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launched. One hundred and fifty-one plants are engaged in buildl

ing ships. The necessity for speed is obvious. German submarines Sa traveler stops to look back over the road he has followed, are sinking ships faster than the world is yet building them. as a merchant makes an inventory of his stock, so the Na We have practically put into use the available supply of existing

tion, on the anniversary of its entrance into the world war, German ships. So far any enlargement of the world's ship supply has been making an estimate of what it has so far accomplished. is a matter, not of present fact, but of hope to be fulfilled.

In order to understand its achievements, or its failures to In ships, too-fighting ships and ships for the transportation achieve, it must keep in mind the goal towards which it has set of soldiers-we have made a great contribution to the Allier out, its purpose in taking up the task.

cause through our Navy. We have put vessels of war to Its object has been stated by the President :

the number of more than a thousand in commission-battleThe world must be made safe for democracy.”

ships, cruisers, submarines, destroyers, transports, colliers, and "We shall fight for the thing which we have always carried the smaller craft. Our destroyers in particular have been of nearest our hearts—for democracy, for the right of those who great service, and we are now building new destroyers in onesubmit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, half or one-third of the time required under pre-war conditions. for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal In men we have made the contribution that is most precions. dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall From an Army of two hundred thousand we have expanded our bring peace and safety to all the nations and make the world forces into armies numbering over a million and a half. The itself at last free."

greatest act of America in the war was the decision to secure “ This is a people's war, a war for freedom and justice and our Army, not by depending on volunteers, but by selection. self-government among all the nations of the world, a war to That decision stands to the everlasting credit of the Nation. It make the world safe for the peoples who live upon it and have has made possible all that has followed or may follow. Out of made it their own.”

ten million men subject to the process of selection we have sent What the President has said of our object in this war is true over half a million into camp. Of about a million men in the of the object of our allies. We entered this war to co-operate Regular Army and National Guard we have sent several hunwith the nations already engaged. We had therefore an imme dred thousand to France, and practically all the rest are mobildiate obligation, namely, to fulfill the reasonable expectations ized in camp or at posts. While enlarging our Army, we have of our allies. What did we lead them to expect from us? also enlarged our Navy by something like four hundred per Money, provisions, ships, and men.

cent. And we have not merely put these men in camp, but have Let us recount here what we have done in the fulfillment of built cities for them and have provided them not merely with those expectations.

military training but also with that recreation and those reIn money we have loaned to the Allies more than four and sources, bodily, mental, and moral, which the normal man a half billion dollars and have promised much more.

requires. It has been a great achievement, an answer to the In provisions we have supplied for the armies of the nations question as to whether democracy values only material things or fighting Germany, including our own Nation, an amount of mate whether it values also the things that are unseen and eternal. rial quite inconceivable. We are producing rifles, for instance, More than that, our Nation has summoned to its service men at the rate of forty-five thousand per week. We have furnished of brains, of wealth, of resource, and has put them to work in from our Navy guns from the largest to the smallest caliber the public service on multitudinous tasks. More than that, our to the British, French, and Italian Governments, with ammu Nation has conscripted not merely its soldiers but also its public nition for them; but, instead of supplying guns to our allies' servants, for in taking the railways it has taken into the public armies, we are depending upon our allies for guns for our own employ the army of railway workers, who constitute with their Army. We have led our allies to expect a large contribution families practically one-seventh of the wage-earning population to their aircraft resources; but so far we have not made our

of the country. resources begin to be felt in the air fighting. One of the prin There is no doubt that this country is in earnest and has cipal needs of our allies is wheat. In the exportation of this we been from the beginning ; but Americans during this year lag behind our promises. We have, of course, been sending fuel have only begun to learn the size of their task. The United abroad, but we have failed to send the fuel our allies have States is far from having made the world safe for democracy; needed. Our failure in this respect helped to bring disaster to it is far from having made it safe for the peoples who live upon Italy. But the fuel and the food that we have sent have been it. Since we set our hands to this task the menace to democamong the essentials which have kept our allies fed and their


The world has become more unsafe, not only factories and ships moving. We might have done this as a neu for democracy but for all people who want to lead decent lives tral, but we have done it far more effectively as a belligerent. without having their manner of life imposed upon them. We In addition, we have provided supplies for our own Army. have set our hands to establish the rights and liberties of What this has involved may be indicated by a few odd items: small nations,” but since we entered the war the small nation 20,000,000 woolen blankets, 75,009,000 yards of olive drab for of Rumania has been added to the small nation of Belgium and uniforms, 31,000,000 pairs of light stockings and 50,000,000 the small nation of Serbia as a victim of German greed and love pairs of heavy stockings, 40,000,000 yarls of bobbinet for of power

. Since we entered the war, not only have small mosquito-bars. For supply, subsistence, and transportation alone nations found their liberties and their rights curtailed or dethe appropriation of the Quartermaster's Department during stroyed, but even the great nation of Russia has gone down the year was nearly two billion dollars. Out of nothing we have before the massive power of the Germans. All our cantonhad to create great supplies of an almost innumerable variety ments, our hundreds of thousands of men, our ships, our guns, of articles, from rubber boots and tent pins to motor trucks. In our millions and billions of money, will be of no avail if they the process mistakes have been inevitable and tradition and do not accomplish that which we set out to do. More than one red tape have obstructed progress; but the general testimony Government official (the latest is George Creel, the head of has been that for a Nation unprepared we have done quite as the Committee on Public Information) has said that it was well well as could have been expected. In other words, it has been that the country was unprepared. It has indeed proved wella great achievement for a million men to spring to arms, not in for Germany. a night, but in a year.

While we are preparing now, Germany has been rolling back In ships we have been making huge blunders and huge suc the armies of France and Great Britain. There are thousands cesses. The delay in the ship programme, due to quarrels that upon thousands of the finest men of Great Britain and France, ought to be humiliating to every American, was little short of there will be thousands of the finest men of America, killed becriminal. On the other hand, the creation out of marsh-land of

cause we were unprepared and because, therefore, we had to spend huge shipyards (one of them five times as big as the largest else this first year of war in still incompleted preparation. In his Balwhere in the world), an undertaking that would require in ordi- timore speech the other day the President said: " There is ... but nary times two years, but which in one case was accomplished in one response possible from us: Force, force to the utmost, force less than six months, was little short of magical. Already ships for without stint or limit.” That is right. It is as true today as it which contracts were made after we entered the war have been was in 1914 that Germany can understand only one response.

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So far she has not had any such response from us.

We have song that a bird ever sang. It had nothing at all to do with talked about force, we have gathered our force, but we have Liberal Ministries or reform either in Cuba or elsewhere, but it not yet delivered it. The force in the oil still in the strata of the had a great deal to do with the armies of little green men that earth cannot drive an automobile. The force in the men of had arisen overnight out of the blackened soil. America and in America's wealth cannot of itself beat Germany. The Happy Eremite felt friendly toward that singer. They That force will beat Germany only when it is delivered against had much in common, evidently. He was sure that when at Germany.

dawn the bird had first seen the new grass that feathery Galli During this year what we have achieved has been wholly in Curci had grinned also. preparation. We have assembled our wealth, we have begun to He went to the window, thinking that the bird must be ou organize our industries, we have created our armies, we are the young maple close by, so near and clear the song was. He building our ships, and, best of all, we have saved ourselves pushed out the casement. The air was warmer outside than from being a mere agglomeration and have become as never within, and faintly touched with delicious odors. Across the before a Nation. It is not a time for proud reflection, but for narrow meadow on the top of a hickory was the bird, like a determination. The men who are going to die for this country twenty-year-old poet telling the world all he knew about himmust be made to understand that this is a country worth dying self and a great deal of what he half suspected. He did not for, a country, in spite of all its faults, that is going to see this sing like a bird who was in love. He sang like a bird who has thing through, and that means what it says when it demands seen green grass for the first time after a tough winter. that this world be fit and safe for free people.

The Happy Eremite felt like climbing the tree and shaking hands with him.

But he did nothing so bizarre. He took himself by the scruff CONCERNING THE DIFFICULTY OF of the neck instead, and with a long sigh returned to the Spanish DOING ONE'S DUTY IN SPRING


He heard light footsteps on the cement path outside his study, The journey from the house to the little shack that was his then a hand fumbling on the handle of the porch door, then study was brief, but it gave the eyes of the Happy Eremite the steps on the porch, then that same uncertain fumbling at the balm of a rolling field where the young rye shone palely green inner door, then a voice. and his ears the music of the careless chorus that had of late “ Daddy!" been inhabiting the great hickory. He stopped midway. A week That voice was always irresistible. ago he had burned over the little triangle of lawn west of his “ Hello!” he called. study, and the new grass stood sharply outlined against the “I'm outside," she shouted, " and I haven't got anything on blackened soil, a vigorous armory of green spears.

-no leggins, no rubbers, no swedder, no cap, no anything. He grinned to see it. It was good for the soul to see grass "Oh, grand!” he shouted back. “Now run along." again ; it was good for the soul to see anything so clean and * I want to show you.” fresh and straight and ready for business. It was a full inch He opened the door, not at all reluctantly. high. And last night not a sign of it. The mystery of the growth " I'm going out to the swing,” she announced. “Will you of things captured him, as it did every summer. No book on the please come out and swing me, daddy?" science of farming ever had made him understand what under He chuckled. “Is there anything else you'd like me to do?" the sun made things grow; and he was quite sure that no book he asked.

“ Oh, yes, daddy,” she cried. “ You can build me a house

, You planted a seed the shape and size of your thumbnail, and and we'll crawl into it and hide from mother and Mary, and I before you knew it there was something green butting the earth haven't got anything on, not a single swedder.” away, and when you looked again it was a plant, and then it was “Oh, you tempter!” he cried, and went with her. a vine traveling about the garden and keeping the weeds away Duty and the Spanish War had the odds against them after with its enormous leaves; and by and by one fruit of many that. For while he was swinging his little lady the Happy which the vine produced kept a table of ten occupied.

Eremite happened to glance toward the barn. He wondered You planted a seed smaller than the other, and with only a what the new gardener was doing and whether the rhubarb was little persuading suddenly it jumped and was fifteen feet high,


He decided to find out for himself. On the way it occurred a day's food for half a dozen chickens and an evening meal for to him that the young grass on the circle behind the house a cow. It was all miraculous and amazing,

would be badly burned if he did not rake off the manure sooni. The Happy Eremite, philosophizing amid the jubilant blades, Perhaps, he said to himself, it might be wise to give up

his recalled with an effort that he had work to do, took himself by work at his desk for the day and attend to this. “ Wise the scruff of the neck and proceeded to his study.

the word he used. His desk was in disarray, with seed catalogues and garden He raked all day. It was seven-thirty before he made his way books peering from among sober histories and pessimistic war once more up the winding path to the study. He stopped for an pamphlets, like beautiful demon faces about the edges of a instant at the hedge that shut off his diminutive domain and monk's prayer-book.

looked westward. A great cloud was sailing with slow majesty He flirted with them, resisted, took one look backward, and was toward the south, a purple cloud with stars like chip diamonds lost. He salved his conscience by telling himself that the study in a pale sky behind it. He began to study its shape, and it of books on gardening was nowadays, in a sense, a patriotic duty. occurred to him suddenly that he had not thought of the shapes

A half-hour later he took himself by the scruff of the neck, of clouds since he was a boy. He watched the spectral galleon gritted his teeth, and began the day's work. He was writing a

drift silently on. biography of a certain Eminent Somebody, and was engaged in The Happy Eremite took himself by the scruff of the neck, an examination of the causes of the Spanish-American War. deposited himself at his desk, sharpened a pencil, and began to ** On October 14, 1897," he wrote, “ Sagasta took office as head write. But he did not write about the Spanish War. He wrote of a Liberal Ministry pledged to reforms in Cuba~"

instead “Concerning the Difficulty of Doing One's Duty in A bird began to sing outside the window-the pleasantest Spring."

ever would.


“ FORCE TO THE UTMOST" TITH a vigor without precedent in his other speeches, that we possess. The loan we are met to discuss is one of the

President Wilson, on the anniversary of our declara least parts of what we are called upon to give and to do, though

tion of war, uttered in a speech at Baltimore a promise in itself imperative." of the use of America's " force without stint” in the war against Declaring that he had come to give, if he could, a more vivid Germany.

conception of what the loan was for, he pronounced that the * We know what the war must cost," said the President, “ our reasons for this war

, the need to fight it through, and the issues utmost sacrifice, the lives of our fittest men, and, if need be, all

that hang upon its outcome,

are more clearly disclosed now




than ever before.” He called his fellow-countrymen to witness The thing is preposterous and impossible; and yet is not that

what the whole course and action of the German armies has that at no stage of the war had he judged the purposes of Germany intemperately, but had sought to learn the objects Germany meant wherever they have moved? I do not wish, even in this

moment of utter disillusionment, to judge harshly or unrighthas in this war from the mouths of her own spokesmen.

eously. I judge only what the German arms have accomplished The President then went on to point out that her civilian

with unpitying thoroughness throughout every fair region they representatives, the Chancellor, and the delegates to the peace

have touched. conference in Russia had professed their desire to conclude a What, then, are we to do? For myself, I am ready, ready still, fair peace, but the military masters of Germany proclaimed a ready even now, to discuss a fair and just and honest peace at very different conclusion by their deeds. Briefly outlining what any time that it is sincerely proposed-a peace in which the they had done to impose their power on a helpless people in

strong and the weak shall fare alike. But the answer, when I Russia and to exploit everything for Germany's use, the Presi proposed such a peace, came from the German commanders in dent asked if we would not be justified in believing that they

Russia, and I cannot mistake the meaning of the answer.

I accept the challenge. I know that you accept it. All the world would do the same thing at the western front if they could. He

shall know that you accept it. It shall appear in the utter sacriwent further and asked if these military masters of Germany

fice and self-forgetfulness with which we shall give all that we checked the west, whether they might not offer favorable

love and all that we have to redeem the world and make it fit terms with regard to Belgium and France and Italy in order to for free men like ourselves to live in. This now is the meaning assure themselves of a free hand in Russia and the East. The

of all that we do. Let everything that we say, my fellow-countryPresident answered his own question by this conclusion to his men, everything that we henceforth plan and accomplish, ring speech :

true to this response till the majesty and might of our concerted

power shall fill the thought and utterly defeat the force of those Their purpose is, undoubtedly, to make all the Slavic peoples, who flout and misprize what we honor and hold dear. all the free and ambitious nations of the Baltic Peninsula, all Germany has once more said that force, and force alone, shall the lands that Turkey has dominated and misruled, subject to decide whether justice and peace shall reign in the affairs of their will and ambition, and build upon that dominion an empire men, whether right as America conceives it or dominion as she of force upon which they fancy that they can then erect an conceives it shall determine the destinies of mankind. There is, empire of gain and commercial supremacy-an empire as hostile therefore, but one response possible from us: Force, force to to the Americas as to the Europe which it will overawe—an the utmost, force without stint or limit, the righteous and triempire which will ultimately master Persia, India, and the peo

umphant force which shall make right the law of the world and ples of the Far East.

cast every selfish dominion down in the dust. In such a programme our ideals, the ideals of justice and

At a time when German power seems to be harder to resist humanity and liberty, the principle of the free self-determination of nations, upon which all the modern world insists, can play no

than ever before these words of the President, showing that he part. They are rejected for the ideals of power, for the principle

realizes that the whole strength of this country is needed, have that the strong must rule the weak, that trade must follow the

a most welcome sound. His acknowledgment that this is a flag, whether those to whom it is taken welcome it or not, that

moment of “utter disillusionment” is also welcome. It is not a the peoples of the world are to be made subject to the patronage

moment of disillusionment for all Americans, for there have and overlordship of those who have the power to enforce it. been some Americans, among them persons of eminence and

That programme once carried out, America and all who care influence, who have never had any illusions about Germany's or dare to stand with her must arm and prepare themselves to purposes or methods or about the issues of the war or the contest the mastery of the world—a mastery in which the rights need of the employment of all our powers to resist Gerof common men, the rights of women, and of all who are weak, must for the time being be trodden under foot and disregarded

man aggression. Such men have been anxiously waiting for the and the old, age-long struggle for freedom and right begin again

moment of disillusionment of which the President speaks. at its beginning. Everything that America has lived for and

Now that it has come, it is the business of us all, whether we loved and grown great to vindicate and bring to a glorious reali

have been under any illusions or not, to unite to help our allies zation will have fallen in utter ruin and the gates of mercy once

with all our powers to destroy the monster that menaces the more pitilessly shut upon mankind !

future of freedom throughout the world. KNOLL PAPERS

BY LYMAN ABBOTT THE SPIRITUAL MEANING OF DEMOCRACY \HE President's declaration that the object of this war is We sometimes ought to forego our rights; we never ought to

to make the world safe for democracy," said my friend abandon our duties.

to me," has been enthusiastically welcomed. But are 1. The prophet Ezekiel, overcome by the vision of Jehovah we so sure that democracy is the best form of government, that in the Temple, threw himself upon his face before his God. it is worth what this war is costing us?"

And the voice said unto him, “Son of man, stand upon thy feet, No, I am not sure that any form of government is worth and I will speak to thee.” fighting for. But democracy is much more than a form of gov It is a fundamental right of man to stand upon his feet and ernment. France is a republic, Italy is a monarchy; but both face, unafraid, the Almighty. This is his right because this is are democracies. The United States is a republic, Great Brit- his duty. It is not right for him to allow any priest, church, ain is a monarchy; but in some respects Great Britain is more creed, or book to stand between him and his heavenly Father. democratic than the United States. It has in its Imperial Gov The priest, the church, the creed, the book, may help him to ernment both referendum and recall ; the United States has in find his way to God; they may help him to understand his its Federal Government neither.

God; but they never should be allowed to take the place of Democracy is not a mere form of government. It is a re God. God is not an absentee, to be interpreted only by a mesligious faith. It is a spirit of life-a spirit of mutual regard for senger or a letter. He is man's “Great Companion.” The each other's interest and mutual respect for each other's opin messenger and the letter are useful only as they bring the soul ions; it is government by public opinion; it is liberty, equalityinto companionship with that Companion. It is the right of fraternity, in the institutions of religion, industry, and education every man to give account of himself to God because it is the as well as in the government; in a word, it is human brother

duty of every man to give account of himself to God. No subhood. It involves four fundamental liberties :

stitute can do it for him. The recognition of this right and the Religious liberty.

fulfillment of this duty forbid all spiritual despotism, and are a Industrial liberty.

sacred and solemn guaranty of spiritual liberty. Educational liberty.

This is Religious Democracy. Political liberty.

2. God made this world for the habitation of man and has And these liberties are not only rights; they are also duties. given it to him for his dwelling-place. It was not made for



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white men or for Anglo-Saxon men or for rich men or for wise just government is to prepare the governed to govern men or for good men ; it was made for all men. They are all Democracy, therefore, in the family and in the school trains his children. And they all have a right to a share in it. In the the growing child in the art of self-government. And democrae Father's house there is bread enough to spare; why should any in the state throws responsibility upon the untrained citizen one perish with hunger? That is the question which the hungry and is not discouraged if he blunders and sometimes blunders in every, land are asking, and they have a right to ask it

. badly, for democracy believes the untrained voter will learn by Society is not divinely organized when some men have so much his own blunders. that they know not how to use it, and others so little that they This is Political Democracy. know not how to live.

This is the democracy for which we are fighting against its Whether the twin evils of luxurious wealth and sordid poverty

resolute and remorseless foes. are due to the rich or to the poor or to neither but to a vicious Germany has not political liberty, and does not desire it. It organization of society we do not here consider. They are evils is autocratic not only in its form of government but in the which democracy is endeavoring to cure by promoting a better spirit of its people. Professor Kuno Francke, of the German distribution of wealth. And in doing this democracy is endeavors Department in Harvard University, in an essay written before ing not only to secure to all men their rights, but to enable all the war, thus characterizes the distinction between the Ameri men to perform their duties. For it is the duty of every man to can and the German temperament: put into the world at least as much as he takes out of it, and I think I need not fear any serious opposition if I designate the duty of society to make this possible for every man.

self-possession as the cardinal American virtue. ... In contraI have met many skepties, but never one so skeptical that he diction to this fundamental American trait of self-possession, I doubted the Biblical statement, “Naked came I out of my designate the passion for self-surrender as perhaps the most sig

. mother's womb.” Coming into the world naked, it is clear that nificant expression of national German character. if we are to possess anything we must either produce it, accept He adds that, while this passion leads the German at times it as a gift, steal it, or get it out of the common stock. Who to surrender himself to a great cause or sacred task, it also leads ever does not by some service of hand or brain or heart, him to surrender himself to whims and hysterias of all sorts. by what he does or what he endures, by what he makes or what * Nobody," he says, can be a more relentless destroyer of he says or what he suffers, contribute his share to the world's all that makes life beautiful and lovely, nobody can be a more welfare, must be classed with the beggars, whether he is clad in savage hater of religious beliefs, of popular traditions, of rags or in velvet. To make such contribution is the duty of patriotic instincts, than the German who has convinced himself every man. A fair opportunity to make such contribution is the that by the uprooting of all these things he performs the sacred right of every man.

task of saving society.” "This is Industrial Democracy.

The events which have occurred in Belgium, northern France 3. We are in this world in the making! The object of life is Serbia, and Armenia since this essay of Professor Francke's the development of men and women. It is therefore the duty of was written furnish a tragic illustration of its truth as an every one to make of himself, and of every parent to make of interpretation of German character. his children, the best product possible. The Northern radical Germany has not educational liberty. Its educational system affirms that the Negro can be made the peer of the white man, is ingeniously framed to equip a few with boots and spurs to and therefore ought to have the same education. The Southern drive, and the many with saddle and bridle to be driven. Its conservative declares that the Negro never can be made the peer teachers are appointed by the king in the provinces, by the of the white man, and therefore ought not to have the same edu Emperor in the Empire. Their function was declared by the cation. Both are guessing. What the Negro race can become Emperor of Austria in 1815, by the present Emperor of Germany after an education like that of the Anglo-Saxon race no one can in 1890, to be the creation of obedient subjects and loyal supforetell

. And the experiment can never be tried. For it is not porters of the crown. within the power of man so to shape the world's destiny as to Germany has not industrial liberty. All wealth is derived pass one race through the educational process through which from the land. In America by our Homestead Law we threw other races have passed. It is neither possible nor desirable that open our agricultural lands to all the world, giving 160 acres the Africans or the East Indians or the Chinese or the Japanese to any individual who would live upon them and cultivate should become replicas of the Anglo-Saxons.

them; and, though we carelessly allowed our mines, forests, and This truth democracy recognizes, and therefore wherever it water powers to fall into the hands of a few wealthy owners, we has gone it has established the public school. The object of are attempting by our policy of conservation and of land taxaeducation should not be to run all pupils into the same mold. tion to correct that well-nigh fatal error. In Germany the ancient The school should not be a foundry. The object should be to feudal system survives, which puts the control of the nation's give to every pupil a chance to grow. The school should be a wealth into the hands of a landed aristocracy, popularly known garden. Education, therefore, should prepare for life, which is as Junkers. Peasant proprietorship is practically unknown. itself the larger education. It should be adapted to the present Germany has not religious liberty. Perfect love casteth out conditions and the prospective needs of the pupil

. The growing fear.” It is equally true that fear casteth out love. The religion recognition of this truth has created optionalism in education, inculcated by the leaders of German thought and life is the has added industrial training to academic education, has pro- religion of fear. The reverence demanded is for a God who is vided, as never before, for woman's education. To enjoy an the ally of the military power ; the worship is of a God imaged opportunity for education is the right of every individual ; to by Odin, not by Jesus Christ. Its ethical effect is indicated by make that opportunity so varied as to meet the varied needs of the following two sentences from a German pastor, in a para the members is the duty of society; to avail himself of the phrase of the Lord's Prayer: “ Forgive in merciful long; opportunity to make all of himself that he can make is the duty suffering each bullet and each blow which misses its mark! of every individual.

Lead is not into the temptation of letting our wrath be to This is Educational Democracy.

tame in carrying out thy divine judgment !" 4. It is the right and duty of every man to govern himself. This pagan Power has, through its Emperor, declared its It is one object of education to prepare him to perform this purpose to reorganize Europe, recall from the grave the buried duty. It is his right to determine his own destiny-his right Cæsars and re-establish them in this twentieth century. We are because his duty. And as he must see with his own eyes, work at war with this pagan Power in order to establish for all humaiwith his own hands, and think with his own brain, so he must ity the right, and to maintain for all humanity the duty, of selfguide himself with his own judgment and rule himself with his control, self-development, self-support, and personal comrade

. own conscience. If he is blind, some one else must see for him; ship with the heavenly Father. This is what we mean by the if he is paralyzed, some one else must work for him. So, if he saying: has no judgment or no conscience, some one else must guide and The world shall be safe for democracy. rule him. But every normal man is furnished with eyes to see, The Knoll, ('ornwall-on-Hudson, New York, hands to work, judgment to guide, conscience to rule. Such is

1 The Emperor's address, October, 1910, on the dedication of the Museum of the assumption of democracy, which holds that the object of all

Roman Antiquities at Saalburg.

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ECENT developments in all the warring countries abroad new divisions, or services, to handle the emergency war work have shown clearly that the fundamental problem which placed on the Department by the President's order. These seven

all must meet is that of the proper use of man power. It new divisions will be directly responsible to the Secretary of has become almost a hackneyed statement to say that this is a Labor through a Policies Board consisting of the heads of the war of industries even more than of armies. None the less, the divisions with the Secretary as chairman. This Policies Board statement holds true, and the real question which we have to will serve as a general staff for the Department, to talk over at face if we are to perfect a really adequate war organization is frequent intervals the plans of the Department and to unify how to place each man where he can do the most effective work policy. The labor administration, it is expected, will have comfor the winning of the war. To use an individual in any niche plete charge and direction of the war labor policy of the Govother than the one for which he is best fitted is a waste of valu ernment, and will establish machinery adequate for carrying able human energy, and to that extent is a weakening of the them out. Congress is now being asked for an appropriation to Nation's war machine. This is the general principle underlying provide for the administrative expense. the new plan for a war labor administration.

The seven new divisions include an adjustment service, a The plan is not theoretical, but is developed by the war ex. housing and transportation of workers service, a conditions of perience of the last ten months, influenced, in addition, by the labor service, an information and education service, a women in example of the European nations whose conditions are most industry service, a training and dilution service, and a distribunearly like our own. It is the plan that is supported by facts as tion or employment agency service. These agencies, it will be they exist in this country to-day.

seen, can be made to include all the main functions necessary The tendency toward unifying and centralizing the adminis for the promotion of a sound industrial system and for the tration of the American labor programme has been an irre proper distribution, housing, and education of the working sistible development. The President's determination early in population. Throughout, of course, the central idea will be the January to place the responsibility for the administration of the expediting of necessary munitions of war, and the proper, just, Nation's labor policies on the Secretary of Labor was reached and equitable employment of workmen in the most effective as a result of experience with a situation in which each produc manner for the production of the supplies which our Army at tion departinent of the Government had been engaged in han. the front and the armies of our allies so urgently need. dling its own individual labor problems without a central policy Labor is merely an abstract noun; it is not a commodity and with no single agency to determine proper methods of dis which can be seen or handled or bought or sold. Capital is also tribution or proper means of giving preference to the most vital used to include persons within its meaning. In this sense there forms of war work in supplying them with the necessary labor. is no such thing as capital. Yet capital is represented by things

The outbreak of war found the country without an effective which are tangible, which can be bought or soid, seized or conNational distributing or employment agency system, and with demned ; and labor, except in its products, is not. no complete system to deal with labor controversies which might The labor problem is, from beginning to end, a human probarise in an industrial population of thirty-five million. As the lem on both sides. The persons who are included within the munitions programme developed, without any central agency to meaning of the word capital are merely human beings engaged look to for handling problems of distribution and adjustment in industry with a certain background of tradition, experience, each production department of the Government-that is, the and motives; and labor is like capital in this respect. Each Ordnance Department, Quartermaster Department, the Ship group must be considered in any war labor programme as a ping Board, and the Navy Department-naturally set up within collection of individual members of the Nation, and not as its its own jurisdiction an agency or agencies for handling its man mere instrumentalities or possessions. power problems. This development was inevitable, and, in a The most obvious recognition of this principle lies in the large measure, beneficial. Many of these agencies have done plans for the adjustment service. No mere machinery for immost effective work in securing needed labor and in dealing with posing adjustment, arbitration, or whatever it may be called, on industrial disputes. Yet the weakness arising from a lack of the two groups can be successful without the promotion of a unified policy showed itself comparatively early: The National spirit to support it in the groups involved. This spirit must be industrial system, complex as it is, is yet a single organism. the main reliance in any accommodation of differences between One member cannot be touched without affecting the whole. the human elements involved. In adjustment and distribution alike these several labor agen A most gratifying start toward a better spirit of co-operation cies were found to be interfering with each other. Government between employer and employee has already been inaugurated departments began to bid against each other for labor with the in the agreement reached by the joint conference of employers only possible inducement in sight-one of wage increases. Strikes and employees held in Washington during the past month with and disputes were handled by the several departments, often with Mr. William H. Taft and Mr. Frank P. Walsh representing good judgment in individual cases; but, without common under the public. This group has worked out an understanding on standings as to policies, agents of the various departments fre many of the basic principles involved in the relations between quently added confusion to complicated situations. Some arrange- capital and labor. The understanding thus reached on controment was necessary to deal promptly and uniformly on a versial points will unquestionably be of the greatest value in Nation-wide basis with labor disputes affecting war work. With accommodating future specific differences. The recommendations out such a plan it seemed inevitable that existing labor unrest of the conference will undoubtedly be embodied in the policy to would be stimulated. It was this situation which led the Presi. be pursued by the adjustment service of the new labor admindent to authorize the Secretary of Labor to establish a war labor istration when its organization is finally completed. It is only administration to deal with the man-power problem on an ade through employers and wage-earners meeting together and disquate, uniform, National scale. The decision had of course cussing on equal terms their common problems that real cobeen preceded by the most careful study of conditions in indus- operation in a democratic country can be secured. Agreements try and of their causes.

of this sort have already been utilized on certain specific forms The President's decision was announced early in January. of war work, and the inauguration of the same method for dealShortly after that the Secretary of Labor appointed an Advi- ing with the general labor situation augurs well for the future. sory Council of seven members, consisting of two representatives The plans for the Department of Labor, however, recognize of the public, two of employers, two of wage-earners, and one the necessity for following up and administering the terms of of women in industry. The Secretary asked this Council to any agreement reached. The wage-earners cannot be successfully assist him in formulating a programme and organizing plans distributed among the war industries without the maintenance for the new administration; and the plan now adopted is largely of proper housing facilities, proper working conditions for both the result of the deliberations of this body.

men and women, and adequate training facilities. Nor can dis. It consists in establishing in the Department of Labor seven putes be avoided without a sufficient degree of Governmental

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