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STARTING THE LIBERTY BALL ROLLING FROM THE BUFFALO CITY HALL. IT WILL BE PUSHED BY UNCLE SAM AND LIBERTY BOND BUYERS TO THE
NEW YORK CITY HALL, 173 MILES
THE THIRD LIBERTY LOAN CAMPAIGN Many ingenious methods of attracting the attentiou of the American public to the offer of the Third Liberty Loan bonds have been seen since April 6, when the loan
was started. The above pictures show two of these methods--the upper picture in New York City, the lower in Buffalo
BY AINO MALMBERG
"HEN a person experiences a religious conversion, the however, to require a leader, and at the right moment the leader first symptom we notice in him is love toward mankind appeared. Who was he ? Certainly not one of the well-known
in general. He is willing to understand and to forgive, political personalities, nor any of the pillars of society. He was a and his only concern is how to make other people see the same man whom very few Finns had ever heard of-Captain J. Kork truth that has given him such overwhelming happiness. He Some ten or fifteen years before the revolution he was kuow wants to share his joy with others, and he is an ideal propa
girls of Helsingfors by the name of the “ hamb gandist so long as the state of bliss continues. But, unfortu some lieutenant,” and he certainly looked like the romanti nately, it cannot last forever. Disillusion and reaction are bound hero of a Viking novel : tall and blond, with sky-blue eyes and to come, and when reaction sets in it often turns love into dark eyebrows. Later on he joined the Socialist party, and his hatred, peace into turmoil.
named disappeared from the consciousness of his former friends A nation behaves very much like an individual. When a When the revolution broke out, he unexpectedly appeared great awakening takes place, it is followed by a wave of good again, and there he sat on horseback, as blond and handsome as will and understanding. This was very obvious, for instance, ever, and led the processions. He organized the first Red Grani. during the first period of the Russian Revolution. Every one he made fiery speeches to the crowds, and his leadership lastel shook hands with every one else, and all mankind consisted just as long as the excitement continued. When the minds of only of tavarishtshi-comrades. But, alas ! reaction was sure the people calmed down and regular, constructive work began, to come, and it seems to be the law of life that it should be in his part was played out and he emigrated to America, where he proportion to the previous manifestations of the best qualities led a quiet, uneventful life till his death about two years ago. in the soul of a nation.
An unusual type of a revolutionary leader was Enver Bey
. During such times of awakening, of self-assertion, and of who later on became Enver Pasha, of Turkey. He rose quickly reaction, emotions always rule supreme. Just as an individual into leadership in the Young Turks' revolution, but, instead who has experienced a great mental change sees everything in of losing his hold on the people, he has remained a leader to this the new light which is illuminating his whole being, so does a very day. When Enver visited London in the spring of 1910, nation in revolution naturally understand all phenomena in he was received with great enthusiasm. A dinner was given in their relationship to the national upheaval that has taken place. his honor by members of Parliament and by ladies and gentle
The man who is destined to become a leader in times of revo men of the best London society. It is perfectly inconceivable lution must, above all, appeal to the emotions of the masses. that either Gapon or Kock could have had the same kind of All other qualities are of a secondary value in regard to his reception in London. The qualities that made those two men power as a leader. It happens, therefore, only too often that a famous were not of the kind that could be understood by people man who suddenly rises to a leading position in a period of in the calm, well-regulated surroundings of England. Enver upheaval is a person whom no one has ever heard of before, Bey was to them, above all, a man of great intelligence and a and who sinks into oblivion just as quickly as he rose to fame. clever statesman. They paid no attention to the other qualities But for the moment, during the first turmoil of emotions, he in him which made him an inspiring leader of a revolution. can satisfy the yearning of the masses. He has only two At the dinner there were some Finnish and Russian revoluweapons by which he can gain leadership—his outer appear tionists present, and when they listened to Lord Buxton's elo ance and his eloquence; and he remains a leader just as long as quent praise of the wise and sane policy of Enver Bey, which those two weapons retain their power.
had finally brought about the Young Turks' revolution, they Emotions, however, never last very long, and if the leader is smiled a forgiving smile, because, they thought, after all, how only picturesque and eloquent without any more solid qualities could he be expected to understand? An English writer
, who bead
been in Constantinople when the Young Turks' revolution took The world hardly remembers any longer the first romantic place, saw the smile and whispered : “ If they (these revolutionfigure in the Russian revolution of 1905, Father Gapon, who ists] had seen Enver in the red, gold-embroidered uniform o led the unarmed masses on Red Sunday to the Winter Palace, horseback, or standing on a table urging the soldiers to revolt
. where they were mowed down by the Czar's machine guns. they would understand why the masses went wild with enthusiasm
. Gapon himself was saved by a friend who risked his own life Enver did not do much of the thinking and planning. Talaat Bey in order to save the leader. The handsome priest with the burn was the brain of the revolution. Enver was the youthful symbel ing dark eyes, an uplifted crucifix in his hands, was the of the wishes of the people. Oriental imagination was at alle most stirring and picturesque figure that ever marched at the ready to endow him with all the charm of The Thousand and head of a procession. But his intelligence was in no proportion One Nights,' and it was only natural that the Sultan's beautiful to his ornamental qualities, and his fall became inevitable. daughter should be given to him as a reward." When the name of Father Gapon suddenly flew over the world When Enver rose to answer Lord Buxton, he did not give and his picture was seen in every paper, he seemed to have lost any one the impression of a passionate, uncouth revolutionis his mental balance and imagined himself to be the great liber who could stand on tables or soap-boxes and make hier ator of the Russian nation. He became an easy prey to those speeches to soldiers or wave the red flag in demonstrations. It who wanted to use his great popularity to further their own was the polished, highly refined diplomat who spoke in eloquent purposes. The clever and unscrupulous statesman Count Witte French to his equals. Many years later, when the failure of the entered into communication with Gapon, and, posing as a Young Turks' revolution had become obvious to the world
, it liberal, tried to lead, through Gapon, the workingmen of Petro occurred to some of those who had been present at the above grad the way he wanted. Probably out of sheer simple-minded- mentioned dinner that perhaps the Turkish cause of freedom ness and lack of judgment, Grapon finally drifted low enough would have progressed better had there been less polish and to become a tool in the hands of the secret political police, the more idealism in its young and clever leader. notorious Okhrana. The same man who had saved Gapon's life In the present Russian Revolution two of the chief leaders, on Red Sunday proved the priest's treachery to a group of Kerensky and Trotsky, are already either gone or going, and workingmen, who, in an outburst of fury, assassinated him.
probably many more will have to come and go
before the country A very characteristic incident also happened in Finland dur can start any kind of normal life again. The newspapers ing the bloodless revolution of 1905, when the whole Finnish over the world have praised and abused both of them so abunation went on strike, in order to win back the laws violated dantly that the reading public has had plenty of opportunity to by the Czar. The movement was perfectly spontaneous and form an opinion. The pictures of eloquent Kerensky or of self-conscious, and no leader was necessary for attaining the fierce Trotsky can become clear only when time has placed them goal. The outward expression of what the nation wanted seemedl,
at a certain distance. At present they stand much too near to li
he has to go.
The appeals of revolutionary leaders to the emotional quali- flag in her hand, she should ride to the soldiers, urging them to ties of the people are, no doubt, made with perfect sincerity, win or die. The commander knew his soldiers
, their superwithout a shadow of cynicism, even if it sometimes looks as if stitions, their love for melodramatic spectacles, and he apparthe effect was well calculated beforehand. It happened during ently considered a Joan of Arc much more in her right surthe revolt of the Fortress of Sveaborg, outside Helsingfors, roundings leading soldiers in a revolutionary revolt than, for that one of the commanders of the revolutionary forces became instance, in a suffrage parade. But the girl in question would convinced that only a miracle could save the situation. Then not follow him. She thought the plan ridiculous and laughed at why not arrange a miracle? He hurried to Helsingfors, chose the whole idea. Sveaborg was lost. the prettiest girl among the revolutionists, and explained to her The average person is somewhat ashamed of emotions and his plan : She should dress in a white flowing robe, and he unwilling to build plans on them. Perhaps if he were not, there would bring her a white thoroughbred Arab steed. With a red would be too many revolutions in the world.
The author was in Petrograd as special correspondent of a California newspaper at the time of the counter-revolution which resulted in the triumph of the Bolsheviki.—THE EDITORS. TOP firing:
The Germans asked for soap, bread, and clothing. Also, they Nicolai Rogachoff, preparing his battery for another would sell for rubles-old picture rubles of the Czar's régime.
charge, turned in the direction of the command. He They turned up their noses at “ Kerensky” money, and would found himself looking into the trench-tanned face and wide, have none of the new Bolshevist issue. round blue eyes of a soldier. Through the low doorway beyond The Russian soldiers had little bread to give them--they had he saw a line of men in coarse dun-colored coats and shaggy all too little for themselves and less clothing. But they told sheepskin hats.
their German brothers, with shining, thankful eyes, how glad It was a gray November evening at a point on the Russian they were that peace was coming; that they would no longer front not far from Dvinsk. Fighting had practically ceased and have to kill each other. They advised them to go home and through the Russian trenches the word had gone that peace make a revolution, as they had done, and promised that in this was coming. An armistice was to be arranged in a few days new world of brothers there should be an end to wars. and Germany and Austria and all of Russia's allies were to be asked to take part.
It was January, and Petrograd. The great chaste white hall Nicolai Rogachoff knew it was coming, but he paid no atten of Smolney Institute was packed with men in faded dun-colored tion. Each day he fired his usual number of noisy salutes to coats ; unshaven men-dirty, uncouth, uneducated men ; men the trenches across the way and watched the cloud of dust and with the gift of tongues and the faith of little children. There smoke curl above the farther edges of No Man's Land.
were hundreds of them, with wide, round, simple, credulous Each day the Germans replied in kind. Sometimes the shots eyes, full of a great dream and a greater trust. struck home and sometimes they missed. Sometimes there was It was of peace they talked-always of peace and the coming work for the stretcher-bearers and the doctors. Sometimes there of the wonderful new world of the brothers.
“What will you do if the Germans will not accept the RusNicolai Rogachoff glanced at the soldier in the doorway, sian terms ?" I ventured to ask one of them. “But they must shrugged his shoulders, and once more saluted the German accept,” he answered me, with finality. “Our brothers in the line.
German trenches will never advance against us.' "Stop firing, I said."
“But suppose they do?” I insisted. “Suppose they try to take This time the command came in a sharp, incisive tone and Petrograd-what will you do then ?” there was that in the wide, round blue eyes of the little soldier He shook his head, wondering at my skepticism. 6. O thou of that made Nicolai Rogachoff hesitate.
little faith !” his eyes seemed to say. “Who says so ?” he asked, defiantly.
“But they are our brothers, they will disobey their officers. "We say so," the soldier answered. His companions pressed They will make a revolution, as we have done,” his words closer to the low opening, and an ominous murmur like the answered. growl of a wild beast ran through the crowd.
I asked the same question many times that night of many men, “Those are our brothers over there," the spokesman contin and always the reply was the same. ued. “The war is finished. It was the Czar's war. Those are workingmen and peasants, like us, over there in the trenches It was late afternoon again, but February. A shudder passed they don't want to fight us, and we don't want to fight them. through the little snow-clad village nestling there behind the Stop firing."
Dvinsk lines. Nicolai laughed a short, derisive, mirthless little laugh, and Word had come that the Germans were advancing. There turned again to his battery.
was a hurried gathering. Some were for fleeing, others coun“ If you don't stop shooting, we will shoot you-I tell you, seled waiting you're killing our brothers," said the soldier again in the same * It is a mistake," said a white-bearded peasant;" we are not quiet, final tone.
at war. They are our brothers—we must go and tell them.” Nicolai stopped. From that hour the battery was silent. They appointed a committee, as they always do in revolu
tionary Russia, and they started forth with a white flag. It was still November.
The rumor had been too true. A little distance from the vilThe armistice had been declared. The great parley at Brest- lage they met the advancing Germans. They held their white Litovsk had commenced.
flag bravely aloft, and a soldier spokesman commenced explainDown from Berlin came a supply of tobacco, accordions, ing: “ It is all a mistake-Russia is not at war-our German flashlights, bad whisky, Hindenburg schneights (knives), and brothers do not " the samples of a wonderful wrist-watch to be delivered, upon The sentence was never finished. order, in three days' time.
The committee did not go back to the village that night. Behind the German lines the soldier merchants set up their Instead, to the waiting women with the platoks on their heads, wares, and the Russians with the worn boots and the faded, the frightened children clinging to their wide calico skirts and coarse, dun-colored coats walked out across No Man's Land to with the terrible nameless fear in their eyes, there came the trade with them.