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THE STORY OF A BIT OF

WOOD

BY CHARLES E. FINCH
Director of Immigrant Education in Rochester, New York

In a men's class in a Sunday-school a speaker had been telling the men about what was being done to make our foreignborn realize the advantages of American citizenship as well as sense its obligations. He had surprised his hearers by telling them that practically every third person in certain wards of their city was an alien ; he had stated that the evening schools were almost the only agency making an effort to help those who desired to take steps toward American citizenship and he had closed with an appeal to every man present to do his bit in the great task of Americanization.

At the close of the talk one of the members of the class rose and said that he would like to relate an interesting experience which was called to mind by the remarks of the speaker. He then told the class that on going into his cellar to see whether some wood, recently delivered, had been properly cared for, he had discovered some writing on one of the bits on the outside of the pile. He picked it up and read, “I pledge allegiance to my flag, one nation, independent, with liberty and justice for all.” When Tony, who delivered the wood, was questioned, he said that he had learned the pledge in evening school and had written it on this bit of wood in his spare time.

To all who are familiar with this pledge it will at once be evident that this industrious toiler from across the sea had failed to record correctly one of the very important words. He had written "independent" instead of “indivisible.”

In this seemingly slight error lies the story. The foreign-born, left to themselves, limited by their own language, surrounded by their own people, and all too often only exploited by those from whom they have a right to expect help, come to see independence as the great thing in America, the good of the individual rather than the good of the country

To-day, more than at any time since the Civil War, we are realizing the importance

one nation indivisible.” We have gradually sensed something of the meaning of thirteen million foreign-born people in this country, numbers of whom are aliens who do not even speak our language, who do not come in contact with our institutions, and in whom we have taken comparatively little interest. We are beginning to realize that the American melting-pot, tended by no one in particular, has not been able to do all that was so innocently expected of it.

State departments of education are beginning to realize that their task is only partly accomplished when the education of the children of the commonwealth has receiyed attention.

The best results are being obtained in communities where there is definite and helpful co-operation between manufacturing establishments and the night schools.

The manufacturer and the educator doubtless have a large share in working out this problem, but we shall not reach the full solution until every American citizen has a far keener appreciation of the true value and real meaning of his citizenship. Like Tony, we must all be made to realize that

one nation, indivisibleis not only important but is abolutely necessary if we are to have “liberty and justice for all.”

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-and are meeting reverses daily

TES, literally!

They have been called to the

colors. They have entered the trenches. Their existence is imperiled every day by bomb and firebrand of alien enemies.' Insurance companies report that firebugs destroyed nearly $50,000,000 worth of American property last year.

America's factories have gone to war, and they must keep to their trenches. They must produce, produce, and then produce. This is a war not merely of man against man, but of food against famine, of a free people's factories against the Kaiser's factories.

Would you send your boy into the trenches with neither machine guns nor gas-masks? How then can you draft your factories into service without the best defensive weapons obtainable against fire?

What the machine gun is to our boys
Brown Bros., N. Y.

in the trenches against the onrushing
Germans, so the Grinnell Sprinklers are
to the onrushing flames. Undismayed by
heat or smoke, the little mechanical sen-
tries wait in military array up on the
ceiling. Snap-snap-snap! go the sen-
tries ; not the rattle of
of mechanical triggers touched off by the
heat. Instantly the enemy flames are
routed and drowned by à barrage of
water. This is happening almost every
hour somewhere among the many thou-

great factories equipped with Grinnell Sprinklers.

No matter what type of automaticsprinkler system you have, it can be made proof against malicious tampering by alien enemies determined to burn your property. An electrically controlled automatic system does it. Better than several additional watchmen. We shall be glad to give you full particulars about this “ Sprinkler Supervisory Service.”

Don't theorize-get the figures ! AdUnderwood & Underwood

dress the General Fire Extinguisher Co., 289 West Exchange St., Providence, R. I.

66

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MAY 13 1918

LIBRA

The Outlook

APRIL 24, 1918
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries

In next week's issue of The Outlook will be published an authorized interview with Count Masataka Terauchi, Premier of Japan, by Mr. Gregory Mason, Staff Correspondent of The Outlook in Japan. In this interview the Japanese Premier discusses freely and officially the relations, present and future, of Japan with Ru: Germany, and the Allies. No more important piece of correspondence has appeared in The Outlook since that recording the interview by Mr. Mason in 1915, in Petrograd, with Sergius Sazonoff, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, which was widely quoted and commented upon in Europe and in the East as well as in America.--THE EDITORS.

THE WEEK

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: BUY LIBERTY BONDS

feared Germany more than anything else and dared not continue Turn over these leaves and read the two songs by soldiers her disingenuous attempts to talk peace with the Allies. on another page. When you have finished them, we guarantee

Meanwhile Emperor Charles undertook the part of an amathat you will want to buy another Liberty Bond. The spirit that teur diplomat, with disastrous results. The weakness and contrathese songs express pervades every camp of our Army and every dictions of the statements given out at Vienna about the letter ship of our Navy. Such soldiers and sailors deserve the very

from the Emperor to Prince Sixtus, the Emperor's brother-inbest backing that we who are compelled to stay at home can law, in Paris, are ludicrous. Not for a long time have comic give them.

paragraphists had such a resounding mother-in-law joke as the When these lines reach our readers, the country will have Vienna report that the Emperor's mother-in-law wrote the letter entered upon the third week of the Liberty Loan campaign. At and he signed it. It is perfectly evident that, whether the Em1 this writing the work is being carried on with enthusiasm and peror wrote the entire letter with his own hand or not, he cerwith a patriotic response. No one believes that the loan will fail tainly signed the letter, and it is unbelievable that he was not of complete subscription. But it is not sufficient for the Ameri aware of its contents. This letter was written in March, 1917. i can people to take the three billion dollars offered. Their We have, then, the almost confessed fact that in a letter from patriotism and determination can be measured properly only by the Austrian Court which passed under the Emperor's eye, part a large over-subscription. Do not hesitate to subscribe because of which he wrote, and which he signed, the fact was recognized you can take only a little. Every fifty-dollar bond counts. Do that France had just claims to Alsace-Lorraine, and that the not hesitate to talk to your neighbors and friends about buying. restoration and freedom of Belgium should be assured. Whether

This is no time for reticence, reserve, or false modesty. We Count Czernin was or was not aware of this letter is a matter of I have the men, the finest men in the world. We need ships, air minor importance. A German paper scores severely what it planes, shells, powder, rifles, machine guns, and other equip calls “ the Emperor Charles's meddling in affairs,” and adds the ment.

interesting information that a letter from Count Czernin to the You may not be able to fight, but you can provide these Emperor Charles was read in a secret session of the Reichstag, things-most of all, the ships. Buy another fifty-dollar bond to

in which Count Czernin said, “ Austria wants, and in any event day, and help the Government to build ships. Don't be discour must have, peace by the winter of 1917." aged, but at the same time do not be too optimistic. Do not refuse The exposure involved in the publication of the famous letter to buy your fifty-dollar bond because you think the banks are and in the former declarations of the French Premier as to the coming in with their millions. For two years we have lived in advances made by Austria, together with the knowledge we this country on the “Let-George-do-it” basis. Let's do it our have of the belief in this country that at one time Austria was selves now. Three billion dollars is an enormous sum to raise. making advances toward our Government—all go to show But the quicker, easier, and more completely we raise it, the

the falsity and the worthlessness of Austria's secret diplomacy. more convinced will Germany be that we mean to see the thing It is an open question even now whether Austria really was through. If

you have bought all the bonds for cash you can, buy seeking some kind of an accommodation for her own benefit some on the installment plan. Most Americans are afraid of the without regard to German aims and purposes, or whether she words “installment plan.” No one need be afraid of the plan in was simply " dragging a' red herring across the trail” in order buying Liberty Bonds. It is perhaps the most patriotic way in

to lessen by false hopes and visions of a separate peace the war which bonds can now be bought. The man who buys on the energies and fixed resolution of the Allies. In either case her installment plan is pledging a certain amount of his income for action was contemptible, and the result was not merely a fiasco, the next few months, to be paid regularly to the support of the but a humiliating and mortifying loss of international dignity. Government. Make the last week of the campaign the best. Buy Liberty Bonds !

MR. LLOYD GEORGE ON THE BATTLES IN PICARDY

The clearest account of the broad and essential features of ACSTRIAN DUPLICITY EXPOSED

the fierce battling of March 21 to March 28 was that made by The resignation of the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister the English Prime Minister before the House of Commons on and Premier, Count Czernin, is a natural culmination of the recent April 9. He seemed to take his hearers into his full confidence. revelations. These make it more than probable that Vienna has He did not minimize or conceal the seriousness of the attack; been playing a double part, both toward the Allies and toward but his speech was firm, confident, and resolute. Particularly Berlin, The simple truth of the matter is that, before the col- eloquent was his eulogy of General Foch and his demand for lapse of Russia, Austria was less afraid of Germany than she was unity under the new Commander-in-Chief's leadership. of internal revolution, but that after the Russian collapse she Among the statements which threw new light upon the course

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of the earlier fighting was a recognition of the heroic and effec led to the occupation by the Germans of some part of the
tive action of Brigadier-General Carey. It seems that General Messines Ridge itself.
Gough, in command of the Fifth Army, which held the central Every one remembers the brilliant and glorious fighting by
part of the British line on the Somme, had fallen back, under which the heights of Messines were won by British valor

. Equal the terrible impact of the German offensive, losing touch with the valor and steadfastness have been shown in their defense. At Third Army, under General Byng, to the north In his retreat Merville, near the apex of the German salient, many assaults there was also failure, it is charged, to destroy the bridges, as have been delivered by the Germans, but the gains made in the should have been done. Whether or not General Gough did all first rush of their offensive have been only slightly increaseul

. he could under the fearful attack is to be a subject of inquiry, Armentières, the most important town taken in this drive, lies and in the meantime he has been relieved from command. The in a poorly defensible, low situation. immediate result, at all events, was that a gap was made in the Reports from London under the date of April 15 assert that line and for a time the road to Amiens was

open,

while the Third the force of the new and secondary drive has been spent and Army was desperately and gallantly fighting farther up

the

that the ultimate objects of the Germans are still completely line. In this emergency, said Mr. Lloyd George, General Carey out of their reach. These objects have been accurately outlinen for days held the gap and blocked the enemy with engineers, in orders taken from German officers made prisoners. They electricians, laborers, signalers, and anybody who could hold a confirm the belief that Germany has been staking everything rifle. Another account says that General Carey improvised a on breaking through the British lines and pushing to the staff as he went along, “ officers learning the ground by having coast either by the route of Amiens and Abbeville or, if the to defend it, and every man from enlisted man to brigadier northern attempt proved the more successful, directly to Boujumping at each job as it came along.” It is probable that there logne or Calais. Thus they would cut the Allies' forces in two, were Americans in this improvised army and that this explains and then, in all probability, attempt to hold the French back the references in the despatches to “ Americans fighting shoulder while driving the British northward to the Channel. to shoulder with the British.” Surely this whole episode is one There still remains at least a possibility that this desperate that the world must later have more fully told.

scheme may succeed; but as week after week has gone by since Mr. George frankly stated that the German forces did not it was initiated on March 21, the danger of Germany's success exceed the British in numbers when the battle began. They has lessened and the exhaustion of German forces has increaseul. had, however, an advantage in that it was impossible to tell The Allies are now thoroughly awake to every purpose of the from which of three large German concentrations (north, cen German General Staff, and can concentrate their resistance tral, and south) the attack would come. The level plains, the with far more certainty than at the beginning of the offensives. dry ground, the momentum of the massed attack, all helped the It is at least within the bounds of probability also that General Germans' early success. It is a remarkable fact, and one credit Foch may at any moment begin a counter-attack at whatever able to the professional acumen of the new Chief of Staff of the point he may deem the weakest in the now dangerously enBritish Army, Sir Henry Wilson, that he predicted to Mr. tended German lines. George two or three months ago precisely the attack that took In a section south of the two principal German offensives and place--a wide front, south of Arras, the object being the capture near the great St. Mihiel salient American troops have been of Amiens and the severance of the British and French armies. attacked repeatedly. They have borne themselves finely, have

The conduct of the British army as a whole was praised in repelled assaults, and in one instance drove back Germans
the warmest terms. We quote one passage: "The House can twice their number with German losses of at least seventy-five
hardly realize, and certainly cannot sufficiently thank-nor can out of four hundred.
the country-our troops for their superb valor and the grim
tenacity with which they faced overwhelming hordes of the
enemy and clung to their positions. They retired, but were

THE THIRD ARM OF THE SERVICE
never routed, and once more the cool pluck of the British soldier,
that refuses to acknowledge defeat, saved Europe.”

The reports of the Senatorial investigation on aircraft production contain interesting information,

The report of the minority (Senators Sheppard, Myers THE SECOND GERMAN OFFENSIVE

and Kirby, Democrats) states that soon after the war began On a much smaller scale, the German attack upon the

the Signal Corps arranged with the French Government British lines north of Arras has been a duplication of their

for the making of 6,100 planes at a total cost of $127,000,00). earlier and larger effort to the south. The maps of the first and

Under this arrangement, it says, as the American air squad second offensive show the occupation by the German forces of

rons reach the front planes are supplied to them. Morareas broadly similar in shape and in practically the same pro

over, the Signal Corps has shipped to France 11,000 tons portions. The new attack, like the first one, has not yet succeeded

of various materials and has sent 7.0G0 mechanics. The Sigual in its main offensive. It is supplementary to the first attack and Corps arranged for the making of 11,500 planes other than is intended to support that attack.

training planes in this country. Of training planes there are When the advance toward Amiens was checked, it became some 3,500 completed. evident that the position of the Germans in the area newly

The majority report (signed by Senators Chamberlain, gained could not be permanently held so long as their line Hitchcock, Reed, and Thomas, Democrats, and Frelinghuysen, was threatened, first, at the northeastern corner of the occupied

Wadsworth, Sutherland, and Weeks, Republicans) states that territory, by the strong positions of the British forces to the we have manufactured 342 advanced-training planes, but that north of Arras, and, second, at the southeastern corner of the

in combat planes there has been substantial failure. The report territory, by the French.

says: Accordingly, the Germans first attacked at the southeast We had no design of our own; neither did we adopt any orld corner of their newly occupied area. They threw back the French

of the European designs until months after we entered the war. from the woods of Coucy, but the only result was to leave the : .. Of these the largest and most powerful is the Handley-Page French in a very strong position on the southern side of the heavy bombing machine ... The designs and specifications of river Ailette. Then began the attack on the British in the section this plane ... were offered to our officials as early as May, 1917

, above Arras. This is still going on as we write, on April 16. The

... The Signal Corps finally decided upon the manufacture of extent of the German progress from east to west has been some

a number of sets of parts of this machine about January 1, 1918 thing like fifteen miles. To the south the fighting pivoted on the

Officials of the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps testi little town of Givenchy. At the north the German waves have

fied that they do not expect the completion of the first set of

parts in this country before the month of June, 1918. broken again and again upon the heights of Messines. At both these pivotal and critical points the British up to the time named With regard to the much-discussed Liberty motor, the major had repelled or blocked the German efforts, with frightful Ger ity report says that it is only " just emerging from the developm man losses. But the capture of Bailleul, reported on April 16, was a serious loss; this, and the taking of other places near by been ordered, of which 122 have been completed for the Army,

ment or experimental stage;" that 22,508 Liberty motors have

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142 for the Navy, and 4 shipped overseas. The report con - Tribune," it stopped work on no less than seventy-seven ships, tinues :

aggregating 638,000 tons.

Japan needs steel. We need ships. Should not one need offset The production of Liberty motors to date is, of course, gravely

the other? disappointing. • ; . In spite of the unanimous testimony of motor experts along this line, the Government officials having An effort has been made in this direction. It was emphasized the manufacture of the Liberty motor in charge have made the by the Ishii Mission. According to the popular notion, the effort mistake of leading the public and the Allied nations to the be had three stages-namely, our attempt to obtain with Japan an lief that many thousands of these motors would be completed in agreement under which we should release from embargo a ton the spring of 1918.

of steel for three tons of Japanese shipping, then a ton for two The delay in production may be due in some degree to engi tons, and, finally, a ton for one ton. This notion needs modifineering and manufacturing errors, but the majority report cation. Three necessary factors have influenced the negotiations. points out what seems a more serious defect:

They are the amount of steel to be released, the price to be paid Your Committee is convinced that much of the delay in pro per ton for ships, and the dates of their delivery. Thus the ducing completed combat planes is due to ignorance of the art, final ratio of ton for ton represents the compensation to the and to failure to organize the effort in such a way as to cen Japanese for more advantageous conditions to us in other tralize authority and bring about quick decision. A certain aloof

respects, and also for a direct contribution of some 18,000,000 ness in dealing with persons possessing information based upon

yen ($9,000,000) from Japan. The release of the steel ton for experience, an apparent intention of confining the actual production to a restricted number of concerns, and a failure of the

ton was a variant factor in the negotiations of the same character officials in charge of the work to grasp the situation in a broader

as the price per ton. way and seize upon the best approved foreign engines and planes,

Steamers of about 100,000 tons capacity have now been purand to proceed promptly to build as many as possible for the chased by us from Japan, we are glad to say. They will be opercampaign of 1918, have contributed to the failure.

ated by our Navy or by the Federal Shipping Board. They will What should be done? The production of aircraft should be fly our flag and remain in our possession. The first of the steamcontrolled by one executive officer. This has long been evident. ers will be delivered at American ports in May, and the last in In the second place, the matter of production should be taken

December out of the hands of the Signal Corps entirely. In the third place, With one exception, all these vessels are large modern steamers no one who has any interest in a company manufacturing air

of 6,000 tons or more. None are over two years old, and some, planes or engines should act as adviser or be in authority. indeed, are still awaiting completion.

These three recommendations are made by the majority As to steamers for later delivery, our War Trade Board is report. In order to put the first into practice, Senator

now negotiating for the purchase outright of some 200,000 tons Sheppard, one of the authors of the minority report, a year

and expects to charter an additional 150,000 tons. ago introduced a bill creating a Department of Aeronautics,

The relations between the private companies in America with a Secretary in the Cabinet. But this proposed change did selling steel to Japan and the private companies in Japan sellnot meet with sympathy from the Administration. Representa ing ships to this country are not affected except as limited in tive Hulbert later introduced a joint resolution providing for

amount by this arrangement. the creation of a Commission on Aerial Navigation. But it did The comment of the press in both countries—for instance, of not receive sufficient support from the leaders in the House. such representative papers as the New York “Times" and the Representative Gould, on April 12, introduced a bill abolishing Tokyo “ Jiji” (Current Events) —is that the furnishing of the present Aircraft Production Board. It would create the tonnage for Allied war needs is a patriotic contribution to office of Aircraft Administrator, who woull have entire charge

Allied war purposes. We heartily agree. of aircraft production for the Army and Navy and who would have at hand several assistant administrators, and have authority to lease, buy, or build all necessary office space. To

TOTAL ABSTINENCE FROM WHEAT FLOUR his office there would be transferred the aeronautic section of On April 14 amendments to the Federal Food Administrathe Signal Corps of the War Department and the office of tion's baking rules became effective. The substitute content Naval Aeronautics of the Navy Department. An appropriation of all bread and rolls must be increased from its present twenty of $25,000,000 would be made to carry out the provisions of per cent requirement to twenty-five per cent. No less than this bill.

eighty-four bakers in New York City alone disregarded this Legislation passed by the British Parliament last autumn rule, and on April 15 were summoned to appear before the gives military and naval aeronautics a position of great impor local Food Administrator. Moreover, during the previous tance. Although the British Cabinet has consisted of twenty week some two hundred complaints had been received against three men, it has added a new member, who is Secretary of New York City bakers who had been lax with regard to the State for the Air Force. Whether our proposed Aircraft Admin twenty per cent rule. The result of these complaints was that istrator be an official like our Food and Fuel Administrators, the business of nineteen bakery establishments was suspended or a Secretary with a seat in the Cabinet, his appointment should for three days, and the Administration announced that even mark a new stage in the history of the Nation's armed forces more drastic measures would be invoked if bakers persisted in the official recognition that the air force has now become as disregarding rules. It is a satisfaction to report such summary distinct a department as is the Army or the Navy.

treatment.

Under the baking rules issued February 1, bread and rolls

were the only products which must contain a certain percentage STEEL AND SHIPS

of wheat flour substitutes. The substitute content hereafter The course of the war has given to Japan a great oppor required in various products is as follows: tunity for transportation as far as ships are concerned. As ships of every nation have been withdrawn from ocean traffic, Japa Crackers.

15 Batter cakes, waffles, and nese ships have taken their places.

Cookies and cakes. 3315 quick breads such as mufBut this ship traffic development has been surpassed by the

Fried cakes

331,

fins, baking powder bisJapanese ship-building development. Last year Japan built

Pies and pastry

cuits, cornbread, and Ice-cream cones . .

Boston brown bread

6624 nearly a million tons of shipping, a growth of almost five times the largest amount built in any year before the war.

Under the new rules, no public eating-place may serve more For ship-building steel plates are needed. Pig iron is the than two ounces of bread and rolls or more than four ounces basis of steel-making, but Japan's production of pig iron is of quick bread to any one person at any one meal. less than 600,000 tons. Hence she must get steel from other These measures are, after all, only subsidiary to the Food countries. England is closed to export trade at present. The Administration's present aim, which is total abstinence from United States has not been closed as regards steel delivery, but wheat flour. It points out, in the first place, that there is an our Government recently put an embargo on it. Of course this abundance of corn flour and_corn-meal to supply our needs was a blow to Japan. According to a writer in the New York until after the next harvest. In the second place, on April 15

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