adventurous musical explorers in Germany. He and cannot understand the flag signals of the Signal Corps in seems never to forget that the goal of the artist is some kind of time of battle. Secretary Lane visualizes this vast company of beauty. five and a half million illiterate persons in the United States in Debussy's music will have lasting influence. It is likely, for this vivid fashion :

example, to have an influence on pianoforte playing that may If these five and a half million illiterate persons were stretched not unfairly be compared to Chopin's. His use of the wholein a double line of march at intervals of three feet, and were to tone scale and his employment of novel harmonic devices has march past the White House at the rate of twenty-five miles a enlarged the resources of music, especially as a means of paintday, it would require more than two months for them to pass. ing moods. Debussy, however, will never be counted among the Over fifty-eight per cent are white persons, and of these 1,500,000

greatest of composers. His artistic character was too limited to are native-born whites.

enable him to produce works to be counted among the masterIf the power to read and write adds to the productive value pieces of musical literature. His music is never a voice from the of a man only fifty cents a day, a very conservative estimate, depths or the heights. In life, as in art, Debussy lacked the Mr. Lane figures that the country is losing considerably over roots that might have connected him with the goodness of three-quarters of a billion dollars a year through illiteracy. The Mother Earth and the lofty branches that could feel the winds Federal and State Governments are spending millions of dollars of heaven. It may be that his music was as lovely in its way as in circulating information about agriculture, and “yet 3,700,000, an orchid; but to compare Debussy with César Franck is to or ten per cent, of our country folk cannot read or write a word.

compare an orchid with an oak. They cannot read a bulletin on agriculture, a farm paper, a food pledge card, a Liberty Loan appeal, a newspaper, the Constitution of the United States, or their Bibles, nor can they keep CHILD PORTRAITURE personal or business accounts."

Portraits of children have a perennial appeal. The most We find, as we think our readers will, these facts astounding, attractive pictures Velasquez ever painted were those of little but nevertheless they are facts and cannot be evaded. Ameri- Spanish infantas, childlike and flowerlike despite their absurd cans have prided themselves in thinking that their country was hoopskirts. the most intelligent in the world. Our pride is not well founded In our time the painting of portraits of children has been and we have got to get busy to make it good. Secretary Lane attempted with success by such men as Sargent, Chase, and proposes one immediate way of getting busythat is, support of Alexander. This success has been added to by another and the bill now introduced into the House“ which provides for a younger American painter, Maurice Fromkes. In his portraits modest appropriation for the Bureau of Education to begin and of "grown-ups we trace the influence of the old masters, Remconduct a vigorous and systematic campaign for the eradication brandt, Hals, and the Italians-in the likenesses, for instance, of adult illiteracy."

of Cardinal Merry del Val, done in the Vatican, of Sir Edward Elgar, of Dr. Lyman Abbott, of the late Dr. Leipziger, of

Madame Mazarin in her role of Electra, and of the composer CLAUDE DEBUSSY

Giuseppe Ferrata, whose portrait hangs in the present Fromkes The French composer Debussy, who died on March 26, Exhibition at the Reinhardt Galleries, New York City, was a strange being, both as man and musician.

Alongside it, however, are a dozen portraits of children With bis high cheek-bones and his flat-topped head, Claude (illustrations of two of these may be found on another page) Achille Debussy looked less like a Frenchman than a China and some remarkable studies of still life. All reflect not only man. In his earlier years he was unkempt and uncouth. It was the painter's feeling for color but the general feeling for color in these penniless years, while he lived with his devoted wife, at this special juncture in our art life-an instinct for what one that he made his original contributions to musical art. Later he might call robust color. Whether recent Russian stage perbecame well-to-do and fastidious ; but he had deserted the wife formances have inspired this or whether the increasing appreciawho believed in him and attached himself to a woman with tion of Oriental art with its lacquers and brocades--never mind. money. A portrait appears on another page,

And with the desire for a more robust, masculine color there As

a composer he seemed at first to those who listened to his has come a greater comprehension not only of its use as sheer works superficially to be as little French as he was in appear decoration but also of any kind of decoration as a background ance. French art is nothing if not clear, precise, logical, defined. for it. Of course this double appreciation with an artist like Debussy's music, on the other hand, was outwardly vagne and Fromkes, who understands children and how to “ take” them, chaotic,

brings about striking results. He was born near Paris in 1862, and lived in that city, pre Let no one seek in his canvases for the atmospheric portraits paring himself at the Conservatoire, where he was a fellow-pupil of the type of those painted by the late George Frederick with Edward MacDowell. When he won the Grande Prix de Watts, for instance, where the subjects are really breathing an Rome at the Conservatoire with his cantata “ L'Enfant Pro atmosphere. But to him who wishes to see child characters well digue,” he went to Italy, and from there sent to France two portrayed and heads strongly lighted, dominating no matter works characteristic of all his future compositions. These were what gorgeousness of environing color, these portraits are cer“ Spring” and “ The Blessed Damozel.” The French composers tainly worth while. of that day sitting in judgment-and among them were Gounod, Thomas, Massenet, Saint-Saëns, Delibes, and Reyer-pronounced these works“ insufficiently precise," and condemned

FOOD MARKETING them for “ vagueness."

On March 28 the Federal Food Administration reported It is true that in Debussy's music there are no hard and that loyal farmers had informed State Administrators that definite lines. In this respect his music is like the painting of certain German farmers were refusing to market any of their the Impressionists and has something in common with the wheat. The Administrators have been asked to investigate sculpture of Rodin. It is a mistake, however; to regard Debussy's these cases and to direct such persons at once to market their music as wholly lacking in precision, order, arrangement. A wheat. No publicity will be given to individual cases unless this

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